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children altogether exhibited a liveliness and intelligence quite equal to what we see in England. The Wesleyans have three other schools in the island, which contains about 6000 inhabitants. Since the abolition of slavery about 600 of the labourers have emigrated to Trinidad, to get higher wages, as Tortola, though a lovely island, is very poor, and the wages only about 5s. sterling per week. St. Thomas' Town abounds in stores well furnished with merchandize, and here the slavers come to purchase their horrid paraphernalia for a new voyage. The port is free to all nations, and only one per cent. is demanded ad valorem on goods imported, as a duty to the Danish government: its merchants are prosperous and wealthy. The slaves of the Danish isles know that Governor Scholten is gone to Copenhagen, and they say that when he returns he will bring out freedom: they will be much disappointed. One of the Santa Cruz planters told me that the English had done their best to injure them, and to abolish slavery, but they should have twenty years of it yet! A French merchant of St. Thomas told me that he had recently bought land in Porto Rico, but no slaves, not because he was averse to slavery, but because he was sure, from the present appearance of things, slavery must soon cease even in the Spanish colonies. This, however, is not the opinion of the planters generally in Porto Rico and Cuba, as they readily give 300 and 400 dollars each for newly-imported slaves.
At St. Thomas we changed our quarters from the mail-boat to a new steamer man-of-war of 240-horse power, carrying six officers and seventy men, charged with the mails to Porto Rico, Hayti, Cuba, and Jamaica. Such a vessel, I suppose, never sailed in these seas before, and never before was such a voyage performed so expeditiously. The distance is more than 800 miles, which we ran in four days and three hours, including all stops and detentions. The capital of Porto Rico is a large town and handsome, built at right angles, and beautifully paved the inhabitants and garrison about 35,000. In walking through its streets in the evening I experienced the same stifling sensation in the atmosphere which we had felt before in Barbadoes and Tortola: it seemed as if exertion would kill me: I walked slowly and languidly, and was almost afraid to walk at all. The West Indies are now very sickly. In Barbadoes the troops are encamped, for the sake of health: we left three army-surgeons there who came out in the same packet. We had one case of yellow-fever on board the steamer, and two others of beginning sick
Port-Royal has lost within the year two surgeons and twelve assistant-surgeons, and a great many soldiers and sailors; and the town of Kingston, where we now are, is very unhealthy. Samuel Oughton, one of the Baptist missionaries, tells me he has buried thirty persons of his congregation (a very large one, amounting to at least 4000,) besides many children within the last six weeks.
My dear wife and I are under no alarm; we endeavour to put all our trust in Him who can restrain the sun from smiting by day, and the moon by night; and though now and then a little cast down, and almost ready to doubt whether we can be of any service here, we have never lost sight of the impressions of duty which we felt to leave home, and which still attend us in the work we have entered upon. On landing at Cape Haytien we paid a visit to the British consul, who kindly offered to introduce me to the authorities, if it were my wish to stay or return to St. Domingo: he said they were extremely jealous of the least interference with their institutions, but he was sure that no obstruction would be thrown in our way if our work was one of benevolence. If favoured with health to accomplish what we have in view in this island, it is my intention to proceed to Hayti before we return to England.
I was cautioned against opening my mouth in condemnation of slavery and the slave-trade in Cuba; a fellow-passenger, a Peruvian, assured me that the Spaniard, when aroused to anger, was sometimes ferocious, and a hasty word might cost me my life. We spent two hours in St. Jago, and on leaving it saw and heard things that were heart-aching. As we left the beautiful harbour, a rakishlooking schooner entered it under the guns of the fort: "That vessel," said an officer on board, " is rigged for a slaver, and has probably landed its cargo on the shore, and is going in to refit ;" and several persons on board stated that another slaver was lying in the harbour, that landed 180 slaves six weeks ago. These things are talked of unblushingly in Cuba, and seem as common as the sun at noonday. The people in this region talk and act precisely as if Christianity had no existence, and as if there were no God to judge in the earth. They justify the slave-trade as our old slave-traders did in England before the abolition of the traffic. One man told me that many of the new slaves were so happy they would not return to Africa on any account; another had the impudence to say, that they are sometimes so well treated on the middle-passage, that on leaving the vessel they will cling to the captain as they would to father and mother! We have felt deeply and seriously for poor, injured Africa. When will that dark continent be enlightened, and the white man cease to be a man-stealer? when will "Ethiopia stretch out her hands unto God?"
We reached Kingston on the 16th instant, and after two days of tarriance at one of the hotels, where board and lodging are extravagantly dear, we entered into hired apartments, and engaged a servant. Three of the missionaries have called on us, and kindly offered us assistance; and we have already attended the examination of two schools, on the plan of the British and Foreign School Society, about to break up for the "Christmas holiday," which is here observed by some of the sober blacks with devotion, but by great numbers in dancing, music, and riots. The drums and dancing have already begun, and servants begin to leave their employ
ment to join in the round of merriment. I have begun my journal, from which I intend to send extracts to the Committee from time to time.
12th month, 20.-In the morning attended the examination of the children at the Independent chapel school, previous to its breaking up for the winter holiday. This school is conducted by a coloured man, on the plan of the British and Foreign School Society, and at the expense of the London Missionary Society. The number of scholars on the list exceeds one hundred, the average attendance seventy; but owing to the sickness that prevails, the attendance on this occasion was smaller. Boys and girls are instructed together, and black, white, and brown take their seats without distinction of colour. The school has been in operation only two years, and many of the older children are just come to it from other schools: they read and answered their school questions in grammar and geography pretty well, and are made to understand the meaning of words, but are far behind the Borough-road children in general knowledge. The scriptural examination was conducted by the children themselves: one child being taken out of a class, others are allowed to ask him questions relating to facts; if he fail to answer, the child who puts the question takes his place, and becomes subject to the same sort of examination. This plan, it is evident, excludes all instructions in doctrine, and unless extended by the master or visitors, is very meagre and inefficient. Some of the black and brown girls came dressed in white muslin, with bands of roses in their hair, and with ear-rings and necklaces. The children are expected to bring threepence, English money, per week for their schooling, but owing to a cause which I shall state presently, only about £24 per annum is received from this source. In the afternoon we visited Samuel Oughton's school, conducted like the former on the plan of the British and Foreign School Society. The master who had long had the management of it, left it about a year ago; he received a salary of £160 sterling per annum, but thought he could do better by keeping an academy of his own: the present master is not efficient, and a better one is expected soon from England. The number on the list exceeds 300, including infants, who are taught separately, in a part of the chapel adjoining. The average attendance of larger children is 140, but owing to the great sickness only 102 were present, almost all of them jet black, and very modestly and plainly attired. We examined all the classes, but cannot speak very favourably of their progress in learning. The sum received in threepences does not exceed £25 per annum. The infant-school mistress appears well qualified for her interesting duties. The Baptist chapel, to which this school is attached, will accommodate 2,500 persons,
and is now in a course of enlargement, at the expense of the congregation, to hold 4,000 persons. The congregation, consisting chiefly of black people, pays the salary of the minister and all the expenses attendant on public worship, and has raised this year a sum of £70 sterling towards sending out a missionary, who is a coloured man, educated in Jamaica, to a station on the coast of Africa.
12th month, 21.-Received a visit from -, a stipendiary magistrate, a man of colour, who came to Kingston, he said, to find us out, and welcome us to Jamaica, his native island. He lives in the plain, about two miles off, and kindly invited us to his house, and promised to give us all the information in his power on the state of things here.
12th month, 22. First day.-Maria and I sat down together at ten o'clock for the solemn purpose of divine worship. A full persuasion attended my mind that we had done right in leaving home and coming to the West Indies; and my prayers were fervent that we might find preservation, and be strengthened to perform our duty in the divine fear, looking to the Lord always for help, and attending to the leadings and instructions of his Holy Spirit. At dinner-time received a call from solicitor and member
of the House of Assembly. I asked him if we could have access to the county jail; he said he was going there at half-past three o'clock, and would conduct us. We found the prisoners seated in an open court on the debtors' side, and a Wesleyan minister, a coloured man, preaching to them on the duty of repentance. The number of men prisoners is exactly 100, and of women 15; the tried and untried are kept together, old and young, without the least classification. The rooms allotted to the men are small and without ventilation, in each of which ten or more human beings are locked up at night, in danger of sickness and almost of suffocation. The women are better off, having as much room altogether as the whole of the men. The day-yards are narrow and close, and swarmed with musquitoes. Some of the men are set to breaking stones, but the women have no occupation, and employ much of their time in quarrelling with each other. One young negress is sentenced to imprisonment for life for stealing a jackass! This prison needs a thorough reformation.
Received a visit from Edward Wallbridge, the excellent superintendent of the Mico schools, which are a blessing to the whole colony.
12th month, 24.and , special justices, called on us and staid several hours, conversing with us on the state of Jamaica, and assisting our inquiries. In the evening went to the committee of the Kingston Anti-Slavery Society, which was attended by W. W. Anderson, the chairman, one jet-black man, a magistrate of the city, two coloured men, three missionaries, a large planter, the missionary superintendent, and myself. A subscription was ordered to be raised for the society in
London, and the chairman accepted the office of delegate to the convention to be held there in the 6th month next. A resolution was unanimously agreed to, "That as entire freedom now exists in Jamaica, an immigration of free black and coloured labourers and others, from the United States of America, would be attended with advantage to all parties." missionary of the London Society, kindly offered to take me to-morrow to a station on the mountains, to which he was going to perform religious service. With a feeling of fear lest I should give offence, but very respectfully, I declined the invitation, stating my reasons for doing SO. He assented to my views, and then offered to take me over at some future time on secular service, to inspect the settlement, and to call on the proprietor who gave him the ground for building a chapel and school-room.
12th month, 25.-Held our week-day meeting to comfort. Dined at Samuel Oughton's with a party of Christian friends, and in the evening witnessed the ceremony of a marriage between two black people in his chapel.
12th month, 26.-Went over to Spanish Town, where we spent the day, and were hospitably entertained at the house of and lodged there. Called on the custos of the parish, afterwards on and on who is in office under the government, a coloured man, of very enlightened and superior mind, who gave me much information, and placed in my hands some printed returns made to the House of Assembly, which are very useful to me.
12th month, 27.-Returned to Kingston: stopped at the ferry-house, and visited the numerous huts of a negro village, embowered in cocoanut trees, by the road-side. These habitations are of very poor construction, wattled and thatched with palmetto leaves, consisting of two small rooms: the cost of erection probably about £15 sterling each. It was holiday-week, and almost all the inmates were at home: the prevailing fever was in many of the houses; several children and two adults were sick; and a poor woman, with elephantiasis, was walking about, her foot of enormous dimensions,-a shocking spectacle. All the houses we entered were furnished with a bed, a table, and some crockery-ware; and attached to the village, raised by subscription among the poor people themselves, is a small chapel, where one of their own number, a Baptist leader, addresses them on religious subjects twice a week: on a first-day they walk to Spanish Town, six miles, to attend public worship. The following wages are paid on the neighbouring estates. For a day's labour on the road or in the fields, from six to four o'clock, 20d. currency, or 1s. sterling: for a day's labour in river or ditch-work, twice that sum, or 2s. per day. Boys and infirm old men for tending cattle, a dollar per week. Rent for cottage and provisionground, 3s. sterling per week. Thus a man and his wife, if both of them work at common labour, may earn in five days 10s., which