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tary toils and dangers, and accordingly facrificed to them, not only the softer pleasures of ease and indolence, but even life itself. Wherce did the unparalleled strength of resolution which distinguished the character of the Lacedemonians originate, but from a settled determination of securing that praise for which they so ardently panced? They chose rather to subject themfelves to the greatest sufferings, nay, voluntary to undergo the most exquisite pains and tortures, than betray a want of hardiness which might, in their opinion, jul. tify the imputation of effeminate cowardice.

Whatever the species of reward is, if the desire of it be congenial to the mind, its empire is generally absőlute. All the evils of pain, want, and hunger, have been willingly embraced by men, under the idea of thereby obtaining some favourite object. No potion can be prescribed too nauseous for the languishing patient, when he feels within himieif the exhilarating anticipation of its falutary effects ; nor can any regi. men be devised so fevere, which he will not gladly submit to and persevere in, if it yields hopes of recovering that inestimable bleffing, health. It is impossible fully to conceive how violently men will strain in the race of competition, when the prize of glory is held out to their view ; and on what dangerous seas they will hazard their existence, when tempted by a prospect of immense gain.

Under the well-regulated direction of such principles, the noblest efforts of genius and application have been exerted, and with most desirable success in promoting the general happiness of society. To this source we may juftly ascribe the great advances which have been made in arts and sciences, and in thort the production of almost every thing on which the wisest men have agreed to impress the stamp of excellence. It is clear from the flightest intercourse with the world, that the attention bestowed on the various objects of pursuit in life, is usually proportioned to the degree of honour and

advantage

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adrantage which they are deemed capable of affording. Few would be found willing to plant the tree, did they Bot expect to eat of the fruit; few bold enough to stand the thock of the combat, if forbidden to partake of the glory of the victory. The husbandman would neither plow nor fow, did he not hope to reap the produce of his labour; the artifan would not waste his health and ftrength with inceffant toil, was he not induced to it by a view of gain; nor would the student trim the mida right lamp, did he not flatter himfelf with the pleasing expectation of future distinction and pre-eminence.-Deprive him of this, and his genius languishes; and, after a few unsuccessful efforts, abandons itself to defpair ; like a fair flower under the influence of an inclement sky, that never appears in its genuine beauty, but after having exhibited some faint tints of its native luftre, fickens, droops, and dies.

If, therefore, a regard to praise or emolument, hath a manifest tendency to engage men in enterprizes which may ultimately conduce to public ornament or utility, it by no means argues found policy to discourage such mo:ives, however subordinate in their natures. To cut off all prospect of reward, with a view of making eminence more amiable, is the same absurdity, as to aim at improving the motion of the machine, by breaking its main-spring. Under the protection of public favour and gratitude, works of ingenuity have, in times past, flourished, and to the credit of the present day, do now afford a display of no less excellence; and that still further advances may be made, and arts and seiences carried to a yet higher degree of perfection, we have season to expect, whilst both royal and popular patron, age continue to diffuse their fostering influence, and concur to extend encouragement and incitement to all that merit ii.

Animared by these considerations, and encouraged by the success of those who have gone before us in the walks of literature, permit us to indulge the flattering

hope,

E 3

hope, that by pursuing the paths which are here pointed out to us, and aided by the assistance which is here af. : forded us, we also may arrive at fome degree of distinction, and contribute in our respective spheres, fome small share at least to the promotion and improvement of useful knowledge.

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Chiefly extracted from the New Edition of Dr. Aikin's

Calendar of Nature.

CALENDAR OF NATURE.

SEPTEMBER,

I.

Now foften'd suns a mellow lustre Thed,
The laden orchards glow with tempting red;
On hazel boughs the clusters hang embrown'd,
And with the sportsman's war the new-lhorn fields

resound.
LEASANT month, poffefsing the softness and

serenity of autumn, yet the days are sensibly shortened, and the various temperature of the weather occasions unhealthiness. 2. Corn abroad at the beginning of the month, therefore partridge shooting com: mences the 14th instead of the pst of September. 3: Partridges feed on grain and other seeds, scratched up, therefore live chiefly on the ground, making much use of their legs and little of their wings. 4. They pair early in the spring, the hen fitting twenty-two days, and the young come forth full-feathered, like chickens. 5. When the young ones are attacked, wonderful instances of attachment in the old ones even have feigned

being wounded, to draw off the pursuers from the neft. 6. Partridges retire to groves in the day-time--to the open stubble in the night. Man is their most formidable enemy, obliging them, by pointers, to take wing for the purpose of shooting them, or inclosing them in a net when they remain on the ground:

In his mid career the spaniel's touch,
Stiff by the tainted gale, with open nose
Outstretch'd, and finely sensible, draws full,
Fearful and cautious on the latent

preyi
As in the sun the circling covey bask
Their varied plumes, and watchful ev'ry way,
Through the rough itubble turn the secret eye.

THOMSON

11.

7. Saffron now gathered, grows chiefly in Essex, in a confiderable tra&t between Cambridge and Saffron Malden. The process of gathering and drying, curiousufed in medicine as a cordial, formerly esteemed in cookery, and in parts a fine yellow dye. 8. Few flowers, except the ivy, open in this month. 9 Short intermiffion to the labours of the husbandman ; for the haryest gathered in, then comes fowing forthe winter crops, ro. Bee-hives to be ftraitened in their entrance, left wasps and other depredators injure the honey. Arrivals of the herrings affords a harvest to the inhabi. tants of the eastern and western coasts of the island. 12, Herrings make their winter rendezvous within the arctic circle. 13. Put themselves in motion in the spring, that they might deposit their spawn in warmer latitudes. 14. Grand shoal does not appear till June, then attended by an immense multitude of fea-birds, &c. all of which are supported without apparently diminishing their hoft-main body alters the appearance of the ocean-lo large that it is divided into columns of five or six miles in length, and three or four in breadth, finking and rising, and in bright weather ex

hibiting

hibiting a resplendency of colours, like a field of gems.
15. The great body is divided by the Shetland Illes
into two grand divisions, the one going to Yarmouth, the
other to the Western les. 16. At the end of the month
the common swallow disappears. 17. Three current
opinions of their disappearance for the winter-1. Into
a torpid state.--2. Into caverns and sheltered places.-
3. Into other countries, having a warmer climate ; thus,
crossing the Channel to Spain, thence to Gibraltar, and
thence to the northern Ihores of Africa. 18. Other
small soft-billed birds now disappear by migration. 19.
Field-fare and red-wing return from more northerly
countries to spend the winter with us. 20. Wood owl
hoors, stone-curlew clamours; the wood - lark, thruth,
black-bird, commence their autumnal music. 21. The
snake casts his skin, parting (by rolling itself in the
grass) with its whole external covering, even the outer
coat of the eyes scales off, and is left in the head of the
flough like a pair of spectacles. 22. Of insects, very
few now make their appearance. 23. Apples gathered
for cyder-making, which in Worcestershire, Somerset-
fhire, and Deyon thire, cor tutes a buty and important
employment. 24. The fermented juice of apples is
called cyder, or apple winethat of pears, perry. 25.
Hazel nuts gathered in our thickets and gardens.

Ye virgins come, for you their latest song
The wood-lands raise'; the clustering nuts for you
The lover finds amid the secret shade;
And where they burnith on the topmost bough,
With active vigour crushes down the tree,

Or shakes them ripe from the religning bush. 26. The oak sheds its acorns, and the nurs fall from the beech, both called majt. 27. Turning hogs into forests, an excellent mode of fattening them; curious account of this procedure is Gilpin's Forest scenery *. 28. On

* This account shall be given as an extract in our next Number.Ed.

the

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