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His remains are buried under a flat stone, in one of the fide aisles of the most ancient church of Thorn. Above is erected a small monument; on which is painted a halflength portrait of him. The face is that of a man declined in years, pale and thin; but there is in the expreffion of the countenance something which pleases, and conveys the idea of intelligence. His hair and eyes are black, his hands joined in prayer, and he is habited in the dress of a priest. Before him is a crucifix, at his foot a scull, and behind appear a globe and compass. He died in 1543; and, when expiring, is said to have confessed himler, as long and uniform tradition reports, in the following Latin verses, which are inscribed on the monument. They demonstrate that when near his difsolution, all cares or enquiries, except those of a religious nature, had ceased to affect or agitate him.

“ Non parem Pauli gratiam requiro,
· Vcniam Petri neque pofco; fed quam
In crucis ligno dederat latroni-

Sedulus oro.” Monsieur Luther de Geret, counsellor of the senate of Thorn, furnished me with some information relative to the illustrious personin question ; and as fo little is afcertained of his origin or family, it merits to be preserved. “The father of Kopernic was a stranger, from what part of Europe is totally unknown. He fettled here as a merchant, and the archives of the city prove that he obtained the freedom of Thorn in 1462. It feems clear that he must have been in opulent circumstances and of consideration ; not only from the liberal education which he bestowed upon his fon, but from the rank of his wife. She was fifter of Luca Watzeirode, bishop of Ermeland, a prelate descended from one of the most illustrious families of Polith Prussia. The name of the father, as well as of the son, was Nicholas. To the patronage

of his maternal uncle, the great Copernicus was indebted for his ecclefiaftical promotions ; being made a prebend of the church of St. John at Thorn, and a canon of the church of Frawemberg, in the diocese of Ermeland. Of his private life we know little. He did not reside here altogether, nor did he die here; his body having been brought to Thorn for fepulture from Ermeland, where he expired. A dysentery, accompanied by a partial palsy, produced his death. In his character, as well as in all his deportment, he was modest, diffident, and religious. It is not either known or believed, that he left behind hiin any natural children. But the family continued to reside here, as appears by a manuscript chronicle ftill existing, in which it is mentioned, that « On the sith of August, 1601, died Martin Kopernic, barber, of the kindred and posterity of Nicholas Kopernic; a young man unmarried and wealthy, of an apoplectic fit, at his garden in the fuburbs.” In his person, we apprehend the name to have become totally extinct.”

made common.


CRIMEs, as well as punishments, are rare, owing to the vigilance and severity of the police. A murder is , scarcely ever committed, and robberies are by no means

At almost every hour of the day or night, a stranger may walk the streets, or travel the public roads in safety. Of course, executions happen very seldom; but when they take place, they are conducted with admirable propriety and effect. I had the curiosity, for the first time in my life, to be present at an execution, only a few days ago ; which, from the circumstances that attended it, well merits a particular description. Many thousand spectators of all conditions were assem. bled to witness it; and I never saw any public ceremony perforined with so much folemnity and awful decorum. Four men, convicted of robbery, aggravated by circumstances of cruelty and inhumanity, were sentenced to die; not by the halter, as with us, but by the sword of the executioner. They suffered on the Elplanade, without one of the gates of Vienna, upon a circular space or piece of ground walled in, railed twelve or fourteen feet above the level of the Esplanade. In order to have a better view of it, I got into a cart placed near the scaffold, whence I could distinguish even the countenances and features of the criminals.


The first of the four malefactors having been feated in a chair screwed down into the ground, his arms and body were next tied with cords, in order to prevent him from moving, and his neck was laid bare quite to the houlders. A bandage being drawn across his eyes, four Augustine monks with a crucifix approached, and after prayer confessed him. The executioner's atliftant then collecting his hair, pulled up his head with a view to afford a fairer mark. Meanwhile the executioner, who was a very decent man in his figure and dress, arrived in a hack ney-coach. When all the requisite prepara. tions were made, he threw off his cloak, and being in his white waistcoaz, he unsheathed the instrument of punish

It was a strait, two-edged sword, of an equal breadth quite to the point, prodigiously heavy, broad, and sharp as a razor. Coming in Hank of the criminal, who was blindfolded, and ignorant of the precise moment, he took off the head at one stroke, with a dexte. rity and celerity exceeding imagination. The assistant held it up streaming with blood, and then laid it down on the ground; while the decapitated trunk was allowed to remain for some seconds in the chair, the blood spouting up at first to the height of three or four feet in the air. Two men next untied the corpse, and taking it by the legs and shoulders, bore it to a little dis

The head was jed with it, and the whole covered with a large mat.

Previous to beheading the second culprit, the chair. was wiped clean from the blood with which it had been ftained; the ropes were washed, and sand scattered over VOL. VIII.




the place ; so that when he was brought up to suffer, no trace of the preceding execution was visible. About half an hour elapsed berween their respective deaths' ; the last three being beheaded with the same dexterity as the first, and with

similar circumstances. The velocity with which the sword paffed through the neck, and diflevered the head, was such, that the biáde fcarcely appeared bloody. After inflicting each stroke, the ex. ecutioner took out a white handkerchief, and carefully wiped away the globules of blood which stood upon the sword; then sheathed, and laid it down at some paces from the chair, concealed by a cloak. The whole ceremony being ended, he advanced forward, and holding up the instrument of justice immediately after he had taken off the head of the last criminal, he addrefied himself to the assembled multitude, demanding whetber he load well performed his duty. They signified their approbation, and he then withdrew; while the penple, before they dispersed, joined with the monks in prayer for the souls of the departed. The four trunks and heads were exposed during some' hours on wheels, u the view of every one, and afterwards interred.



Spes Præmii Laboris eft Solatium,
POWEVER industrious moralifts of different ages

may have been in representing virtue as its owa reward, it is obvious to remark, that their endeavours in this respect have, in a great measure, proved unsuccessful." Fine theories may delight the philosopher and excite the admiration of the learned; but they are by no means calculated to influence the bulk of mankind. These require something more substantial as a founda. tion for action, and are actuated rather by motives

arising arifing from views of honour and interest, than by those deduced from the beauty of virtue. Stoical speculations may be productive of Stoical aparby; but little or no advantage will be found to result from them, either to fociety in general, or to particular individuals.

It is certain, that the human faculties are never known to expand themselves more freely in exertion, than when warmed and enlivencd by the hope of fome present or diftant good. This is a counterpoile to the fevereft hardships undergone in the pursuit; and the teftimony of every man's own experience, independent of other proof, may be fufficient to convince him, that Bo folacer is more sweet to the wearinels of diligence, than the contemplation of its reward. Whilst we look forward with fond expectation to new acquifitions, either of fame or fortune, the various difficulties, whether real or imaginary, which are apt to intimidate fuggisha minds, gradually disappear; and every intermediate ob. ftacle, which stands in the way of aspiring merir, is cafily furmounted. In the gay prospect of futurity fuch enjoyments present themselves, as diffufe a ray of comfort over the gloom of misfortune, and give feadi. Defs and perseverance to our conduct, even under repeated and frequent disappointments. What is it, but a firm confidence of their respective wilhes being at length gratiaed, that forwards the operations of the me. chanic, invigorates the measures of the statesman, and Derves the arm and animates the courage of the warrior ? The afcent to fame appears proportionably less steep and nugged as the hero keeps stedfastly in his eye the glorious prospect on the summit; nor do labours and dangers ever recommend themselves fo successfully to the {pirit of adventure, as when they farter irs pecuniary Views, or promise greatness to its ambition. The wreath of victory and the glory of triumph, were placed by the antients amongst the most enviable attainments ; in them they beheld a full conspensation for all their mili


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