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indefeasible right of soil, as well as a right to govern them felves in whar manner they think proper : for which reason the United States purchase the right of soil from the Indians.
Self-interest and avarice, being the root of all evil, ought to be sacrificed as a burnt-offering, for the good of mankind. The desire of revenge should be immediately offered on the altar of forgiveness, although thy brother transgress against thee seventy times seven in a day.
Diflimulation and intrigue, with every species of de: ceptive fpeculation and fraudulent practice, ought to be facrificed on the altars of strict honour and inflexible juftice.
In short, as the altar of peace is our text, the sermon, or our future conduct, should be, “ do justice and love mercy,”-tell the Indians they must “ go and do like
Inform them that righteousness is the parent of peace, foreign and domestic; that without it there can be no tranquillity in the nation, the neighbourhood, or in the botom of the individual. Endeavour, therefore, by all possible means, to instil a just knowledge of this principle into their minds, for it must precede universal peace.
Why did the prophet say, " they shall not hurt nor destroy?" because, first, the knowledge of God thall cover the earth as the waters do the sea."
If we were to form any idea of the signs of the times, the day of universal knowledge, peace, and happinels, cannot be at any great distance ; it will advance upon us like the rising fun, whose light irresistibly spreads far and wide!
But do not imagine that wo are to be idle spectators: God carries on his work by means, and employs ra. tional instruments; and as we are at present in an In. dian country, we should devise and adopt the most likely measures to civilize the favage tribes. We have
an opportunity of knowing something of their difpositions. If peace can be amicably concluded, much may be
but we are not to forget the natural steps from a savage, state, to that of civilization. I am clearly of opinion, that rational preachers ought to be employed to remove their ancient fuperftition, give them juft notions of the great spirit, and teach them rules of moral rectitude. I am aware, that something more is wanted ; unless husbandry and the mechanical arts be introduced with those missionaries, they will never be able to prevail on them to quit their ancient customs and manners; government should therefore interfere and affist : that good may be done by individuals, none can deny. The Moravian Indians are a convincing proof of it: still their laudable efforts will be ineffectual to bring over the great body of the people, without further aid, and a general intercourse between them and virtuous men.
It is to be lamented that the frontiers of America, have been peopled in many places by men of bad morals. I do not mean by this, to throw a disagreeable reflection upon all the frontier inhabitants, for I know there are many virtuous characters among them, but certain it is, that there are a great number of white as well as red savages, it will therefore be necessary to have such communications with the different iribes, as to convince them of the good will of the Americans in general.
If at the conclusion of this treaty, some interchanges of persons could take place between the United States and the different tribes, so that some Americans might have their residence in the Indian towns, and the Indians, in like manner, refide in some of the principal towns on the frontiers, it might be the means of terminating all future differences without war; of cultivating harmony and friendship among the tribes, of bringing offenders on both sides to justice ; and causing treaties to be respected throughout the different nations. If fuch a fyftem could be introduced ; cultivation and instruction would naturally follow, and the Americans and Indians would become one people, and have but one interest at heart--the good of the whole.
That such an event should take place is certainly defirable : let'us therefore, in the first place, follow the example of Gideon, by erecting an altar, and offer the necessary facrifices to obtain peace ; let us by acts of righteousness and deeds of mercy make that peace per. manent; let every probable means be made use of to enlighten the poor heathens, that they may quit their childish and cruel customs; and add to their love of liberty and hospitality, piety, industry, mechanical and literary acquirements.--Let us join them in prayer that the “ Great Spirit may enlighten their eyes and purify their hearts, give them a clear sky and smooth waterguard them against the bad birds, and remove the briars from their paths-protect them from the dogs of war, which are ever exciting them to acts of barbarous cruelty--that they may never attend to their barking, but continue to keep the bloody hatchet in the ground, and smoke the calumet of peace until its odours perfume the air*."
Sweet peace !--source of joy--parent of plentypromoter of commerce and manufactures-uri: of arts and agriculture !-angelic .peace !--could I but let forth thy amiable qualities, who would but love thee
- daughter of heaven !—first offspring of the God of love !-haften to make thy residence with us on earth.
* The ingenious author of this piece has here happily adapted fine expressions to the creed of the Indians, with the view of imparting an additional efficacy to his instructions, Ed.
THREE THREE LETTERS OF GRAY,
THE ELEGY IN A COUNTRY
[From Matthison's Letters.] ONSTETTEN, in his youth, resided for fome
time at Cambridge, during which he enjoyed an almost daily intercourse with the Poet Gray, who attached himself to him with great ardour, and soon became his warmest and most confidential friend. Every one who is acquainted with Gray's works, and particua larly with his immortal - Elegy in a Country Churchyard,” will doubtless read with the deepest interest the fullowing reliques of his correspondence with his young friend.
Cambridge, April 13th, 1770. Never did I feel, my dear Bonstetten, to what a te. dious length the few ihort moments of our life may be extended by impatience and expectation, till you had left me; nor ever knew before with so strong a conviction how much this frail body sympathizes with the inquietude of the mind. I am grown oid in the compass of less than three weeks, like the sultan in the Turkish Tales, that did but plunge his head into a vel. fel of water and take it out again, as the standers-by affirmed, at the command of a Dervise, and found he had passed many years in captivity, and begot a large family of children. The strength and spirits that now enable me to write to you, are only owing to your last letterand temporary gleam of fun-fhine. Heaven knows when it inay thine again! I did not conceive till now, I own, what it was to lose you, nor fuld the folitude and insipidity of iny own condition before I poffered the happiness of your friendlip. I must cire VOL. VIII.
another Greek writer to you, because it is much to my purpose : he is describing the character of a genius truly inclined to philosophy. “ It includes,” he says,
qualifications rarely united in one single mind, quickness of apprehension and a retentive memory, vivacity, and application, gentleness and magnanimity: to these he adds an invincible love of truth, and consequently of probity and justice. Such a foul,” continues he, “will be little inclined to sensual pleasures, and consequently temperate; a stranger to illiberality and avarice, being accustomed to the most extensive views of things, and Tublimest contemplations, it will contract an habitual greatness, will look down with a kind of disregard on human life and on death, consequently, will possess the truest fortitude. Such,” says he, “ is the mind born to govern the rest of mankind.” But these very en. dowments, so necessary to a foul formed for philofophy, are often its ruin, especially when joined to the external advantages of wealth, nobility, strength, and beauty; that is, if it light on a bad foil, and want its proper nurture, which nothing but an excellent education can bestow. In this case he is depraved by the public ex. ample, the assemblies of the people, the courts of jultice, the theatres, that inspire it with false opinions, terrify it with falfe infamy, or elevate it with false applause; and remember, that extraordinary vices and extraordinary virtues, are equally the produce of a vigorous mind: little souls are alike incapable of the one and the other.
If you have ever met with the portrait sketched out by Plato, you will know it again: for my part, to my fórrow I have had that happiness: I see the principal features, and I foresee the dangers with a trembling anxiety. But enough of this; I return to your letter. It proves at least, that in the midst of your new gaieties, I ftill hold some place in your memory, and, what pleases me above all, it has an air of undissembled sincerity. Go on, my best and amiable friend, to shew me your