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way to such water whenever it is required for any public purpose, nor to destroy or obstruct the free navigation of such water; and the Legislature shall enact such laws as will give the most liberal construction to this provision, so that access to the navigable waters of this State shall be always attainable for the people thereof. (Constitution, art. XIV, sec. 2.)

SEC. 102.

TIDE LANDS NOT TO PASS INTO PRIVATE HANDS. All tide lands within two miles of any incorporated city or town in this State, and fronting on the waters of any harbor, estuary, bay, or inlet, used for the purposes of navigation, shall be withheld from grant or sale to private persons, partnerships, or corporations. (Constitution, art. XIV, sec. 3.)

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SEC. 103.

LIMITATION OF STATE INDEBTEDNESS. The Legislature shall not, in any manner, create any debt or debts, liability or liabilities, which shall, singly or in the aggregate with any previous debts or liabilities, exceed the sum of three hundred thousand dollars, except in case of war to repel invasion or suppress insurrection, unless the same shall be authorized by law for some single object of work to be distinctly specified therein, which law shall provide ways and means, exclusive of loans, for the payment of the interest of such debt or liability as it falls due, and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt or liability within seventy-five years of the time of the contracting thereof, and shall be irrepealable until the principal and interest thereon shall be paid and discharged and such law may make provision for a sinking fund to pay the principal of such debt or liability to commence at a time after the incurring of such debt or liability of not more than a period of one fourth of the time of maturity of such debt or liability. * * * The Legislature may, at any time after the approval of such law by the people, if no debt shall have been contracted in pursuance thereof, repeal the same. (Constitution, art. XVI, sec. 1.)

SEC. 104.

EXEMPTIONS OF HOMESTEADS.

The Legislature shall protect, by law, from forced sale, a certain portion of the homestead and other property of all heads of families. (Constitution, art. XVII, sec. 1.)

SEC. 105.

HOLDING OF UNIMPROVED LANDS AGAINST PUBLIC INTEREST.

The holding of large tracts of land, uncultivated and unimproved, by individuals or corporations, is against the public interest, and should be discouraged by all means not inconsistent with the rights of private property. (Constitution, art. XVII, sec. 2.)

SEC. 106.

CONSTITUTION, HOW AMENDED. Any amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in the Senate or Assembly, and if two thirds of all the members elected to each of the two houses shall vote in favor thereof, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered in their journals, with the yeas and nays taken thereon; and it shall be the duty of the Legislature to submit such proposed amendment or amendments to the people in such manner, and at such time, and after such publication as may be deemed expedient.

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If the people shall approve and ratify such amendment or amendments, or any of them, by a majority of the qualified electors voting thereon, such amendment or amendments shall become a part of this Constitution. (Constitution, art. XVIII, sec. 1.)

SEC. 107.

CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONS.

Whenever two thirds of the members elected to each branch of the Legislature shall deem it necessary to revise this Constitution, they shall recommend to the electors to vote, at the next general election, for or against a convention for that purpose, and if a majority of the electors voting at such election on the proposition for a convention shall vote in favor thereof, the Legislature shall, at its next session, provide by law for calling the same. The convention shall consist of a number of delegates not to exceed that of both branches of the Legislature, who shall be chosen in the same manner, and have the same qualifications, as members of the Legislature. The delegates so elected shall meet within three months after their election, at such place as the Legislature may direct. (Constitution, art. XVIII, sec. 2.)

SEC. 108.

POWER OF LEGISLATURE TO REGULATE ALIENS.

The Legislature shall prescribe all necessary regulations for the protection of the State, and the counties, cities, and towns thereof, from the burdens and evils arising from the presence of aliens who are or may become vagrants, paupers, mendicants, criminals, or invalids afflicted with contagious or infectious diseases, and from aliens otherwise dangerous or detrimental to the well-being or peace of the State, and to impose conditions upon which such persons may reside in the State, and to provide the means and mode of their removal from the State, upon failure or refusal to comply with such conditions; provided, that nothing contained in this section shall be construed to impair or limit the power of the Legislature to pass such police laws or other regulations as it may deem necessary. (Constitution, art. XIX, sec. 1.)

SEC. 109

IMMIGRATION OF FOREIGNERS INELIGIBLE TO CITIZENSHIP TO BE

DISCOURAGED. The presence of foreigners ineligible to become citizens of the United States is declared to be dangerous to the well-being of the State, and the Legislature shall discourage their immigration by all means within its power.

Asiatis coolie:sm is a form of human slavery, and is forever prohibited in this State, and all contracts for coolie labor shall be void. All companies or corporations, whether formed in this country or any foreign country, for the importation of such labor, shall be subject to such penalties as the Legislature may prescribe. The Legislature shall delegate all necessary power to the incorporated cities and towns of this State for the removal of Chinese without the limits of such cities and towns, or for their location within prescribed portions of those limits, and it shall also provide the necessary legislation to prohibit the introduction into this State of Chinese after the adoption of this Constitution. This section shall be enforced by appropriate legislation. (Constitution, art. XII, sec. 4.)

SEC. 110.

OFFICIALS TO BE PROVIDED FOR BY LEGISLATURE. All officers or commissioners whose election or appointment is not provided for by this Constitution, and all officers or commissioners whose offices or duties may hereafter be created by law, shall be elected by the people, or appointed, as the Legislature may direct. (Constitution, art. XX, sec. 4.)

SEC. 111.

FISCAL YEAR.

The fiscal year shall commence on the first day of July. (Constitution, art. XX, sec. 5.)

SEC. 112.

SUITS AGAINST STATE. Suits may be brought against the State in such manner and in such courts as shall be directed by law. (Constitution, art. XI, sec. 6.)

SEC. 113.

DISQUALIFICATION FOR BRIBERY.

Every person shall be disqualified from holding any office of profit in this State who shall have been convicted of having given or offered a bribe to procure his election or appointment. (Constitution, art. XX, sec. 10.)

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SEC. 114.

MISCONDUCT IN OFFICE-CORRUPT PRACTICES. Laws shall be made to exclude from office, serving on juries, and from the right of suffrage, persons convicted of bribery, perjury, forgery, malfeasance in office, or other high crimes. The privilege of free suffrage shall be supported by laws regulating elections, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influence thereon from power, bribery, tumult, or other improper practice. (Constitution, art. xx,

XX sec. 11.)

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SEC. 115.

ELECTION BY PLURALITY-MUNICIPAL REGULATIONS. A plurality of the votes given at any election shall constitute a choice where not otherwise directed in this Constitution; provided, that it shall be competent in all charters of cities, counties or cities and counties framed under the authority of this Constitution to provide the manner in which their respective elective officers may be elected and to prescribe a higher proportion of the vote therefor; and provided, also, that it shall be competent for the Legislature by general law to provide the manner in which officers of municipalities organized or incorporated under general laws may be elected and to prescribe a higher proportion of the vote therefor. (Constitution, art. XX, sec. 13.)

SEC. 116.

STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. The Legislature shall provide, by law, for the maintenance and efficiency of a state board of health. (Constitution, art. XX, sec. 14.)

SEC. 117.

MECHANICS' LIENS. Mechanics, materialmen, artisans, and laborers of every class shall have a lien upon the property upon which they have bestowed labor or furnished material, for the value of such labor done and material furnished; and the Legislature shall provide, by law, for the speedy and efficient enforcement of such liens. (Constitution, art. XX, sec. 15.)

SEC. 118.

TERM OF OFFICE WHEN NOT FIXED BY CONSTITUTION. When the term of any officer or commissioner is not provided for in this Constitution, the term of such officer or commissioner may be declared by law. *** (Constitution, art. II, sec. 16.)

SEC. 119.

EIGHT-HOUR DAY ON PUBLIC WORK. The time of service of all laborers or workmen or mechanics employed upon any public works of the State of California, or of any county, city and county, city, town, district, township, or any other political subdivision thereof, whether said work is done by contract or otherwise, shall be limited and restricted to eight hours in any one calendar day, except in cases of extraordinary emergency caused by fire, flood, or danger to life and property, or except to work upon public, military, or naval works or defenses in time of war, and the Legislature shall provide by law that a stipulation to this effect shall be incorporated in all contracts for public work, and prescribe proper penalties for the speedy and efficient enforcement of said law. (Constitution, art. XX, sec. 17.)

SEC. 120.

MINIMUM WAGE FOR WOMEN AND MINORS. The Legislature may, by appropriate legislation, provide for the establishment of a minimum wage for women and minors and may provide for the comfort, health, safety and general welfare of any and all employees. No provision of this Constitution shall be construed as a limitation upon the authority of the Legislature to confer upon any commission now or hereafter created, such power and authority as the Legislature may deem requisite to carry out the provisions of this section. (Constitution, art. XX, sec. 174.)

SEC. 121.

WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION-LABOR DISPUTES. The Legislature may by appropriate legislation create and enforce a liability on the part of all employers to compensate their employees for any injury incurred by the said employees in the course of their employment, irrespective of the fault of either party. The Legislature may provide for the settlement of any disputes arising under the legislation contemplated by this section, by arbitration, or by an industrial accident board, by the courts, or by either any or all of these agencies, anything in this Constitution to the contrary notwithstanding. (Constitution, art. XX, sec. 21.)

SEC. 122.

THE RECALL.

Every elective public officer of the State of California may be removed from office at any time by the electors entitled to vote for a successor of such incumbent, through the procedure and in the manner herein provided for, which procedure shall be known as the recall, and is in addition to any other method of removal provided by law.

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No recall petition shall be circulated or filed against any officer until he has actually held his office for at least six months; save and except it may be filed against any member of the State Legislature at any time after five days from the convening and organizing of the Legislature after his election.

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