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54

ADAM’S APPLE–ADANSON.

the projection of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. This name originated from the tradition, that a piece of the forbidden fruit, which Adam ate, stuck in his throat, and occasioned the swelling.

ADAM'S PEAK; the highest mountain in the island of Ceylon, called by the inhabitants Ham-al-el. It lies under 6° 49′ N. lat., 80° 43′ E. lon., and can be seen, in clear weather, from the sea at a distance of 150 miles. It has neither been measured, nor geologically examined. The chief river of the island, Mahavillagonga, the mouth of which forms, at Trincomalee, the best harbor in all India, has its source in this mountain. It is considered sacred by the followers of Buddha, many of whom make pilgrimages to it. The betel-leaf is exchanged by them as a sign of peace, for the purpose of strengthening the bands of kindred, confirming friendships and reconciling enmities. A priest then blesses them on the summit, and enjoins them to live virtuously at home. According to Davy, the road which leads to the summit is, with all its windings, 8 miles long, and in some places very steep. Upon the top, the priests show a footstep which Buddha is said to have made. The place is surrounded by venerable old trees, particularly rhododendra.

ADAMSON, Patrick, a native of Perth, and a distinguished Latin poet, was born in 1536. After having studied at St. Andrews, he visited Paris, Padua and other places distinguished for their universities, and at Geneva imbibed the Calvinistic doctrines from the celebrated Beza. On his return, he escaped from the massacre of St. Bartholomew by flight, and lay concealed a long time at Bourges, where he composed his paraphrase of Job, and some other works. On his return to Scotland, he was appointed minister of Paisley, and afterwards, by the favor and interest of the regent Morton, was raised to the archbishopric of St. Andrews. In this elevated situation, he was surrounded with dangers and difficulties, and the virulence of the Presbyterians was successfully directed against him, as the firmest pillar of episcopacy. James VI, however, patronised him, and sent him as his ambassador to England, where his eloquence and address gained him admirers, and raised such a tide of popularity in favor of the young king, his master, that the jealousy of Elizabeth forbade him again to ascend the pulpit while at her court. His principal objects in England were to gain friends for his master among the nobles, and to support the cause of episco

pacy in Scotland. In 1584, he was recalled, and so violent was the irritation of the Presbyterians against him, that, at a provincial synod, he was accused and excommunicated; and neither appeals to the king and to the states, nor protestations of innocence, would have saved him from this disgraceful sentence, if he had not yielded to the storm, and implored pardon in the most abject terms. His life continued a scene of persecution; even the monarch grew deaf to his petitions, and alienated the revenues of his see in favor of the duke of Lenox, so that A., in addition to the indignities offered to his office, had to endure the pangs of indigence, in the midst of a forlorn and starving family. He died 1591. A 4to. volume of his works has been published, containing translations of some of the books of the Bible in Latin verse, frequently composed to alleviate his griefs and disarm the terrors of persecution. He also wrote a history of his own times.

He

ÅDANSON, Michel, a botanist, born at Aix, 1727, made natural history his favorite study, and chose Réaumur and Bernard de Jussieu for his guides. His emulation was roused by the brilliant success of the system of Linnæus. He abandoned the study of divinity, and, in the prosecution of his favorite pursuits, made several journeys to regions never yet visited by man. In 1748, at the age of 21, he went to the river Senegal, in the belief that the unhealthiness of the climate would, for a long time, prevent naturalists from visiting this country. He collected, with all the zeal of an enthusiast, invaluable treasures in the three kingdoms of nature; and, perceiving the defects in the established classification of plants, endeavored to substitute another more comprehensive. also prepared exact maps of the countries through which he travelled, and compiled dictionaries of the languages of the different tribes, with whose manners and customs he had become acquainted. After a residence of 5 years in an unhealthy climate, he returned to his country, in the possession of very valuable collections, and published, in 1757, Histoire Naturelle du Sénégal. Some masterly essays of his were printed in the memoirs of the French academy, and procured him the honor of being chosen a member of the institute. These essays were only preludes to his learned and comprehensive botanical work, Familles des Plantes, 2 vols., 1763. The work, however, did not effect the object for which it was written,-the establishment of a new system of botany, in

ADANSON-ADDISON.

opposition to that of Linnæus. He was preparing a new edition, with numerous alterations and important additions, when he formed the plan of publishing a complete encyclopædia. In hopes of receiving support from Louis XV, he began to collect materials, which, in a short time, increased to an immense mass; and in 1775, he laid before the academy a prospectus of a work, on so large a scale as to excite general astonishment. It was carefully examined, but the result did not answer the expectations of the author. A.'s plan was good, but he was wrong in insisting upon the immediate publication of the whole. This obstinacy is the reason that the work has never been printed. He continued, however, to increase his materials with unwearied diligence. Some valuable essays, printed in the memoirs of the academy, are all of his writings that subsequently came before the public. The idea of executing his great work continually occupied his mind, and he employed all his means for this purpose. But the revolution reduced him to extreme poverty, and when the national institute chose him one of its members, he declined the invitation because he had no shoes. A pension was then conferred upon him, which he enjoyed till his death, in 1806, continually employed in preparing his great work. The number of his printed books is small, in comparison with the mass of manuscripts which he has left. A good selection of these would be very acceptable to the literary public.

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office, A. made several reports on the state of the finances in England, on the necessity of new loans, &c. He was an advocate of peace, after the treaty of Amiens, which was considered to have been brought about by him. But as soon as the treaty was violated, he proposed measures of hostility, and showed himself one of the warmest advocates of His enemies attempted to injure him, during the period of the king's illness, in the beginning of 1804; but the sudden recovery of the king frustrated their designs. New attacks, however, compelled him to leave his station, to which Pitt was again raised, May 10. The king then conferred upon him the title of lord viscount Sidmouth, and honored him with his confidence. In January, 1806, he became again connected with the government, as keeper of the great seal, but soon resigned this office. In 1812, when lord Liverpool was appointed first lord of the treasury, in the place of Mr. Perceval, who had been murdered, lord Sidmouth again took his seat in the cabinet, as secretary of state for the home department, but retired from office in 1822. Mr. Peel was his successor.

ADDISON, Joseph, a poet and miscellaneous writer, was born at Milston, Wiltshire, where his father was rector, in 1672, and died 1719. He received the first part of his education in his native place: at the age of 11, his father having been appointed dean of Litchfield, he beADDINGTON, Henry, lord viscount Sid- came a pupil of Mr. Shaw. But we have mouth, son of a physician, who united no account of his early character, except with the study of his profession a love for that he distinguished himself in a barring politics. Henry A., born in 1756, was out. At the age of 15, he was entered at educated with Pitt, the son of lord Chat- Queen's college, Oxford, where his Latin ham. The splendid career of his friend poem on the inauguration of William and opened to him also the path to distinction. Mary obtained his election into MagAs a member of parliament, he supported dalen college, on the founder's benePitt against Fox with all his power. In faction. His other Latin poems may be 1769, A. was chosen speaker of the house found with this in the Musa Anglicana, of commons, and continued in this hon- collected by himself. In 1693, having orable office, even after the convocation taken the degree of master of arts, he of a new parliament. Ever faithful to the published his first attempt in English, party of Pitt, he only once disagreed in some verses inscribed to Dryden, with a opinion with his friend on the motion of translation of part of the fourth Georgie Wilberforce, in 1792, to abolish the Afri- of Virgil, and other pieces in prose and can slave trade, and voted for its gradual verse. In 1695, he wrote a poem "To abolition. Through his influence, the King William," and obtained the patrontime of prohibition was deferred till 1800. age of lord Somers, keeper of the great But this temporary difference of opinion seal, by addressing it to him. Having neither destroyed their intimacy, nor pre- declined entrance into holy orders, he vented their agreement in the same gen- obtained a pension of £300 by the influ eral system of politics, Feb. 5, 1801, Pitt ence of Somers, and Montague, chancellor resigned the office of chancellor of the of the exchequer, to enable him to travel; exchequer in favor of A. While in this and in 1701, he wrote the Poetical Epistle

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from Italy, to Montague, now lord Halifax, of which Dr. Johnson says, "It is the most elegant, if not the most sublime, of his poetical compositions." During his travels, he began his tragedy of Cato, and composed the Dialogues on Medals, and, after his return, which was hastened by the loss of his pension, he published his Travels. In Johnson's opinion, this work might have been written at home. In 1704, at the request of lord Godolphin, A. celebrated the victory of Hochstadt, or Blenheim, in a poem called the Campaign. Before it was finished, it procured for him the office of commissioner of appeals, in which he was the successor of Locke. About this time, he wrote also the opera of Rosamond, which was hissed from the stage, but was published with success. The next year he accompanied lord Halifax to Hanover, and was soon after chosen under-secretary of state. In 1709, he went to Ireland as secretary to the earl of Wharton, and was at the same time appointed keeper of the records in Bermingham's tower, with an allowance of £300 per annum. While A. was in Ireland, Steele, the friend of his youth, began the publication of the Tattler, a series of essays on literature and manners: to this paper A. became a contributor. The first number of the Tattler appeared in 1709, and was succeeded, in March, 1711, by the Spectator, which was continued daily till December, 1712. Some time afterward, the Guardian was undertaken by Steele, and to this A. contributed. His papers in the Spectator are marked by one of the letters in the name Clio, and in the Guardian, by a hand. After the publication of the Guardian, the Spectator was revived, and the eighth volume completed. In this his papers are not distinguished by any mark. The popularity of these works was very great, 20,000 copies of the Spectator being distributed at one time, and they yet stand among the classics of English literature. This preeminence is owing to the genius of A. This kind of writing was new, and more adapted to produce an effect on the great mass of society than any literary productions which had preceded it. It is the prolific mother of modern periodical literature. It describes and criticises the manners of the times, delineates character, exposes the follies and reproves the vices which fashion countenances. It has contributed much to reform the taste of the English nation. A.'s papers, in these works, may be divided into the comic, the serious and

the critical. His humor is peculiar, his satire easy and delicate, and his wit is always on the side of truth and virtue. His serious papers are distinguished by beauty, propriety and elegance of style, not less than by their pure tone of morality and religion. They are a code of practical ethics. His critical essays contain many just remarks, conveyed in an easy and popular manner, and display the results of much study and delicate taste. In 1713, A.'s tragedy of Cato was represented with very great success. It had a run of 35 nights, and was always received with applause. This was undoubtedly owing to party feelings; the whigs hailing whatever was favorable to liberty in the production of a whig, and the tories reechoing the approbation, to show that they did not feel the censure it was supposed to convey. But, although not calculated to engage an English audience, the poetry is fine, and the principal characters well supported. A. was afterwards engaged in several periodicals, principally political, went again, as secretary of the viceroy, to Ireland, and was appointed one of the lords of trade. In 1716, he married the countess of Warwick, who was won with difficulty, and whose haughty treatment of him often drove him to a tavern. The year after his marriage, he was appointed secretary of state; but his inability to speak in public, and his solicitude about the elegance of his expressions, rendered him unfit for the duties of the office, and he soon retired, with a pension of £1500. His principal work, after this, was the Evidences of Christianity, a work useful at the time, as recommending the subject by elegance and perspicuity to popular notice, but since superseded by more complete treatises. His death was that of a Christian philosopher. Before he expired, he sent for his pupil, lord Warwick, a young man of loose life, and addressed him in these words: "I have sent for you that you may see how a Christian can die." This scene is alluded to in the lines of Tickell on his death:

"He taught us how to live, and-olt! too high The price of knowledge-taught us how to die." He was buried in Westminster abbey. A. was a sincere believer in the Christian revelation; in politics earnest, but not violent, he was respected, if not beloved, by individuals of both parties. Serious and reserved in his manners, modest and even timid in society, he spoke little before strangers. "I have never," said lord Chesterfield, "seen a more modest, or a

ADDISON-ADELUNG.

more awkward man;" but he was easy, fluent and familiar, in the company of his friends. He studied all the morning, dined at a tavern, and spent the evening at Button's, a coffee-house frequented by the wits of the time. As a poet, he is distinguished for taste and elegance, but is destitute of high poetic genius. His prose is remarkable for its purity, perspicuity and simplicity, and for the higher graces of harmony and richness of metaphor. It is the sentence of the great judge of English literature, that "he who would write English with correctness and elegance must give his days and nights to the study of Addison." His chief works are the tragedy of Cato, his papers in the Tattler, the Spectator and the Guardian, and the Evidences of the Christian Religion.

ADDRESS. In modern times, importance has been given to the manifestation of public opinion to the sovereign, in the form of addresses; and governments, in difficult emergencies, have in turn addressed the people. A communication from the rulers to the citizens is called a proclamation. In France only, at the time when the sovereignty of the people was acknowledged, the higher authorities sent addresses to the people. An address is essentially different from a petition, since it contains only an expression of thanks, satisfaction or dissatisfaction, communicates information, justifies measures, &c. This practice owes its origin to the British parliament, which is accustomed to answer the king's speeches, delivered at the commencement and close of each session, by a public acknowledgment of the obligations of the nation. The same custom is adopted by the congress of the United States. (See Jefferson's Manual of Parlicmentary Practice.) The constitutions of the several German states grant this right in a very limited sense. In Wurtemberg, it has been declared unconstitutional, in reference to the army, and in Bavaria, the estates have only the right of transmitting petitions to the king, and of complaining against the ministers of state. The right of the citizens, in associations or otherwise, to present addresses, is connected with the right of complaining, convoking assemblies and signing in a body. It is obvious, that addresses of thanks and satisfaction, like those with which Napoleon was so much pleased, are of importance only in case the expression of public opinion is free.

57

scholar, distinguished for his exertions to
improve the literature and language of
his country, was born August 8, 1732, at
Spantekow, in Pomerania, where his fa-
ther was a clergyman. He received his
first instruction partly at Auklam, partly
at Klosterbergen, near Magdeburg, and
finished his education at Halle. In 1759, he
was appointed professor in the Protestant
academy at Erfurt; but, two years after,
ecclesiastical disputes caused him to re
move to Leipsic, where he applied him
self, with indefatigable activity, to the ex
tensive works by which he has been so
useful to the German language and liter-
ature, particularly his Grammatisch-krit.
Wörterbuch der hochdeutschen Mundart.
Leipsic, 1774-86, 4 vols. and 1st half of
the 5th. In 1787, he received, from the
then elector of Saxony, the place of
first librarian of the public library in
Dresden. This office he held till his
death, Sept. 10, 1806. A. has alone per-
formed for the German language what
whole academies have done for others.
His grammatical, critical dictionary sur-
passes the English lexicon of Johnson in
the accuracy and order of the definitions,
and more especially in the department of
etymology, but is inferior to it in the
selection of classic authorities, because
A.'s predilection for the Upper Saxon, or
Misnian authors, induced him to neglect
those writers whose country or style he
disliked, and his taste was so limited, that
he would not allow of any deviation from
the established forms and settled laws
of style. His methodical mind was struck
with terror at the irregularities and the
flood of new words with which he thought
the German language menaced, and could
not appreciate its admirable flexibility and
copiousness, in which it is equalled by
the Grecian alone.
Voss and Campe

have animadverted upon this defect with great truth, but perhaps with too little forbearance. The second edition of the dictionary of A., 1798-1801, contains a number of additions which are valuable in themselves, but in no proportion to the progress which the language has made in the mean time, and show too plainly that the most unwearied industry cannot compensate for a defective plan. (See German Language.) Of A's other works, we would mention his German grammar, his Magazin für die Deutsche Sprache, his work on German style, his Aelteste Geschichte der Deutschen, his Directorium, important for its exposition of the sources of the history of the south of SaxADELUNG, John Christopher. This ony, Meissen, 1802, 4to., and his Mithri

ADELM. (See Alhelm).

58

ADELUNG-ADHESION.

dates, in which last work he designed to store up the fruits of all his investigations, but finished only the first volume; for the three others, we are indebted to the lexicographer Vater, of Halle, who employed for this purpose, partly the papers of the deceased, partly the materials collected by A. and W. von Humboldt, and partly the results of his own inquiries. A. was a man of blameless morals and amiable temper. He was never married. He daily devoted 14 hours to labor.

ADELUNG, Frederic von, since 1825, president of the Asiatic academy at St. Petersburg, a nephew of the lexicographer, was born at Stettin, 1768, and has distinguished himself as a historian and linguist. Having previously made himself intimate at Rome with the treasures of the Vatican library, and published some interesting disquisitions on the old German poems to be found there (Konigsberg, 1796 and 1799), he went to Petersburg, where he took part in the direction of the German theatre. In 1803, he was appointed tutor of the grand princes Nicholas and Michael, and received an order of nobility. He then applied himself with great assiduity to the study of languages, in which he was much assisted by the collection of Backmeister, the librarian. He has written on the Rapports entre la Langue Sanscrite, et la Langue Russe. At the request of his patron, count Romanzoff, chancellor of the empire, he published a description of the remarkable doors of brass belonging to the church of St. Sophia, in Novgorod, which were said to have been cast in Magdeburg in the 11th century, and the most exact engravings of which were prepared by the order of the count. This work, which appeared at Berlin, 1823, with copper and lithographic plates, contains interesting contributions to the history of Russian art, and an essay on the Swedish, or silver door, so called, then in Novgorod, which was brought to Russia, as a trophy, from Sigtuna, the ancient royal residence of Sweden, A. is now preparing a Bibliotheca Glottica, an introduction to which has already been published, entitled Uebersicht aller bekannten Sprachen, Petersburg, 1820.

ADEPT. (See Alchemy.) ADERSBACH MOUNTAINS. These extend, with some interruptions, from Adersbach, a village of Bohemia, to the county of Glatz. Numerous clefts of various size are found among the rocks, which rise in strange forms more than

100 feet high, and consist of a remarkable kind of ferruginous sand-stone. Rain and snow, filling the cavities of the surface during the winter, form collections of water, which gradually filters through the rocks, and produces these clefts. The sand-stone itself has, in the course of time, become very brittle, especially on the surface. The place is a great resort for travellers.

ADES. (See Pluto.)

ADHELM, OF ADELM, was born in Wiltshire, in the seventh century. He was made bishop of Shireburn, and extraordinary tales are related of his miraculous powers, and his voluntary chastity. He was, for the times, an eminent scholar, being acquainted with Grecian and Roman literature, a good writer, a poet of some merit, and an excellent musician. His works, which were numerous, are mostly lost.

ADHESION, according to the latest phraseology of physics, means generally the tendency of heterogeneous bodies to stick together; but cohesion implies the attraction of homogeneous particles of bodies. Adhesion may take place between two solids, as two hemispheres of glass, or between a solid and a fluid, or between two fluids, as oil and water. Thus it is said that a fluid adheres to a solid, as water to the finger dipped into it. But there is a great difference, in this respect, in different bodies; thus small particles of quicksilver do not adhere to glass, but they adhere to gold, silver and lead. Water adheres to the greatest part of bodies, unless it is separated from their surface by oily substances, dust, flour, &c. Fluids do not form a surface perfectly horizontal in vessels to which they adhere so as to wet them, but rise, on the contrary, around the brim of the vessels. This is proved by water, beer, &c. poured into glasses, pails, pots, &c. Fluids, on the other hand, in vessels to which they do not adhere, sink around the brim, and rise in the centre. Thus quicksilver in a glass forms a convex surface. This phenomenon of the rising and sinking of fluids becomes still more remarkable in vessels of a small diameter; wherefore capillary tubes, so called, are used for performing experiments, and the singular effects produced are ascribed to capillary attraction. (See Capillary Tubes.) Water poured from a vessel to which it adheres so as to wet it, runs easily down the exterior surface, unless a peculiar direction is given to the vessel. This is never the case with quicksilver poured from a glass;

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