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against the doctrine of the latter by Pascal, by several parliaments of France, and by an anonymous pamphlet wholly unknown *, which resembles that of the Illumi. nated of Germany ;-it is certain, that in 1774 or 1775. a fociety was formed in Bavaria, of which a celebrated professor of Ingolstadt is looked upon as the author, which, taking for its motto, “ The, happiness of the people," and supposing that happiness incompatible with every religious and civil establishment now existing, said, “ Let us sap ail their foundations, let us destroy them all.” The Secret Order of the Illuminated comprised in its mysteries all those doctrines which the Jacobins of Paris have since put in practice; and it has been proved by undeniable documents, that it was closely connected with them even before the revolution. To destroy the Christian religion, and to overthrow every throne and every government, has been from the year 1776, the constant aim of the Secret Order of the Illuminated.
The persons who were to be at first associated, heard nothing but of the happiness of the people, which was a sure means of raising recruits, who were prompt and numerous ; young men were particularly chofen, because, having as yet no fixed opinion, they seize any one that is offered to them; and men of letters, whom it is so important to secure when new opinions are to be brought into operation and accredited. When once they were enrolled, and strongly impressed with the
* “ Memorial for the Plenipotentiaries assembled at Soirfons; in which it is proved how prejudicial to the Church and to the State is the Society of the Jesuits.” 12 mo. 1729. The congress was dissolved without doing any thing, and the me. morial forgotten. It is astonishing that this energetic compo sition was not printed again, when the order was supprefled, and that the procureurs. generaux, who followed the biethrei: with fo much animosity, when they could no longer dcfend themselves, did not recall it.
idea, fo pleasant to the mind, of the people's happinefs, “ Let us labour for the happiness of the people,” they became impatient to know the obstacles opposed to them, and the means to be employed to procure that great good : these were successively prefented.
The order has five degrees; in the first the mysteries are not revealed, the minds of the novices are only founded and prepared, and by small degrees those who are found worthy are farther initiated! By the aid of this gradation, and by employing the affecting tone which miffionaries who wish to make profelytes know fo well how to assume, are there any principles that may not be inculcated with success ? It is Mahomet persuading Seyda that it is a duty to assassinate his father. The number of the affiliated increased confiderably in a short time, principally by the care of the baron de Knwho first, in 1782, conceived the idea (so happy for the increase of the sect) of illuminating freemasonry, and fucceeded in doing so from Hanover to Copenhagen and Naples. In 1784, the Illuminated Brethren were unmasked, and driven out of Bavaria. In 1788, the papers belonging to them, which had been seized, were printed at Munich; but to judge from the statement which the comte de Mirabeau gives us, what was done against them was so ill done, that they lost none of their credit. Did not that happen in this case which fo often comes to pass : Did not the public become interested in the cause of the accused, on account of false accusations being iningled with true ones ?
From the commencement of their existence, the best journalists were attached to them, and particularly the authors of the Bibliotheque Universelle, then published at Berlin, which was, and still is, an excellent journal, The principal director of it had been highly praised by M. Zimmerman, in 1771, as one of the most learned, best informed, and most amiable literary characters in Germany. A short time after M. Zimmerinan's jour11.cy to Potzdam, another journal was established under
the direction of Mr. G. counsellor of the confiftory at Berlin, and Mr. B. the king's librarian. Several authors who assisted, remain still unknown. This journal was conducted on the principles of the Illuminated ; among some excellent pieces which brought it into vogue, the faithful allies of the order never failed exclaiming against the superstition and prejudices of religion. The edicts which the reigning king published against these kind of writings, only served to animate their ardour; and in order to write with impunity, they affirmed that all Germany was in danger of falling under the yoke of the Jesuits, who had inclined all the princes in their favour, and that part of the proteftant princes were about to turn cathotics. In the two works which M, Zimmerman published in 1778, upon the king of Prussia, he ridiculed the fear of the Jesuits. And at this period count Mirabeau discovered the principles of the Illuminated, which he had adopted at Ber. lin, as a beautiful, noble, and grand project. Must not every one be astonished on reflecting upon that circum. stance, that the court of Versailles was ignorant of this work, or that knowir of it, it did not foresee that all which has happened must happen if it suffered the states. general to be influenced by the protector of this system, or that that court could have been so destitute of means, as to be incapable of expelling from that affembly a man against whom there were so many causes of reprobation?
The influence of this system was fo manifest, that it is unnecessary to read the journals for a history of the proceedings of the states-general; they were to be found in the count de Mirabeau's work, two years before the states assembled ; and this influence will be more readily acknowledged by those who are capable of tracing the causes of events. 66 The French refo. bution is neither the effect of the monarch's weakness, nor of, &c. &c.” The greatest part of those who have appeared like kings in this scene of crimes, were in fact
but theatrical kings, who acted the parts they had been taught, but which they did not understand. Who is then the hero, the tyrant, or the god, that, hid behind the fcenes, moves all the machinery? It is a secret fociety of pretended philosophers dispersed through all countries, affiliated into an affociation by an oath, and by degrees of rank, who give action to the whole *.
They endeavoured to gain M. Zimmerman. Lwho has been fince banithed from Berlin for having intrigued with emiffaries of the Propaganda, invited him to attach himself to a society which he declared would, in a very short time, reform and govern the world. In his work entitled - Frederick the Great defended,” he ridiculed L-, and laid before the public the means by which they endeavoured to make profelytes. This was
was disturbing a nest of wasps; for from that time he was attacked by all the journalists in Germany ; his book was not criticised, but burnt. Several pamphlets appeared, not only to refute him, but to blacken his character and insult him ; he was called an ignorant fellow, ridiculoufly superstitious, and an enemy to the knowledge which men, more enlightened than himself, wished to propagate. Too wife to reply, though not a little irritated by their invectives, but still more by the iniquitous mysteries which he daily law developed, and animated by a zeal for the cause of humanity, without replying to all the Nanders which had been lo profusely heaped upon him) in 1790, in his noble work on Frederick the Great, he attacked without reserve, and with all the energy of his mind and pen, the whole tribe of the Illuminated, or, as he called them, the Enlighteners, It was with flent regret that many respectable persons faw the evils resulting from the propagation of this diabolical doctrine ; but he was the first who had courage to develope its principles, and endeavour to open the
* Letters to the author of the Quatidienne.
eyes of the princes of Germany to the danger to which they were liable, by neglecting to oppose the progress of lo formidable a league. He forelaw all chai would happen fome years afterwards.
(To be concluded in our next./
BY PHILIP ST. LEGER. ESQ.
vated and elegant mind, is a view of the most foothing and delightful of all our enjoy ments. It presenet to our mental perception the most heartfelt feelings of happiness; we see the soul exerting all its innate excellence ; we see it displaying those powers which declare, that in the link of being, it is only one order below the angels. But may not an ardour for mental improvement be carried too far? or rather, may it not be, imperceptibly, directed to harm ?
Ariftippus, at a very early period of his life, was thrown into a deep retirement; here his attachment 10 tudy was formed and fixed. He perused his books with avidity; and with eagernefs prepared to engage in that mixed fociety into which he was fpeedily throwa. Fond of all excellence to enthusiasm, his heart antici. pated, and panted for a full fruition of all his hopes; and he entered with rapture that world he had lo long only known from reflection.
Year after year found him surrounded bs a large concourse of human beings, with whom he was called upon to associate, to participate, and to improve the valt stock of ideas which he had collected in retirement; but he felt it was impoflible—the amusement of his folie litary hours; his propensities to deep investigation, long