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If smoke required a chimney to draw it upwards, how happens it chat fmoke rises from a fire which is made in the open air, where there is no chimney?
If a tube, open at both ends, and of such a length that its upper end be below the surface of the cold water in the jar, be held vertically over the mouth of the bottle which contains the hot coloured water, the hot water will rise up through it, just as smoke rises in a chimney.
If the tube be previously heated before it is plunged into the cold water, the ascent of the hot coloured water will be facilitated and accelerated, in like manner as smoke is known to rise with greater facility in a chimney which is hot, than in one in which no fire has been made for a long time. But in neither of these cases can it, with any propriety, be said, that the hot water is drawn up the tube. The hotter the water in the bottle is, and the colder that in the jar, the greater will be the velocity with which the hot water will be forced up through the tube; and the same holds of the ascent of hot smoke in a chimney: When the fire is intense, and the weather very cold, the ascent of the smoke is very rapid; and under such circumstances chimnies seldom smoke.
As the cold water of the jar immediately surrounding the bottle which contains the hot water, will be heated by the bottle, while the other parts of the water in the jar will remain cold, this water fo heated, becoming specifically lighter than that which furrounds it, will be forced upwards ; and if it finds its way into the tube, will rise up through it with the coloured hot water. The warmed air of a room, heated by an open chimney fire-place, has always a tendency to rise, (if I may ute that inaccurate expreflìon,)
and finding its way into the chimney, frequently goes off with the fmoke.
LOVE OF OUR COUNTRY.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE MONTHLY VISITOR.
SIR, "HE ingenious author of the Reflector, No. IV.
endeavours to prove, that the love of our country being a common, and an exceedingly useful principle, cannot operate to the injury of society. The evils of fociety, therefore, such as tyranny and flavery, he attempts to shew originate from other fources." He afferts, that “ did not the influence of commerce, and a fame, the offspring of luxury, infiame the base, and erase the mild wishes of the heart, never would the conquerer command or oppress his infulted flaves."
The utility of the love of our country, and its conformity to the nature of man, if confined within just limits, and made subfervient to higher principles, are not disputed.
But that it will not, by gaining an undue ascendency in men's minds, operate to the prejudice of far nobler principles, and, consequently, to the injury of society, is disproved by the laws of human nature, and by fatal experience. From what other sources have tyranny and slavery their origin, but from some of those homely principles on which our author bestows such unqualified encomiums? His reply is, “ from the influence of commerce, and from a fame, the offspring of luxury.” We thall, therefore, investigate these two fources, in order to determine whether they have not their origin in paffions nearly regarding either ourselves, our kindred, or our country.
By the influence of commerce, our author, probably, means avarice. Now what is avarice but a certain mo. dificarion and excess of selfish paflions? Have univerfal benevolence and piety, a chief, or even any concern, in forming a covetous temper? On the contrary, Is not the want of these a characteristic of this passion Some more contracted affections, therefore, fome partial attachments, must be the sources whence avarice flows. Self, independant of any connections with others, may be regarded as the ground-work of avarice. But partiality, whether circumscribed by kindred or by country, differs from absolute selfishness only in degree, and by no means in kind. Wherever boundaries are prefcribed for the human passions, and men arbitrarily fix the marks where love fhall end, and animosity or indif. ference shall begin, some vices, fimilar to those which arise from mere selfishness, will be the result Hence nations may be avaricious as well as individuals. And whenever the individuals of a nation unite together in a plan of robbing another nation of its possessions, the love of their country exists in the loathsome form of avarice operating on a larger scale.
“ A fame, the offspring of luxury," is mentioned by our author as another source of oppression, and of the many attendant evils of society. It is difficult to conceive how the love of fame can, with propriety, be said to be the offspring of luxury. If this love be duly moderated, it is a natural and useful principle ; and has its foundation in that desire of being esteemed and carelsed, which manifests itself in very early life. But our author, probably, means that excess of it which is cal. led ambition, and which prompts those in power to ty. rannise over others. This principle derives its origin from a love of being conspicuous and chief among men, with which luxury has no immediate connection. It is an active principle which has been often accompanied with great austerity and perseverance in encountering hardships. But luxury can have little concern, surely, in promoting fuch a passion as this; fince diílipation and a love of ease, are its proper associates. It is rather what may be expected to succeed the gratification of
ambition, ambition, than to precede it as its cause. Experience evinces the truth of this assertion. The Romans, after the time of the ambitious, warlike Julius Cæsar, soon lost their martial enterprising fpirit, and reposing on the bed of luxury, became a prey to the barbarian tribes.
Since, however, our author has assigned luxury as the only cause of national ambition, we will enquire somewhat farther into its nature and origin. All the evils which immediately result from a superfluity of outward goods, and the unrestrained enjoyment of them, may be termed luxury. The gratification of the senses is the grand object of this paffion. With the mind absorbed in such pursuits, focial pleasures are objects but of inferior concern. Few, who are immerfed in luxury, would dispense with those superfluities which make fo essential a part of their enjoyments, in order to relieve a diftreffed fellow mortal. They would oftener be induced to oppress their poor dependants for the purpose of gratifying their favourite palfion. This passion, therefore, may be said to be wholly of a sensual and selfish nature; and as partiallity differs only in degree from selfishness, being likewise unfounded in truth, similar evils are reasonably to be expected froin it. Accordingly national love, applied to the enriching of that particular nation, or to the storing it with the objects of luxury, may be affected toward a neighbouring nation, under its power, as an haughty lord too frequently is toward his poor dependants.
But as it appears that luxury is not the fole, or the chief cause of ambition, it remains that we trace its truc origin. Its immediate general caufe is a love of applaufe and pre-eminence. This arises from the complaçency which we find in the approbation, esteem, and lubmisfion of others. The degree of reputation which we hold in society, depends upon the comparative ex -cellence which we possess to the rest of its members,
Therefore, he who is prompted by too eager a desire to excel, is liable to be induced to seek his object by endeavouring to disparage and degrade others. But this betrays the excess of self-love in pursuit of its own interest and glory, at the expence of those of others. And is not this what we term ambition, or an inordinate love of fame? It is, indeed, no other than a certain modification and excess of self-love, uncorrected by higher principles. In like manner a nation, when it is desirous of obtaining a pre-eminence over other nations, at the expence of their liberty and happiness ; when it aims at degrading them below their native dignity, for the purpose of exhibiting its own fuperiority, and of exercising its authority over them, it is actuated by the extreme of self-love. And every individual of that nation who is 10 prejudiced by a love of his country as to unite in this desire, is engaged in a selfish and mischievous confederacy. The love of home, therefore, if not regulated by still nobler principles, will operate to the injury of those who are regarded as strangers; and he who pursues the subject a little farther, will easily perceive that, in due time, a just punishment will also be reflected on the selfi lh fociety at home. Witness the Greeks and Romans, who deeming other nations barbarians, were, therefore, in a conti. nual state of hostility with them ; but are now, alas !
In page 391-It is argued, that as men and women, we are necessarily, and naturally, fuperftitious. It is, true, that the human imagination is too apr to superfede the exercise of the understanding; and to create objects of belief where there is no ground of conviction. What is fuperftition but vain and vague imaginations united with corresponding passions ? But, surely, mankind are not always to be thus bewildered. If the un. derstanding be duiy exerced, these illusions will be difpelled, and the light of truth will fhine forth with an uniform unclouded lustre. In order, however, that it