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Before CHRIST about 725.

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A reproof of Ephraim,

Judah, and Jacob. Beforest 11 They shall tremble as a bird | the Assyrians, and oil is carried into . Before about 740. out of Egypt, and as a dove out of Egypt.

the land of Assyria : and I will place 2 The Lord hath also a controversy
them in their houses, saith the LORD. with Judah, and will + punish Jacob + Heb. visit

12 Ephraim compasseth me about according to his ways; according to
with lies, and the house of Israel his doings will he recompense him.

with deceit: but Judah yet ruleth 39 He took his brother a by the a Gen. 25. 26. 1 or, with the with God, and is faithful || with the heel in the womb, and by his strength saints. he fb had power with God:

+ Heb. was a CHAP. XII.

4 Yea, he had power over the angel, behaved him1 A reproof of Ephraim, Judah, and Jacob. and prevailed: he wept, and made i Gen. 32. 21.

3 By former favours he exhorteth to repent supplication unto him: he found him

ance. 7 Ephraim's sins provoke God. in Beth-el, and there he spake with Gen. 35. 9, about 725. D PHRAIM feedeth on wind, us;

D and followeth after the east wind: 5 Even the Lord God of hosts;
he daily increaseth lies and desolation; the Lord is his d memorial.
and they do make a covenant with 6 Therefore turn thou to thy God:

prince, or,

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The same, whom it is said that “they shall walk after;" still orders his kingdom in God's appointed way, retainthat is to say, Jehovah, the Lord, the true and essential | ing kings of the lineage of David, and preserving a God. Dr. Pocock. The roaring is unquestionably the lawful priesthood; and by so doing is “ faithful with the sound of the Gospel ; and that sound was to begin to saints," that is, with his holy forefathers Abraham, be uttered by the voice of the incarnate God Himself. Isaac, and Jacob, and with his other progenitors and Bp. Horsley.

holy men ; or, as in the margin, is “faithful with the - then the children shall tremble from the west.) At Most Holy,” still adhering to the worship of God. Dr. this efficacious call of God, His children shall come in Pocock. haste from the several places of their dispersion, and particularly from the western parts of the world, see Chap. XII. ver. 1. Ephraim feedeth on wind, &c.] A Zech. viii. 7, called “the sea' in the original, and proverbial expression to signify labour in vain, or purexpressed in Isaiah by “the islands of the sea :" see suing such measures as will bring damage rather than Isai. xi. 11; xxiv. 14. W. Lowth. “The children" benefit. W. Lowth. mean primarily and more immediately the leraelites in

lies and desolation ;) Multiplying his falsehood, dispersion abroad out of their own country, Deut. xiv. he multiplies the causes of his own destruction. Bp. 1; and together with them such of the Gentiles, as with | Horsley. them should be called by " the roaring of the lion,” the

oil is carried into Egypt.) They project how to preaching of the Gospel, to the partaking of the com- make themselves strong by their leagues with the Asmon faith and salvation. Dr. Pocock. It is impossible syrians; and they send of their most precious presents to render in English the full force of the original word, to insinuate with the Egyptians. Bp. Hall. which we translate “tremble.” It expresses the rapid 3. He took his brother by the heel &c.] From the motion of birds in the air upon fluttering pinions. Bp. mention of Jacob in the foregoing verse, the Prophet Horsley.

takes occasion to put his posterity in mind of the parti11. They shall tremble as a bird out of Egypt, &c.] cular favours God had bestowed upon his posterity for The Israelites were dispersed, as into other remote parts his sake. His taking his brother by the heel in the denoted by “the west,” or “the sea,” so also into Egypt, womb, denoted, that he obtained the right of the firstwhither divers of them betook themselves, and into born, and deprived his brother of it. W. Lowth. Assyria, whither they were carried captives. By the The taking of his brother by the heel, is not mentioned naming of these places may be well understood all other in disparagement of the Patriarch. On the contrary, countries where any of them should be : from whence the whole of these two verses is a commemoration of God's it is here promised that they should make speed to come kindness for the ancestor of the Israelites, on which the in unto God in their due time. Dr. Pocock.

| Prophet founds an animated exhortation to them, to turn -- and I will place them in their houses,] As doves to that God, from whom they might expect so much naturally resort to the houses they are used to, see lsai. | favour. This favour of God for Jacob displayed itself lx. 8, so shall these return and settle in their own native when he was less than an infant : for before he was country : see Ezek. xxviii. 25. W. Lowth. Or, in-born he took his brother by the heel ; and in his adult stead of regarding these words as a promise of bringing vigour, he was endued with such strength, as to prevail the Jews back to their own land, it may be better to against an angel. Bp. Horsley. look upon them as promising spiritual good things 4. there he spake with us ;] That is, God spake under expressions taken from temporal: so that by with us in the loins of Jacob. The things spoken cer“placing them in their houses" may be meant the tainly concerned Jacob's posterity, as much as, or more bringing them into the Church, and there putting them than, himself. Bp. Horsley. in a sure and settled state ; a state of quiet and security 5. — the Lord is his memorial.] That is, God's melike that of a person fixed in his own house. Dr. morial : His appropriate, perpetual, incommunicable Pocock.

name, expressing His essence. Bp. Horsley. See Exod. 12. Ephraim compasseth me about with lies, &c.] In iii. 15. the mean time, Ephraim makes a profession of My name, $*6. Therefore turn thou to thy God : &c.] Thou therebut false and counterfeit: and the house of Israel serves fore, O Israel, encouraged by the memory of God's love Me, but in hypocrisy. Bp. Hall.

for thy progenitor, and by the example which thou - but Judah yet ruleth with God, &c.] But Judah | hadst in him, of the efficacy of weeping and supplica



f Gen. 28, 5.

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shall have

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Ephraim's sins

provoke God, keep mercy and judgment, and wait 12 And Jacob'fled into the country. about 725. on thy God continually.

of Syria, and Israel served for a wife, about 123. || Or, c'anaan. Cenaan. 7 He is || a merchant, the ba- and for a wife he kept sheep.

lances of deceit are in his hand: he 13 h And by a prophet the Lord & Gen. 29. 20, || Or, deceive. loveth to || oppress.

brought Israel out of Egypt, and by h Exod. 12. 8 And Ephraim said, Yet I am a prophet was he preserved.

become rich, I have found me out 14 Ephraim provoked him to anger 1 0r, all my substance: || in all my labours they + most bitterly: therefore shall he Heb. erila me not: he shall find none iniquity in me † that leave his † blood upon him, and his 4 Hleb, bloods. punishment were sin.

reproach shall his Lord return unto of iniquity in 9 And I that am the LORD thy him.

God from the land of Egypt will yet
make thee to dwell in tabernacles, as

in the days of the solemn feasts. 1 Ephraim's glory, by reason of idolatry,
10 I have also spoken by the pro-

vanisheth. 5 God's anger for their unkind

ness. 9 A promise of God's mercy, 15 A phets, and I have multiplied visions, + Heb. by the and used similitudes, † by the minis

judgment for rebellion. try of the prophets.

W H EN Ephraim spake trem- about 725. '11 Is there iniquity in Gilead ? VV bling, he exalted himself in

surely they are vanity: they sacrifice Israel ; but when he offended in e Chap. 4. 15. bullocks in Gilgal; yea, their altars Baal, he died.

are as heaps in the furrows of the 2 And now + they sin more and † Heb, they fields.

more, and have made them molten


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tion, turn to thy God in penitence and prayer, and in Jeremiah, binding himself ; Ezekiel, lying on one side; the works of righteousness; and ever, under all circum- not mourning for his wife ; Hosea's marriage ; and stances, and at all times, look out for His mercy many other instances. Bp. Horsley. and aid, and be not weary with expectation of His com 11. Is there iniquity in Gilead ? &c.] The tribes ing. Bp. Horsley.

settled about Gilead, beyond Jordan, were already 7. He is a merchant,] Or, as it is in the margin, ac- captivated by Tiglath-pileser. God by the Prophet cording to all the ancient versions, except the Chaldee, declares, that idolatry, still practised in Gilgal, was “ He is Canaan.” God says to the Prophet, Instead of equally abominable, and would bring down similar turning to Me, and keeping to works of mercy and jus- judgments upon the remaining tribes, on the west of tice, he is a mere heathen huckster. Thou hast mis- Jordan. Bp. Horsley. called him “ Jacob.” He is “ Canaan.” Not Jacob, the

as heaps in the furrows of the fields.] As fregodly, the heir of the promise. But Canaan, the cheat, quent every where as clods in the furrows of the fields. the son of the curse. There is an ambiguity in the Bp. Hall. Their altars stand so thick that they are as original, where the word is both a proper name, and an discernible as stones gathered up and laid in heaps in appellative signifying a merchant. Bp. Horsley, Dr. the fields. W. Lowth. Pocock.

12, 13. And Jacob fled into the country of Syria, &c.] 8. And Ephraim said, Yet I am become rich, &c.] So opposite to thine was the conduct of thy father These words declare the strange pride and insolence of Jacob, that he fled into Syria to avoid an alliance with Ephraim, refusing to forsake their evil ways, but pleas- any of the idolatrous families of Canaan ; and, in firm ing and applauding themselves in them, as having reliance on God's promises, submitted to the greatest been found by experience good and profitable. Dr. hardships. And, in reward of his faith, God did such Pocock.

great things for his posterity, bringing them out of the - iniquity - that were sin.] According to a Jew- land of Egypt, and leading them through the wilderness ish commentator, the Hebrew word for “ iniquity" like sheep, by the hand of His servant Moses. Bp. denotes something more grievous than that for “ sin;" Horsley. so that the sense may be, They shall find in me neither 14. Ephraim provoked him to anger &c.] Notwithgreat iniquity, nor so much as any light ordinary sin. standing all My favours, shewn to these people and

d for “that” may be rendered by and or or. | their ancestors, they have highly provoked Me by their Dr. Pocock.

idolatries and other sins. Therefore shall their wicked. 9. And I that am the Lord thy God from the land of ness be the cause of their destruction; and as they have Egypt &c.] I, who brought thee out from Egypt, and reproached and dishonoured God by word and deed, have still continued My favours towards thee, will in God shall, as a just recompense, make them a reproach aftertimes return thy captivity. W. Lowth.

and byword among the heathen. See chap. vii. 6; The words may be understood, not of a temporal de- Deut. xxviii, 37 : compare Dan, xi. 18. W. Lowth. liverance, commemorated by feasts and times of rejoicing, particularly that of tabernacles; but of deliverance from Chap. XIII. ver. 1. When Ephraim spake trembling, spiritual bondage by Christ, and of admission into the &c.] While Ephraim behaved himself humbly towards Church of Christ. Dr. Pocock. Concerning the feast God, as his father Jacob, with weeping and supplication, of tabernacles, see the notes on Lev, xxiii. 40; Nehem. chap. xii. 4, he was in great power, authority, and dig. viii. 17, 18.

nity in Israel : but when he offended, by proudly for10. — and used similitudes, by the ministry of the pro- saking God, and worshipping that shameful idol Baal, phets.] Commanding the Prophets to perform symboli- he lost his former pre-eminence, and grew contemptible: cal actions ; as, in the case of Isaiah, going naked ; his strength immediately declined, and gave manifest



about 726.

about 725.

beast of the

sacrificers of mer.


God's anger for their unkindness. CHAP. XIII.

A promise of God's mercy. c. Before images of their silver, and idols ac- | 8 I will meet them as a bear that Before... about 726. cording to their own understanding, is bereaved of her whelps, and will about 725.

all of it the work of the craftsmen : rend the caul of their heart, and there | Or, the, they say of them, Let || the men that will I devour them like a lion: † the Heb. the sacrifice kiss the calves. wild beast shall tear them.

field. 3 Therefore they shall be as the 99 Israel, thou hast destroyed morning cloud, and as the early dew thyself; but in me f is thine help. Hleb, in thy that passeth away, as the chaff that is 10 I will be thy king: where is driven with the whirlwind out of the any other that may save thee in all floor, and as the smoke out of the thy cities? and thy judges of whom chimney.

thou saidst, Give me a king and a Isai. 43. 11. 4 Yet a I am the LORD thy God princes ?

from the land of Egypt, and thou 11 I gave thee a bking in mine b 1 Sam. 8. 5.
shalt know no god but me: for there anger, and took him away in my 16.1.
is no saviour beside me.

5 I did know thee in the wilder- | 12 The iniquity of Ephraim is
ness, in the land of † great drought. | bound up; his sin is hid.

6 According to their pasture, so 13 The sorrows of a travailing
were they filled; they were filled, woman shall come upon him: he is
and their heart was exalted; there- an unwise son; for he should not
fore have they forgotten me. stay + long in the place of the break- + Heb. a time.

7 Therefore I will be unto them ing forth of children. as a lion : as a leopard by the way 14 I will ransom them from the + Heb. the will I observe them :

power of the grave; I will redeem“

ch. 12. 9.

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symptoms of ruin and destruction. Dr. Pocock, W. form a section which regards the whole race of Israel Louth. He was consigned to destruction from his in general. At the twelfth verse the prophecy turns enemies. Abp. Neucome.

again on Ephraim in particular. Bp. Horsley. 2.- kiss the calves.] That is, worship the calves. - I gave thee a king in mine anger, and took him away Among the ancient idolaters, to kiss the idol was an act in my wrath.] Or, “ will take him away." I complied of the most solemn adoration. Thus we read of “ all with your request in giving you a king, Saul, though I the knees which have not bowed unto Baal, and every was justly displeased at it: see i Sam, viii. 7; X. 19. mouth which hath not kissed him." Tully mentions a And of later times I have suffered you to set up new brasen statue at Agrigentum, in which the workman- | kings, after you had murdered their predecessors; see ship of the mouth was visibly worn by the frequent chap. viii, 4 : and now I will take away your present kisses of the worshippers. And in allusion to this rite, king Hoshea, and at the same time put an end to your the holy Psalmist, calling upon the apostate faction to kingdom and nation. W. Lowth. avert the wrath of the incarnate God, by full acknow- 12. The iniquity of Ephraim is bound up ; his sin is ledgment of His Divinity, bids them “kiss the Son," hid.] Usually such things as are bound up or tied that is, worship Him. Bp. Horsley.

together, and hid or laid up in some safe or secret place, 3. — as the chaff &c.] See notes at Ruth u. 2: Ps. are not neglected or forgotten, but laid aside in order i. 4; 1 Kings xxii. 10.

that they may be forthcoming and produced, when 4. Yet I am the Lord thy God &c.] In thy distress occasion shall require. God therefore, in these terms thou betookest thyself to other gods, expecting relief expressing His dealing with Ephraim as to their sins, from them ; but thou shalt find, that none will be able manifestly declares, that though Elis judgments do not to save thee but Myself, whenever thou wilt sincerely immediately seize them, yet their iniquity is not forturn to Me: compare chap. xii. 9; Isai. xliii. 11. This gotten by Him, but will in due time be brought to light and the following verse are an introduction to the gra and punished. The expressions may be illustrated by cious promises that follow, ver. 9–14; and chap. xiv; Deut. xxxii. 34, 35; Job xiv. 17. Dr. Pocock. and import, that God will never utterly forget the pro- 13,- he is an unwise son; for he should not stay long mises made to their fathers. See Rom. xi. 29. W. &c.] The old translation renders it more plainly ; Lowth.

“Else he would not stand still like a stillborn child.” 6.- therefore have they forgotten me.) “Therefore,” | As a child, if it could be supposed to have understandfor that very reason. My kindness itself was the occa- ing, would deliver itself out of the straits of the womb, sion of their ingratitude; for, in the pride of heart, and not tarry there to the manifest danger of itself and which the miraculous supply of their wants for so long the mother; compare 2 Kings xix. 3: so if Ephraim or a time produced in them, they forgot their Benefactor. Israel had acted wisely, they would have prevented their Bp. Horsley.

approaching destruction by a speedy reformation. W. 11. I gave thee a king in mine anger,] When the Is- Lowth. raelites desired to have a king, they forgot that they 14. I will ransom them from the power of the grave; had a king already; the Lord of all the earth conde- &c.] If we apply this to Ephraim or the Israelites, sposcending to be in a peculiar manner their immediate ken of before, it may signify, Though they be in never Sovereign. Their petition for a king was in contempt so hopeless and desperate a condition, God will in due of that sovereignty of God; and this was the circum- time deliver them out of it. See the like expressions, stance, by which they incurred God's displeasure in Ps. lvi. 13; lxxi. 20; lxxxvi. 13. W. Lowth. that petition. I would observe, that the seven verses But the words are rather to be understood as proof this chapter, from the fifth to the eleventh inclusively, ! mising new and extraordinary benefits, obtained and

CHRIST about 725.

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A judgment for rebellion.


An exhortation to repentance. Before, them from death : · death, I will be and their women with child shall be CHRIST

Before about 725. thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy ripped up.

destruction : repentance shall be hid c1 Cor. 15. from mine eyes.

CHAP. XIV. 15 | Though he be fruitful among 1 An exhortation to repentance. 4 A promise d Ezek. 19. his brethren, dan east wind shall come,

of God's blessing. the wind of the LORD shall come up | ISRAEL, return unto the about 725. from the wilderness, and his spring Lord thy God; for thou hast shall become dry, and his fountain fallen by thine iniquity.

shall be dried up: he shall spoil the 2 Take with you words, and turn + Heb. treasure of all + pleasant vessels. to the LORD: say unto him, Take vessels of

16 Samaria shall become desolate; away all iniquity, and || receive us 1 Or, give Fulfilled

for she hath rebelled against her graciously: so will we render the sun about 721. God: they shall fall by the sword: a calves of our lips.

a Hebr. 13. their infants shall be dashed in pieces, 3 Asshur shall not save us; we conferred by our Saviour Jesus Christ, and not limited sion, and the contrary, produce much obscurity in the either to Jews or Israelites, but together with them | latter part of this Prophet; which however disappears, reached forth to all sorts of men. Dr. Pocock. when breaks are made in the proper places. In the

- the grave;] Or “hell," as the Hebrew word thirteenth verse, the peril of Ephraim's situation, arising also signifies. “'l'he grave" is the common receptacle from his own hardened thoughtlessness, is described in of the bodies of the dead : and by “ransoming from the most striking images. In the fourteenth, God the Sathe power of the grave” is meant, a freeing of the bodies viour comforts him with the promise of the final deliverof those who are ransomed in due time from the graveance and salvation. In this verse is introduced a new by a joyful resurrection. Dr. Pocock, But it should be threatening, with which the chapter ends. Bp. Horsley. rendered “hell,” for the Hebrew word for the grave is - he shall spoil the treasure of all pleasant vessels. different, and the two names are never confounded by “He;" either Jehovah, or the conqueror represented the sacred writers. No two things indeed can be more under the image of the wind. “All pleasant vessels ;" distinct. By “hell" is meant in this passage, not the every article of ornamental furniture, of costly materials place where the damned are to suffer their torment, but and exquisite workmanship. Bp. Horsley. the invisible place, where the departed souls of the If sin be not followed by repentance, and a thorough deceased remain, till the appointed time shall come for renunciation of all former lusts, habits, and customs, it the reunion of soul and body. This is the “hell” of will be visited with a destruction, like that of Samaria, the Old Testament; though, by an abuse of the word, which is here foretold, and about four years after was the place of torment is the first notion it presents to the fulfilled. Our Saviour has made the application on English reader. But the English word “hell” properly another like occasion, and we ought all to lay it to imports no more than the invisible or hidden place, from | heart, that “except we repent, we shall all likewise the Saxon word “helan," to cover over : (see the note | perish." Wogan. from Parkhurst on Job xxvi. 5, 6.) In the New Testament, we find the word “hell” in our English Bibles Chap. XIV. Having denounced in the foregoing in twenty-one passages in all. In nine of these it sig- chapters heavy judgments against Israel for their idola. nifies a place of torment; namely, in these : Matt. v. try and other sins, the Prophet now shows that the 22, 29, 30; x. 28; xviii. 9; xxiii. 15, 33; Mark ix. 47; only way to prevent or escape the judgments of God is Luke xii. 5. In the other twelve, simply the region of by repentance, which he earnestly exhorts them to take. departed spirits. And in the same sense it is to be Dr. Pocock. taken in the Apostles' Creed, “ He descended into ! Ver. 1. O Israel,] The whole family of Israel, in both hell :" of this place we know little, except that to its branches, is addressed. Bp. Horsley. those, who die in the Lord, it is a place of comfort and 2. Take with you words,] That is, a set form of suprest; not a paradise of eternal sleep and senselessness, plication. That set forms were in use among the Jews but a place of happy rest and tranquil hope. In the in the earliest ages, upon all solemn occasions, is en prophetick imagery it is often mentioned as a dark cave dent from various passages of Holy Writ. Bp. Horsley, deep in the bowels of the earth. Sometimes it is per- | Dr. Pocock. sonified, as in this passage. Bp. Horsley.

- so will we render the calves of our lips.] The O death, I will be thy plagues ; &c.] The Apos- meaning is, We will, instead of offering sacrifices, rende tle's triumphant exclamation in the passage referred to | the confession of our lips. Dr. Pocock. “Lips" are in the margin is an indirect allusion to this text of here put for praises and thanksgivings uttered by the Hosea. Bp. Horsley.

lips. This kind of figure, which puts the cause or in- repentance shall be hid from mine eyes.] That is, strument for the effect, is very frequent with the sacred God will never repent of His determination of ransom- writers. Bp. Horsley. ing and redeeming them; He will certainly make it ! 3. Asshur shall not save us ; &c.] The first part of good. Dr. Pocock.

the people's repentance is described as consisting in i 15. Though he be fruitful among his brethren, &c.] reliance solely upon God's protection, and not putting But now, as the case stands with Ephraim, though he any trust in human strength: and then in renouncis be fruitful among his brethren, yet I will fetch the As- all idolatrous worship. The Israelites had formerly syrian upon him, &c. Bp. Hall. The word “Ephraim" made an alliance with the Assyrians; see chap. v. 13; denotes fruitfulness; see Gen. xli. 52. This tribe an- viii. 9; xii. 1: and they are often upbraided by the swered his name, being the most numerous and potent Prophets for their courting foreign alliances, and partof all the ten tribes. W. Lowth.

cularly strengthening themselves with horses from Egypt The frequent and sudden transitions from threaten- or Assyria. See Isai. xxx. 16; xxxvi, 8; 2 Chron. .152 ing to promise, from indignation to pathetick persua-'7. W. Lowth.

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A promise

of God's blessing. Beforer will not ride upon horses : nei- shall return; they shall revive as the Before about 725. ther will we say any more to the corn, and || grow as the vine: the about 725.

work of our hands, Ye are our || scent thereof shall be as the wine
gods: for in thee the fatherless of Lebanon.
findeth mercy.

1 8 Ephraim shall say, What have I"
4 | I will heal their backsliding, I to do any more with idols? I have
will love them freely: for mine anger heard him, and observed him: I am
is turned away from him.

like a green fir tree. From me is thy
5 I will be as the dew unto Israel: fruit found.
! or, blossom. he shall || grow as the lily, and † cast 9 Who is wise, and he shall under-
forth his roots as Lebanon.

stand these things ? prudent, and he 6 His branches + shall spread, and shall know them? for the ways of his beauty shall be as the olive tree, the LORD are right, and the just shall and his smell as Lebanon.

walk in them: but the transgressors 7 They that dwell under his shadow shall fall therein.

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- for in thee the fatherless findeth mercy.7 God is 6. — his smell as Lebanon.] The mountain is cele. often said to take especial care of “ the fatherless." He brated by travellers for the fragrance of the greens, that gives particular command “not to afflict any fatherless clothe its sides. Maundrell found the great rupture, child,” Exod. xxii. 22; He doth “execute the judg- “which runs at least seven hours travel directly up to ment of the fatherless," Deut. x. 18; He is therefore the sea, and is on both sides exceeding steep and high, styled “the helper of the fatherless,” Ps. x. 14; and clothed with fragrant greens from the top to the bottom.” “a Father" to them, Ps. lxviii. 5; and it is delivered as Bp. Horsley. an expression of exceeding great anger towards the 7. They that dwell under his shadow shall return; people, that “He will not have mercy on the father-Most interpreters translate the sentence thus: They less," Isai. ix. 17. The Israelites therefore, being now shall return, and dwell under His shadow : that is, they in such a condition, as may be well signified by the shall return into their own country, and rest safely appellation of “fatherless,” are taught to take with under the shadow or protection of the Almighty. Comthem in their address to God that name, of great efficacy pare Ps. xci. 1; and see the note on chap. i. 11. W. in moving Him to mercy, and even, as it were, chal- Lowth. Or the words are more properly a description lenging it as a privilege. Dr. Pocock.

of the happy and prosperous condition, which shall be 4. I will heal their backsliding, &c.] God's gracious enjoyed by those who dwell under the shadow of the answer to the professions of repentance; assuring them Church, the Israel of God. Dr. Pocock. of His being reconciled to them, and, as a token of it, —- as the wine of Lebanon.] The Phenician wines in freeing them from their sins and the consequent punish- general were esteemed by the ancients, especially those ment due to them; compare chap. xi. 7: and embrac-of Tripolis, Tyre, and Berytus, places at the foot of ing them with a true love and affection, without any | Lebanon, or very near it: and the wines of that country remembrance of their former provocations. W. Lowth. still preserve their character. Niebuhr says, “ The wine

If all the Israelites had turned to the Lord their God of mount Lebanon, long since celebrated by the Prophet at the preaching of the Gospel, and believed in His Hosea, is still excellent." Bp. Horsley. Christ, they would have found this promise made good 8. Ephraim shall say, What have I to do &c.] This to them all. As many of them, as were converted to verse contains the prophecy of a dialogue between God Him, enjoyed the benefit of it, where or however they and Ephraim, or Israel His people, after their converwere dispersed ; and doubtless shall still do so, as many sion. They begin with declaring their utter aversion to as shall at any time come in to Him, wheresoever they idolatry ; see ver. 3. To which God graciously replies, remain. Dr. Pocock.

that He has “heard " them confessing their sins, and 5. I will be as the dew unto Israel : &c.] I will be expressing their abhorrence of them, (compare Jer. comfortable and refreshing unto Israel, even as the dew xxxi. 18,) and that He will “observe" them, that is, will is to the summer grass : so that he shall grow up in guide them with the eye of His providence and mercy beauty as the lily, and in strength and height as the W. Lowth. cedar in Lebanon. Bp. Hall. Most interpreters under- - I am like a green fir tree. I shall be to thee as stand Lebanon to be here figuratively taken for the a tall and shady fir tree; and, whatsoever fruit thou forests growing on it. Dr. Pocock.

yieldest, it shall be of My giving. Bp. Hall. - as the lily,] After the first rains in the autumn, 9. for the ways of the Lord are right,] That is, His the fields about Aleppo every where throw out the au-commandments. The just shall walk safely by obeying tumnal lily daffodil ; and the few plants, which had them : the transgressors shall fall, by virtue of the same stood the summer, now grow with fresh vigour. Dr. commandments, in consequence of their transgressions. Russell.


The following are the Chapters from Hosea appointed for Proper Lessons : Chap. XIII. ................ Wednesday before Easter......... ........ Morning - XIV. ............... ditto,



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