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silter shall be
The distress and
captivity of Israel Before 2 The floor and the || winepress + destruction : Egypt shall gather Before about 760. shall not feed them, and the new wine them up, Memphis shall bury them: about 760. shall fail in her.
1 11 + the pleasant places for their silver, winefat. 3 They shall not dwell in the nettles shall possess them: thorns i Or, their
Lord's land; but Ephraim shall re- shall be in their tabernacles.
the days of recompence are come; the desire.
hatred || in the house of his God. Or, against. 5 What will ye do in the solemn 9 They have deeply corrupted day, and in the day of the feast of the themselves, as in the days of "Gibeah: 5 Judg. 19. Lord ?
therefore he will remember their ini6 For, lo, they are gone because of quity, he will visit their sins.
of the spirit.
Meaning that they considered the good things, which 5. What will ye do in the solemn day, &c.] Ye shall they received, as a “ reward” for the service which they have no opportunity of observing any of your solemn paid to their false gods. Dr. Pocock.
feasts in your captivity: see chap. ii. 11. W. Louth, 2. The floor and the winepress shall not feed them, &c.] 6. For, lo, they are gone &c.) They shall flee into The Prophet here tells them, they might think they had Egypt, hoping there to find refuge and safety from deobtained their “reward.” For their crops were indeed struction : but they shall die there; “Egypt shall gather abundant; nevertheless they would not be the better them up,” for burial, as the words appear to be exfor the plenty of their land. Bp. Horsley.
plained in the following, “Memphis shall bury them." 3. — the Lord's land ;] The land, which the Lord Memphis, or Moph in the Hebrew, was a chief city or sware to their fathers to give them, Deut. xxx. 20; and metropolis of Egypt, called Noph in Isaiah, chap. xix. which He did accordingly give them, still reserving the 13; Jer. ii. 16; Ezek. xxx. 13, &c. Some suppose it ownership of it to Himself. See Lev. xxv. 23. Dr. to be the place now called Cairo. For the sense here Pocock.
given to “gather," see Jer. viii. 2; Ezek. xxix. 5. Dr. - Ephraim shall return to Egypt, &c.] This return- | Pocock. The Arabs call Cairo Menoph at this day. ing of theirs into Egypt seems to be the flight of several Abp. Newcome. of them thither, to avoid the destruction brought by the - the pleasant places for their silver, ] The closets Assyrians upon their nation, when the rest were either or cabinets, where they were wont to hide their treasures slain, or carried captives from “the Lord's land” into and jewels. Bp. Hall. The general sense of this passage Assyria and other countries, where they were “wan- is very clear. It describes the extreme devastation of derers among the nations,” ver. 17. Dr. Pocock. the country by the Assyrian conquest, under the image
- and they shall eat unclean things in Assyria.] of weeds growing up in the dwellings, deserted by their Their circumstances in captivity shall not permit them owners, and stripped of their costly and elegant furnito observe the rules of the law relating to unclean ture of silver. Bp. Horsley. meats, and they will be forced to eat of such meats as 7.- the prophet is a fool, the spiritual man is mad] have been offered to idols. Compare Dan. i. 8; Ezek. | The days are at hand which shall make the Israelites iv. 13. W. Lowth.
sensible, that not a word of God shall want its effect, 4. They shall not offer wine offerings &c.] A more par- and that His Prophets were true Prophets, but their ticular explanation of that threatening denounced, chap. false prophets, to whom the Israelites hearkened, were iii. 4, that they should be “ without a sacrifice :" they indeed fools” and “madmen.” And this should come should have no opportunity in their captivity to offer to pass “ for the multitude of their iniquity," whereby meat offerings or drink offerings to God, as they did they shewed themselves to “bate” God, and made upon the high places, or in their idolatrous temples; themselves hateful to Him. Dr. Pocock. see Amos iv. 4,5: and sometimes, perhaps, in the tem- 8. The watchman of Ephraim was with my God : &c.] ple at Jerusalem; see ver. 15. They themselves shall The Prophet, whom God sent to them, such as Hosea be in the condition of mourners for the dead, and by himself, or any other formerly sent, and by them rethat means be unqualified to offer any thing to God ;jected, was “ with God;" a true Prophet of His, and nor will their offerings be acceptable : see Deut. xxvi. faithful in the discharge of His commission. Dr. Pocock. 14. W. Lowth.
The true Prophet, like a watchman sent by God, gave the bread of mourners ;] See the note on Jer. warning to Israel of their approaching calamities : see xvi. 7.
Jer. vi. 17; Ezek. iii. 17; xxxiii. 2; Micah vii. 4. But for their bread for their soul shall not come into the words of the false prophet are like “a snare" laid the house of the Lord.] Either they shall not offer in the on purpose to entrap men into mischief and destruchouse of the Lord oblations for making atonement or tion. See chap. v. 1. And his false prophecies he utters expiation for their souls : or by “bread for their soul” purely out of “ hatred” to God and His worship, and may be understood such as is necessary for preserving to deter those that hearkened to him from attending and keeping them alive; and then the meaning is, their upon God's service at the temple. W. Lowth. bread shall be for their eating, but shall not come into 9. - as in the days of Gibeah :] The men of Gibeah the house of the Lord. Dr. Pocock.
are described in the same characters as those of Sodom
for their sins and idolatry.
CHAP. IX, X. Israel reproved for impiety. Beforer 10 I found Israel like grapes in the Gilgal: for there I hated them: for Before about 760. wilderness; I saw your fathers as the the wickedness of their doings I will about 760.
firstripe in the fig tree at her first drive them out of mine house, I will c Numb. 25. time: but they went to · Baal-peor, love them no more : all their princes
and separated themselves unto that are revolters.
is dried up, they shall bear no fruit:
| 17 My God will cast them away,
impiety and idolatry.
1 bringeth forth fruit unto himself: emplying the 14 Give them, O Lord: what wilt according to the multitude of his fruit + Heb that thou give? give them a f miscarrying he hath increased the altars ; accordwomb and dry breasts.
ing to the goodness of his land they statues, or, 12. 15 All their wickedness dis in have made goodly + images.
+ Heb. that casteth the fruit. d Chap. 12.
+ Heb. statues, or, standing images.
are; compare Judges xix. 22, with Gen. xix. 4: to which heretofore I shewed them such tokens of My love and they added the villainy of forcing the Levite's concu- gracious presence, even there I have since hated them, bine, Judges xix. 25. W. Louth.
or now hate them. Dr. Pocock. 10. I found Israel like grapes in the wilderness ; &c.] Gilgal was the place where the armies of Israel, upon Israel was no less pleasing to Me at the first, than ripe their entering Canaan, first encamped; where Joshua grapes would be to a thirsty traveller in a dry wilder-set up the twelve stones, taken by God's command out ness: I esteemed your forefathers, those fruitful Pa- of the midst of Jordan, in memorial of the miraculous triarchs, as the most choice and firstripe figs; but their passage through the river. There the first passover sinful progeny fell off and degenerated to idolatry, ap- was kept, and the fruits of the promised land first enplying themselves to that shameful idol; and chose to joyed. There the captain of the host of Jehovah apthemselves several abominable deities, according as they peared to Joshua. There the rite of circumcision, which were affected to the parties that worshipped them. Bp. | had been omitted during the forty years of the wanderHall.
ing of the people in the wilderness, was renewed. And, “The wilderness" is rightly connected with "grapes,” in the days of the prophet Samuel, Gilgal appears to and is not to be connected with “ Israel.” Bp. Horsley. have been an approved place of worship and burnt
- as the firstripe] The early figs are very desirable, offering. But in latter times, it appears from Hosea and and much esteemed in those countries. See Jer. xxiv. his contemporary Amos, that it became a place of great 2; Isai. xxviii. 4. Dr. Pocock.
resort for idolatrous purposes. And these are the - unto that shame ;) See the note on Jer. iii. 24. wickednesses in Gilgal, of which the Prophet here
11. As for Ephraim, their glory shall fly away &c.] speaks. Bp. Horsley. Barrenness is threatened with peculiar propriety, as the 16. — yet will I slay &c.] The scope of these words judgment for the worship of the idol here mentioned. is to set forth the diminution of Israel, as to their glory, Bp. Horsley.
number, strength, and power, by a firm decree from 13. Ephraim, as I saw Tyrus, is planted in a pleasant God. This is according to the curse, anciently deplace :] The situation of Ephraim, and particularly of nounced against them in the law, that, if they should the royal city of Samaria, situate in that tribe, is as become disobedient, and walk contrary to Him, then pleasant as that of Tyre : see Ezek. xxvii. 3. W. Lowth. He would make them “be left few in number," Lev.
14. Give them, O Lord: what wilt thou give ? give xxvi. 22; Deut. iv. 27 ; xxviii. 62. Dr. Pocock. them &c.] Give them, O Lord: what shall I intreat 17. My God] As if He were only the God of the Thee to give them? even that, which they would think Prophet, who clave to Him, not of the people, who had to be a judgment, miscarrying wombs, and dry breasts; by their disobedience departed from Him. "Dr. Pocock. that they may never bring forth or nourish up children - and they shall be wanderers among the nations. ] to idolatry or slaughter. Bp. Hall.
And so they became, and so they continue to this day, 15. All their wickedness is in Gilgal :7 These words “wandering among the nations,” so as scarce to be may seem a reply from God to the Prophet's petition; found out, having no settled place of their own, no shewing that His decreed judgments should not in any where that they can be called a people, or are as such degree be taken off from them, by reason of their un acknowledged. Dr. Pocock. See the notes on Deut. worthiness and great provocations. Dr. Pocock.
xxviii. 64, 65, 67. for there I hated them :] Rather, “therefore there I hated them;" He hated them there, because they ! Chap. X. ver. 1. Israel is an empty vine, &c.] Israel sinned there: or “surely there I hated them.” The is a vine indeed, but a fruitless one ; or, if he bear word “there" is emphatical. In that very place, where fruit, it is to himself, for the advancing of his own pro
a Chap. 5. 13,
11 Or, lle hath dirided their heari. + Heb. behead.
face of the water.
Israel is reproved
and threatened for Beforer 2 || Their heart is divided; now syria for a present to a king Jareb: Before about 740. shall they be found faulty: he shall Ephraim shall receive shame, and about 740.
C + break down their altars, he shall Israel shall be ashamed of his own hinth dirided spoil their images.
counsel. 3 For now they shall say, We 7 As for Samaria, her king is cut have no king, because we feared not off as the foam upon t the water. + Heb. the the LORD; what then should a king 8 The high places also of Aven, do to us?
the sin of Israel, shall be destroyed :
5 The inhabitants of Samaria shall 9 O Israel, thou hast sinned from
6 It shall be also carried unto As- chastise them; and the people shall
fit and pleasure; as his wealth and abundance in- Beth-aven, as having become the temple of an idol) was creaseth, so doth his idolatry ; look how much he is in its size, and the riches of the temple, the principal pampered with his store, so much more doth he spend image. The word therefore may be rendered "the great upon his goodly images. Bp. Hall.
calf.” Bp. Horsley. The fruit here spoken of is not the fruit of good 6. It shall be also carried unto Assyria &c.] It was works, but the fruit of national prosperity; increasing the custom of the Eastern people, as also of the Ropopulation, abundant crops, numerous flocks and herds, mans, to carry away the gods of conquered countries. publick opulence, military strength. Bp. Horsley. Abp. Newcome.
2. Their heart is divided ;] Between God and their 7. As for Samaria, her king is cut off &c.] The king idols: pretending to worship God, but not cleaving in spoken of is with reason generally understood to have sincerity to Him, nor giving Him their whole heart : been Hoshea, the son of Elah, under whom and with “halting between" Him and Baal, 1 Kings xviii. 21. whom Samaria was destroyed; see 2 Kings xvii. Dr. Dr. Pocock.
Pocock. 3. For now they shall say, We have no king, &c.] It 8. The high places also of Aven,] That is, of Bethshall shortly come to pass, that the enemy prevailing aven, ver. 5, and chap. iv. 15; or Beth-el; which being against them and their king, as despairing men, rather by reason of the great wickedness there committed, so than true penitents, they shall be constrained to say, unworthy of its first name, “the house of God," is in “ We have no king," or are as if we had none, none contempt first called “the house of iniquity,” and now that can save us, he being taken and not able to defend '“iniquity” itself in the abstract: this being the signifi. himself; see ver. 7, and 2 Kings xvii. 4: and deservedly cation of “ Aven." Dr. Pocock. is this happened unto us, " because we feared not the - and they shall say to the mountains, Cover #s; Lord;" we have forsaken Him, and made Him our &c.] The inhabitants shall be so terrified with the sword enemy, and “what” good “then shall a king do to of the enemy that they shall wish themselves under us ?" Dr. Pocock.
ground, and speak to the hills and mountains to fall 4. They have spoken words,] Evil words ; (Dr. Pocock:) upon them, and shelter them from that fury. Bp. Hall. empty words. Abp. Newcome. What follows may be This sublime description of fear and distress our Lord understood as taxing them generally with “swearing had in view, Luke xxiji. 30; which may be a reference falsely;" such as swearing by false gods; or binding and not a quotation. Abp. Newcome. themselves to something needless, impossible, or un- 9. O Israel, thou hast sinned from the days of Gibeah:7 lawful; or breaking the promises which they had ratified See chap. ix. 9. Some render it “more than in the days by oaths. Dr. Pocock.
of Gibeah.” W. Lowth. The sin of Israel now ex-- thus judgment springeth up &c.] In consequence ceeds the sins of those sinful times, when “every man of their carelessness about their covenants, as a punish- did what was right in his own eyes," and it seemed ment of their fraudulent dealings, the “judgment” of right in the eyes of the whole tribe of Benjamin to proGod falls upon them as severe and bitter as "hemlock.” tect the outrage of the Sodomites of Gibeah. See Judges Dr. Pocock.
xix. Bp. Horsley. 5. The inhabitants of Samaria shall fear &c.] Samaria - there they stood :7 “There," that is, upon that here signifies the kingdom of Israel, of which Samaria occasion; namely the quarrel with the tribe of Benjawas the capital city. See chap. viii, 5, 6. The inhabit- i min, on account of the outrage of the men of Gibeah. ants of that kingdom shall be seized with fear and con- “ They stood,” that is, the Israelites set themselves in fusion, when the calf of Beth-el (see Jer. iv. 15.) shall array for the attack. Bp. Horsley. be carried away as a present to Shalmaneser, ver. 6 : - the battle in Gibeah against the children of iniwhen he made the king and kingdom tributary, 2 Kings quity did not overtake them.] Notwithstanding some xvii. 3. W. Lowth.
losses, small in comparison with that of the tribe of - because of the calves of Beth-aven :) There is Benjamin, which was all but cut off, God gave the Is. little doubt but the same is here meant as "the calf of raelites success in that righteous war. Bp. Horsley Samaria," chap. viii. 5, 6. Dr. Pocock. The plural num- 10. It is in my desire that I should chastise them: 1 ber is used, because the calf of Beth-el (here called | Though God had hitherto spared them, and they thereon
sions, or, in their tiro
pieces uponhall Beth-el dickedness : your
+ Heb. the
their impiety and idolatry.
CHAP. X, XI.
Israel's ingratitude. Before be gathered against them, || when 14 Therefore shall a tumult arise Before CHRIST about 740. they shall bind themselves in their among thy people, and all thy for- about 740. two furrows.
tresses shall be spoiled, as Shalman | Or, tchen I shall bind 11 And Ephraim is as an heifer spoiled d Beth-arbel in the day of d 2 Kings 18. them for their
34. & 19. 13. two transgres- that is taught, and loveth to tread battle: the mother was dashed in
" out the corn ; but I passed over upon pieces upon her children. habitations. + her fair neck: I will make Ephraim 15 So shall Beth-el do unto you beauty of her to ride; Judah shall plow, and Jacob because of your great wickedness: + Ileb, the
eril of your shall break his clods.
in a morning shall the king of Israel eril.
1 The ingratitude of Israel unto God for his
benefits. 5 His judgment. 8 God's mercy
toward them. have reaped iniquity; ye have eaten the fruit of lies: because thou didst W H EN Israel was a child, then about 740. trust in thy way, in the multitude of VV I loved him, and a called my a Matth. 2.
15. thy mighty men.
son out of Egypt. grew insolent and secure, yet He now declares His de- and to seek to recover His favour; so far, as that He terminate purpose of punishing them, and shews by may rain upon you the showers of His grace and mercy, what means and where or why He would do so. Dr. whereby ye may appear righteous in His sight. Bp. Hall. Pocock.
13. Ye have plowed wickedness, ye have reaped ini. when they shall bind themselves in their two fur- quity ;] In the former verse he shewed what God comrows.] The Greek translation gives a plainer and easier manded them to do : here, in the like figurative expressense, according to the reading in the margin, “ When sions, he shews what they had done. Dr. Pocock. But I shall bind them,” as it were, hand and foot, to deliver alas, contrary to My commandments, ye have ploughed them into the hands of the Assyrians, who “shall be up deep furrows of wickedness, and have reaped a large gathered against them,” “for their two transgressions ;" crop of iniquity. Bp. Hall. As your thoughts and denamely, the calves of Dan and Beth-el. Dr. Wells, signs have been evil, such has been the fruit and reward W. Lowth.
of your labours: compare chap. viii. 7. And “ye hare 11. And Ephraim is as an heifer that is taught, &c.] eaten the fruit of lies :" ye have received the just reThe sense would run easier if we read it, Ephraim is ward of your idolatries. See the note on chap. vii. 3. as an heifer that is teachable. So I passed over her fair W. Lowth. neck: I caused Ephraim to ride; Judah did plow, and 14.- as Shalman spoiled Beth-arbell The allusion Jacob did break the clods. God here sets forth the is to a military exploit, not elsewhere recorded or mengentle and easy methods He used to bring both Israel tioned in Scripture, but doubtless well known in Hosea's and Judah to a sense of their duty; treating them with time : in which some powerful conqueror prosecuted gentleness, as a husbandman does young bullocks or his victory with extreme cruelty, and spared neither sex horses, stroking them, and encouraging them, till they nor age. The Israelites are threatened with a like are accustomed to the yoke: then He gave them His laws, calamity. Dr. Pocock, Bp. Horsley. and prescribed them rules for the several duties and 15. So shall Beth-el do unto you] God sent the evils : offices of life, and expected they should bring forth fruit the Assyrian, His instrument, inflicted them: but Bethanswerable to the several helps and advantages which el is said to do to the people what they suffered, beHe had given them. W. Lowth.
cause their idolatry and great wickedness there moved I will make Ephraim to ride ;| Rather, I rode God to bring the destroyer against them. Dr. Pocock. upon Ephraim, after the manner of husbandmen, who - in a morning shall the king of Israel utterly be are used to ride upon their bullocks. Grotius.
cut off ] Suddenly shall Foshea be deprived of his king12. Sow to yourselves in righteousness,] He proceeds 'dom, and an end put to the whole state and government in the same figure of language, expressing in terms of Israel. See Ps. xlvi. 5; xc. 14 ; cxliii. 8; Jer. vii. belonging to common husbandry such duties as were 13; xxxv. 15. W. Lowth. required of them in their spiritual husbandry, or service of God. The people, who were before compared to an ! Chap. XI. ver. 1. When Israel was a child, then I heifer, are here spoken to, as the husbandman, the loved him,] When the people was in the state of childsower, and reaper.' We may understand, as introduc- hood; that is, in the patriarchal times, and during their tory to this verse, some such words as, And I said, Sow continuance under the Egyptian bondage. W. Lowth. &c. Dr. Pocock.
and called my son out of Egypt.] Israel is called - reap in mercy ;] This is a promise, that if they God's “son,” and His “firstborn," Exod. iv. 22, 23; did “sow in righteousness,” they should “reap in and therein was an eminent figure of the Messias, in mercy :" that is, they should experience that measure whom all God's promises are fulfilled. This prophecy of mercy, whereby God above their desert rewards those is applied by St. Matthew, chap. ii. 15, to our Lord's who sincerely endeavour to do His commandments. Dr. return out of Egypt, after His flight thither in His inPocock. The whole verse may be thus paraphrased: Give fancy: and the literal sense of the words does more yourselves to all holy and conscientious endeavours : properly belong to Him, than to Israel ; which is obsow to yourselves in holiness and righteousness, and reap seryable in many other prophecies which can but immercy and lovingkindness from the Lord; break up properly be applied to those, of whom they were spoken; the fallow grounds of your hearts by a true and serious and, taking them in their true sense, are only fulfilled repentance; for it is time for you to turn to the Lord I in Christ. See particularly Ps. xxii. 16, 18. W. Lowth.
+ Heb. together they eralted noi.
Amos 4. 11.
God's mercy toward them. Before 2 As they called them, so they! 7 And my people are bent to back- Before about 740. went from them: they sacrificed unto sliding from me: though they called about 740.
Baalim, and burned incense to graven them to the most High, t none at all,
would exalt him.
4 I drew them with cords of a man, how shall I set thee as Zeboim? mine
of mine anger, I will not return to
er, and devour them, because of their own shall roar, then the children shall
| tremble from the west.
about 728. they became
2. As they called them, &c.] The more earnestly the 6. — his branches,] That is, his people. Dr. Wells. Prophets called on them to cleave steadfastly to the 8. How shall I give thee up, Ephraim ? &c.] God's true God, ver. 7, the more they were bent to depart mercies are here pathetically described as contending from Him to the worship of idols. W. Lowth. | with His justice, to shew that He does not willingly
3. I taught Ephraim also to go,] See Deut. i. 31; afflict or grieve the children of men, Lam. ïïi. 33. W. viii. 2. W. Lowth.
Lowth. - but they knew not that I healed them.] They! When nothing will do, with what difficulty and reconsidered not that the health and safety they enjoyed luctance does God deliver up His people into the hands was bestowed by Me. W. Lowth.
of their enemies ? “How shall I give thee up, Ephraim?" 4. I drew them with cords of a man,] That is, such &c. What a conflict is here! What tenderness and cords as are proper to draw men with as they are yearning of His bowels towards them! He cannot find men, endued with reason to discern between good and in His heart to give them up, till He is forced to it by evil, and with freedom of will to choose the one before the last necessity. Abp. Tillotson. the other; and with such a temper and agreement of mine heart is turned within me, &c.] These words both, that what we apprehend to be good, that we would seem to import a change of mind and purpose freely choose, and refuse what we think to be evil. Ac- in any but God, whose counsels man's words cannot cordingly God sets before us good and evil, and both duly express, nor his understanding fully comprehend. in such a light that we may clearly discern the dif- | Dr. Pocock. ference between them, and choose the good before the 9. I will not execute the fierceness of mine anger,] I do evil. Thus He draws us with cords, suitable to man's not give way to a blind rage, as men often do: but as constitution : in explanation He adds, “ with bands of God, am unchangeable, and will still fulfil My gracious love," or with expressions of His love and kindness promises made to Abraham and his people, of being towards us. In this way one man commonly draws their God. Compare Mal. ïïi. 6. W. Lowth. anotier : how much more can Almighty God do it,
I will not return to destroy] When I come a who hath the hearts of all men in His hand, and the second time, it will not be to destroy. An indirect greatest favours to bestow which man can possibly promise of coming again, not for judgment, but for desire? This is the meaning of the Apostle, “that the mercy. Bp. Horsley. goodness of God leadeth us to repentance,” Rom. ii. -- and I will not enter into the city.) A second time, 4. It doth not force or drag us, but it leads us to in order to make an utter destruction. W. Lowth, Dr. repentance, and so to Christ. Bp. Beveridge. Not | Wells. violently forcing them into His service, but striving 10. They shall walk after the Lord:7 They shall folto win them over with gentle invitations, and great low God's call, and comply with His commands, when favours and benefits, such as usually most powerfully He shall convert them by an efficacious call of His prowork on reasonable men, and bind them to their bene- | vidence, or powerful preaching of the Gospel. 'W. factor. Dr. Pocock.
Lowth. These words may be understood as a prophecy _ take off the yoke) Or,“ lift up," as in the margin. of the conversion of the remainder of Israel to Christ, The expression of " lifting up” the yoke refers, as is well and the settling of them in a spiritual kingdom: which observed by Abp. Newcome, and before him by Bishop prophecy has been already in great measure made good, Lowth on Isaiah, chap. i. 3, to the custom of raising by the calling in of many of them at Christ's first the yoke forward, to cool the neck of the labouring coming, and the preaching of the Gospel; and is still beast. Bp. Horsley.
fulfilling, and to be fulfilled, till His second coming, 5. He shall not return into the land of Egypt,] They by the conversion of as many of them as the Lord shall were desirous of making their escape thither, and many call in the interval between His two comings. Near his families perhaps effected it : see chap. ix. 6. But here second coming it is a received opinion, that there shall it is threatened, that the nation in a body should not be a signal conversion of them. Dr. Pocock. be permitted so to escape, because they refused to re 1 - he shall roar like a lion:] “He," that is, turn to God. Bp. Horsley.
Christ, “the Lion of the tribe of Juda," Rev. v. 5.