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God's judgment upon Syria,
the Philistines, Tyrus, Before from Jerusalem; and the habitations / 7 But I will send a fire on the wall Before
787., of the shepherds shall mourn, and the of Gaza, which shall devour the pa- 787. s top of Carmel shall wither. | laces thereof :
3 Thus saith the Lord; For three 1 8 And I will cut off the inhabitant 1. Or, yea, for transgressions of Damascus, || and for from Ashdod, and him that holdeth l'Or, convert four, I will not || turn away the pun- | the sceptre from Ashkelon, and I will
et: and se ishment thereof; because they have turn mine hand against Ekron: and ver. 6. &c. threshed Gilead with threshing in- the remnant of the Philistines shall struments of iron :
perish, saith the Lord God.
for four, I will not turn away the
palaces thereof. 6 | Thus saith the Lord; For 11 q Thus saith the LORD; For C2 Chron. 28. three transgressions of Gaza, and three transgressions of Edom, and for
for four, I will not turn away the pun- four, I will not turn away the punish!! Or, carried ishment thereof; because they || carried ment thereof; because he did pursue with an entire away captive the whole captivity, to his brother with the sword, and † did + Heb. captivity. deliver them up to Edom :
cast off all pity, and his anger did compassions.
corengnt of brethren,
ing is, that God will soon spread terrour, like beasts of mentioned: and there is a place at this time called prey when they roar ; chap. iii. 8: in other words, that "Eden" near it. W. Lowth. He will soon display His power in executing judgment. - Kir,] Probably a city of Elymais, Isai. xxii. 6. The particular judgment here threatened is a drought. The completion of this prophecy is recorded 2 Kings See chap. iv. 6; vi. 12. Abp. Newcome.
xvi. 9. Abp. Newcome. 3. — For three transgressions of Damascus, and for 6. — Gaza,] This city was situated on the coast of four,] The Prophet begins with denouncing judgments Palestine, and is one of those threatened by Joel, chap. against foreign countries, and then comes to Judah and iii. 6. W. Louth. Hezekiah smote it, 2 Kings xviii. 8: Israel. The first he threatens is “ Syria,” the head or Pharaoh king of Egypt smote it, Jer. xlvii. 1: Alexancapital city of which was “ Damascus," (see Isaiah vii. der the Great took it, as related by Quintus Curtius. 8,) for the several transgressions, which they had com- Abp. Newcome. mitted, expressed by “three transgressions and four.” - they carried away captive the whole captivity, &c.] See Job v. 19. W. Lowth.
The Philistines, as well as the people of Damascus, - they have threshed Gilead &c.] This alludes to used great cruelties against the Israelites, but in a difthe threshing-wain described Isai. xli. 15. It moved ferent way. The Damascenes slew those whom they on wheels which had teeth, and at once forced out the took; the Philistines sold them, without any hope of grain, and cut the straw. Abp. Newcome. The cruel- future deliverance, to the Edomites, the most deadly ties exercised by Hazael and Ben-hadad, kings of Syria, enemies of the people of God. Dancus. are here intended. See 2 Kings x. 32, 33; xiii, 3–7. 8. — Ashdod, &c.) “Ashdod,” or Azotus, “ AshkeW. Lowth.
lon," or Ascalon, and “ Ekron,” as well as Gaza, were 4.- I will send a fire] To which God's judgments chief towns of the Philistines. Gath, which was forare often compared : the word is taken in this general merly another principal town, and the capital of a lordsense in the following verses. W. Lowth.
ship or petty kingdom, i Sam. vi. 17, 18, is not here 5. I will break also the bar of Damascus, 7 I will send mentioned, as having been lately taken by Uzziah, the an enemy that shall break or force open the gates of reigning king of Judah, as was Ashkelon afterwards, Damascus, though never so strongly barred or barri- 2 Chron. xxvi. 6, whereby this prophecy was in part cadoed. Dr. Wells.
quickly fulfilled. Dr. Wells. All Syria was subdued - the plain of Aven,] Or, Bikath-aven : the word | by Pharaoh-necho; and again, as far as Pelusium, by signifies “the plain of vanity;" whence some conjec- Nabuchodonosor, as Josephus relates. Berosus also ture it was a place in Syria, remarkable for idolatry, as mentions that Nabuchodonosor conquered Syria and all Beth-el is called Beth-aven for that reason, Hos. v. 8. Phenicia. Abp. Newcome. W. Lowth.
9. — Tyrus,] This is probably to be understood of the house of Eden: 7 This is equivalent to the the destruction of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar, foretold house of pleasure :' so it may denote one of the pleasant by Isaiah, chap. xxiii; by Jeremiah, chap. xlvii. 4. where palaces belonging to the king of Syria, described by “him it is joined, as here, with the Philistines; and by Ezethat holdeth the sceptre." But “ Eden” was likewise kiel, chap. xxvi, xxvii. W. Lowth. a country bordering upon Syria, mentioned 2 Kings -- remembered not the brotherly covenant :) Made xix. 12; Ezek. xxvii. 23. See note there. Mr. Maun- by Hiram with David and Solomon. See 2 Sam. v. 11; drell in his Travels observes, that not far from Damas- | i Kings v. 1 ; ix. 13. cus there is a plain still called the “valley of Bocat," 11. he did pursue his brother with the sword,] The two which he supposes the same with “ Bikath-aven," here l nations were descended from Jacob and Esau, who were
2 Kings 3.
Deman, which shallead a fire upon / Popes of the king of Edon
1 Or, divided the mountain.
Edom, and Ammon.
CHAP. I, II.
God's wrath against Moab. ore, tear perpetually, and he kept his ment thereof; because he a burned the Before wrath for ever:
bones of the king of Edom into lime: 787. 12 But I will send a fire upon 2 But I will send a fire upon Moab, , Teman, which shall devour the pa- and it shall devour the palaces of 27. laces of Bozrah.
Kirioth: and Moab shall die with
| 4 | Thus saith the Lord; For
not kept his commandments, and their
5 But I will send a fire upon Judah,
and it shall devour the palaces of
6 and upon Israel. 9 God complaineth three transgressions of Israel, and for
four, I will not turn away the punish-
I transgressions of Moab, and for righteous for silver, and the poor for four, I will not turn away the punish- a pair of shoes;
brethren. It is probable that before Amos prophesied, tions caused by whirlwinds and tempests : see Isai. the Edomites had often distressed Judah and Israel v. 26; Jer. xxv. 32; Dan. xi. 40; Zech. ix. 14. W. in times of calamity. That this was their custom, see Lowth. 2 Chron. xxviii. 17. But the words may be spoken prophetically of the conduct which the Edomites would Chap. II. ver. 1. — Moab,] As Moab and Ammon pursue at the taking of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. were nearly related, and bordered upon each other, so Obad. 11-14; Ezek. xxv. 12; xxxv. 5; Ps. cxxxvii. they are usually joined together in the threatenings of 7. Abp. Newcome.
the Prophets : see Jer. xlviii, xlix; Ezek. xxv. 1-8; 12. – I will send a fire &c.] Nebuchadnezzar sub- Zeph. ii. 8. W. Lowth. For the origin of these two dued the Edomites, Jer. xxv. 9, 21; xxvii. 3, 6. Judas people, see Gen. xix. 37, 38. Their country lay to the Maccabeus obtained a great victory over them, 1 Mac. east of the Dead sea. Abp. Newcome. v. 3; probably after they had left the Nabatheans in - because he burned the bones of the king of Edom consequence of a sedition, and had settled to the south into lime :) That is, into ashes, out of contempt and inof Judah: for it seems that the Babylonian conquests humanity. This is in all probability to be looked on as had compelled them to take refuge in that part of Ara- a distinct fact from that related in 2 Kings iii. 27, the bia. Afterwards Hyrcanus reduced them under sub- circumstances being so widely different. Kirioth was jection, and permitted them to remain in their country, the chief city of Moab. Dr. Wells. on condition that they conforined to the Jewish laws : 3.- the judge] This word denotes the supreme magissee the note on Obad. ver. 2. Teman and Bozrah trate or governour, see Deut. xvii. 9, and is here equiwere cities of Idumea. Abp. Newcome.
valent to the king. Compare Mic. v. 1. W. Lowth, 13. -- of the children of Ammon,] Hazael king of Moab was conquered by Nebuchadnezzar, Jer. xxvii. Syria grievously afflicted the Israelites that lay eastward 3, 6. Abp. Newcome. of Jordan, particularly the Gileadites; see 2 Kings x. 6.- Israel] Amos first prophesied against the Syrians, 33. The low condition, to which these countries were Philistines, Tyrians, Edomites, Ammonites, and Moabreduced, might probably encourage the Ammonites to ites; who dwelt in the neighbourhood of the twelve possess themselves of Gilead, which lay near their own tribes, and had occasionally become their enemies and borders, and to destroy the inhabitants in the cruel oppressors. Having thus taught his countrymen that manner here described. Compare Jer. xlix. 1; Zeph. the providence of God extended to other nations, he ii. 8; Hos. xiii. 16. W. Lowth. The histories of those briefly mentions the idolatries and consequent destructimes, transmitted down to us, are so concise, that we tion of Judah, and then passes on to his proper suboften want information concerning the particular facts ject, which was to exhort and reprove the kingdom of alluded to. Abp. Newcome.
Israel, and to denounce judgments against it. The rea14. — Rabbah,] This was the capital city of the Am-son why that kingdom was particularly addressed seems monites, who were conquered by Nebuchadnezzar, Jer. to have been, that Pul invaded it in the reign of Uzziah, xxvii. 5, 6. Abp. Newcome.
2 Kings xv. 19; and that in less than half a century with a tempest in the day of the whirlwind :] The after the first Assyrian invasion, it was subverted by destructions of war are often compared to the devasta- | Shalmaneser, 2 Kings xvii. 6. Abp. Newcome.
CU 15:25 earth aside the way of the mo in unto you, mes.
Or, young wonian.
press your place, as a
of their unthankfulness. 7 7 That pant after the dust of the I to drink; and commanded the pro- Before
earth on the head of the poor, and phets, e saying, Prophesy not.
14 Therefore the flight shall perish cart full of 8 And they lay themselves down from the swift, and the strong shall not presseth.
upon clothes laid to pledge by every strengthen his force, neither shall the
the height of the cedars, and he was shall he that rideth the horse deliver
among the mighty shall flee awayo
11 And I raised up of your sons for 1 The necessity of God's judgment against
Israel. 9 The publication of it, with the
12 But ye gave the Nazarites wine 11 hath spoken against you, O chil
Josh. 24. 8.
The particular sins, for which the Israelites are threat. The custom of sitting at meals seems to have been the ened with punishment, were, first, Their notorious more ancient of the two. See Gen. xliii. 33; 1 Sam. ir. cruelty and oppression in the corrupt administration of 22; xvi. 11; xx. 25. W. Lowth. justice ; Secondly, Their covetousness, in perverting
and they drink the wine of the condemned) The justice for the most paltry recompence; Thirdly, Their drink offerings made with wine were a necessary part licentious and incestuous commerce. Danæus.
of the sacrifices; some of them were reserved for the 7. That pant after the dust of the earth on the head of entertainment that followed: see Exod. xxxii. 6. And the poor,] All their desire is after this unprofitable dust this was provided out of the fines of such as had been of the earth, silver and gold, which they eagerly desire unjustly condemned, ver. 6. W. Lowth. to gain, even by trampling on the heads of the poor. 9. Yet destroyed I the Amorite before them, &c.] The Bp. Hall. Or the sense may be taken according to the sins of the Israelites against God are here amplified by Latin version, “ Who tread down the heads of the the sundry and great benefits of God towards the Israelpoor into the dust of the earth ;" that is, they throw ites : first by the utter destruction of the powerful and them into the dust, and then trample upon them. W. valiant nation of the Amorites ; and then by the blessLowth.
ings which He bountifully bestowed upon them, as in - turn aside the way of the meek :] That is, from their deliverance from Egypt, and their establishment in right and justice : see chap. v. 12; Isai. x. 1; xxix. 21. the promised land, ver. 10, so also in the guidance which Abp. Newcome.
He vouchsafed them by means of Prophets and holy - to profane my holy name :] To treat Me as if I men devoted to His service, ver, 11. But these benewas not a holy and fearful God, Ezek. XX. 39; or, by fits they neglected or despised, especially those of a giving occasion of reproach among the heathen, Ezek. spiritual kind; enticing the Nazarites to break their vow xx. 9. Abp. Newcome.
of abstinence, Numb. vi. 2, &c. and forbidding the And they lay themselves down &c.] This is to be admonitions of the Prophets, ver. 12. Danæus. understood of the feasts, which were made of part of 13. Behold, I am pressed under you, &c.] I am ever their idolatrous sacrifices, and were eaten in some of the overlaid with your wickedness : it is with Me as with a apartments of their temples, according to the custom cart that is overpressed with a load of sheaves, which both of the Jews and Gentiles : see 1 Sam. ix. 12, 13, goes heavily, and is ready to break under the burden. 22; Isai. lvii. 7; Ezek. xxiii. 41. The Prophet re- Bp. Hall. proves them, not only for partaking of things offered to 14. Therefore the flight shall perish from the swift, idols, but likewise for making use of other men's furni- &c.] That is, God shall render ineffectual all their ture, left in their hands for a pledge, to set off their resources and methods of escape ; whether they be idolatrous entertainments. Here was another instance natural, as swiftness of foot and strength of body, or of their unmercifulness, to detain pledges received from acquired by industry, diligence, and wit, as power and the poor, contrary to law, Exod. xxii. 26. See note authority among others, skill in battle, or riches, and upon Ezek. xviii. 7. The Jews as well as the Romans horses trained for war. Hence appears the vanity of used to lie along at their meals on couches, as appears all human devices set up in opposition to the judgments by this verse; compare chap. vi. 4. This custom con of God. Nothing but God's mercy can deliver us from tinued in aftertimes, as appears by several places in the His justice; and that mercy is to be obtained only by Gospels, where it is in the original,“ lay down to meat;" true repentance through the promises of God in Christ though our translation renders it “ sat down to meat,” | Jesus. Danæus,
The necessity of God's judgment. CHAP. III.
The publication of it. Before dren of Israel, against the whole nothing, but he revealeth his secret Before
787. family which I brought up from the unto his servants the prophets. m land of Egypt, saying,
I 8 The lion hath roared, who will 2 You only have I known of all not fear? The Lord God hath spoken,
the families of the earth : therefore who can but prophesy? + Heb. eisit I will + punish you for all your ini- 99 Publish in the palaces at Ashquities.
dod, and in the palaces in the land of 3 Can two walk together, except Egypt, and say, Assemble yourselves they be agreed ?
upon the mountains of Samaria, and 4 Will a lion roar in the forest, when behold the great tumults in the midst
he hath no prey ? will a young lion thereof, and the || oppressed in the Or, + Heb. give + cry out of his den, if he have taken midst thereof. nothing?
10 For they know not to do right, 5 Can a bird fall in a snare upon saith the LORD, who store up violence the earth, where no gin is for him ? and || robbery in their palaces. Or, spoil. shall one take up a snare from the 11 Therefore thus saith the Lord earth, and have taken nothing at God; An adversary there shall be even
round about the land; and he shall 6 Shall a trumpet be blown in the bring down thy strength from thee, ! Or, not run city, and the people || not be afraid ? | and thy palaces shall be spoiled. 11 or, and shall there be evil in a city, || and the 12 Thus saith the LORD; As the shall not the LORD hath not done it?
shepherd + taketh out of the mouth of t Heb. somewhat? 7 Surely the Lord God will do the lion two legs, or a piece of an ear;
Chap. III. ver. 1. - against the whole family &c.] All fear their speedy execution : and who shall or can exethat family, of which Jacob or Israel was the head : cute them, but the just and powerful hand of God? “ family” is equivalent to people, here and in the follow- Can there be any evil of punishment in the city, yea in ing verse ; and so it is taken, Jer. i. 15 ; viii. 3; x. the world, which is not of His sending, His inflicting? 25 ; Nahum iii. 4; Zech. xiv. 18. W. Lowth.
Bp. Hall. Shall the evil of earthquakes, of unfruitful 2. You only have I known &c.] You only have I seasons, of hostile incursions, befall My people without chosen from all other nations for My peculiar people, My special appointment ? Abp. Newcome. and have bestowed most cost and care upon you : By the “evil" here spoken of is not to be understood therefore, since you have abused My mercies and re- sin, or the evil of guiltiness, but affliction or trouble, or the belled against Me, ye shall be surely punished. Bp. evil of punishment; for God is not either the author or Hall. The inore and the greater are the benefits of God the cause of our sin, but we ourselves. Compare James towards a people, so much the more shameful is their i. 13, 14 ; Hosea xiii. 9. Daneus. ingratitude in despising God, and their sin the greater 7. Surely the Lord God will do nothing, &c.] There and more heinous. Danæus.
was a succession of Propbets among the Jews from Sa3. Can two walk together, except they be agreed ]muel's time, till the captivity : the people commonly Will common reason permit two to walk friendly toge consulted them upon extraordinary occasions, and they ther, unless they be real friends? In like manner it is gave them counsel and direction what was proper to be altogether unreasonable for you to think, that I will deal | done. See chap. ii. 11; 1 Kings xxii. 13; 2 Kings with you as your friend, while ye thus sin against Me, ii. 11; xxii. 13; Jer. xxi. 2; Ezek. xx. 1, &c. The and so act as those who hate Me, or are My enemies. want of this prophetical gift was much lamented in the Dr. Wells,
times of the captivity. See Ezek. vii. 26; Lament. ii. 4. Will a lion roar in the forest, when he hath no 9; Psal. lxxiv. 9. 'W. Louth. prey ?? As a lion doth not use to roar but when hel 8. The lion hath roared, &c.] The awful admonitions hath his prey in view, so neither doth God denounce uttered by the Prophets are as natural a consequence of His judgments unless your sins have made you proper God's command, as fear is of the lion's roaring. Abp. objects of His displeasure. W. Lowth. Naturalists | Newcome. assert, that, when the lion sees his prey, he roars before 9. Publish in the palaces at Ashdod, &c.] God calls he rushes on it, and that at this roaring many animals upon the heathen to be witnesses of His judgments upon shew great fear. Abp. Newcome.
His own people, that they may take warning thereby : 5. Can a bird fall in a snare upon the earth, where no particularly He gives notice to the “ Philistines" and gin is &c.] As birds are not caught without the net * Egyptians," the Jews' inveterate enemies, that they of the fowler being already set and laid ; and as the may assemble themselves, and with pleasure behold the fowler doth not take up his nets, before he has secured ravages and oppressions which their insulting advera prey ; so neither doth God threaten these things saries will bring upon the kingdom of Israel. W. without being prepared to execute His jurigments ; nor Lowth. will He withdraw His hand, but will punish you, except 12. — As the shepherd taketh out of the mouth of the ye repent. Danæus.
lion &c.] As the shepnerd, when a lion hath been de6. Shall a trumpet be blown in the city, and the people vouring amongst his flock, finds some mangled remnants not be afraid ? &c.] Shall a trumpet be blown in the of a leg or an ear, which he carries home, to shew the city, to summon the inhabitants to the walls, yet the spoil that hath been done by that fierce beast; so shall people find no cause of the fear of an enemy? no more it be with Israel: of all the body of Samaria, there shall would God by His Prophets denounce these imminent be some one or two left undevoured, for proof of the judgments, if there were not just cause to expect and I general slaughter and captivity. Bp. Hall.
The causes of God's judgment. · AMOS. He reproveth Israel for oppression.
Before c Before r so shall the children of Israel be taken | H E AR this word, ye kine of Ba-c Before CHRIST
CHRIST 787. out that dwell in Samaria in the cor- | 11 shan, that are in the mountain || Or, on the
we ner of a bed, and || in Damascus in a of Samaria, which oppress the poor, bed's feet. couch.
which crush the needy, which say to 13 Hear ye, and testify in the house their masters, Bring, and let us drink. of Jacob, saith the Lord God, the 2 The Lord God hath sworn by God of hosts,
his holiness, that, lo, the days shall 14 That in the day that I shall come upon you, that he will take you 1.1. punisho || visit the transgressions of Israel | away with hooks, and your posterity
upon him I will also visit the altars with fishhooks.
15 And I will smite the winter before her; and || ye shall cast them | Or, ye sha!! house with the summer house; and into the palace, saith the Lord.
cast away the
things of the
sion; and bring your sacrifices every
years of days. CHAP. IV.
5 And † offer a sacrifice of thanks- + Heb. ofer 1 He reproveth Israel for oppression, 4 for giving with leaven, and proclaim and by burking.
idolatry, 6 and for their incorrigibleness. publish the free offerings : for + this toleb. - that dwell — in the corner of a bed, 7 It means, as the emperour Nero's palace, mentioned by Suetonius, that not many of those, who dwell and live delicately in was named “golden,” because it was "overlaid with Samaria, shall be able to deliver themselves from 'de gold.” Parkhurst. struction. The delicacy and luxuriousness of their lives is described by their beds and couches, on which they ! Chap. IV. ver. 1. Hear this word, ye kine of Bashan, daily lie and repose themselves. Danæus, Dr. Wells, &c.] Hear this, 0 ye great and rich men of Samaria, Abp. Newcome.
that feed full and carelessly, like the kine in the fat pasThose now most at their ease shall be delivered to tures of Bashan : ye, who oppress the poor, and crush their enemies, like sheep to the lion : and scarce any of the needy ; and say to your princes and judges, Set them be rescued from his jaws.
deep fines, and condemn freely, that we may feast upon We learn from Bp. Pocock, Maundrell, Hanway, and the offences of the people. Bp. Hall. other travellers, that in the East the place of honour, the The luxury and insolence of oppressors is often commost easy, voluptuous, indulging station, is the corner; pared to the wantonness of full-fed cattle : see Ps. xxü. and that it is the position in which great men usually 12; lxviii. 30. Bashan was remarkable for the richness place themselves. The word rendered “ bed,” may be of its pastures, and its breed of cattle : Numb. xxxü. 4; understood of a divan or sofa. Harmer, Parkhurst, Deut. xxxii. 14 ; Ezek. xxxix. 18. W. Lowth. Fragments to Calmet. See the note on Deut. iii. 11, 2. — he will take you away with hooks,] Invaders and from Fragments to Calmet.
spoilers are elsewhere compared to fishers : see Jer. xvi. - and in Damascus in a couch.] That is, who are 16; Hab. i. 15. W. Lowth. now in high honour in their own, or indulging in foreign 3. And ye shall go out &c.] The Prophet tells the luxuries in other countries. Damascus was a most people, that they shall with all possible haste make their delightful place; and, as Amos delivered this prophecy escape at the several breaches which shall be made in “in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash king of the walls of Samaria. Compare 2 Kings xxv. 4 ; Ezek. Israel,” chap. i. 1, "who recovered Damascus for xii. 12. W. Lowth. Israel," see 2 Kings xiv. 28, it is probable that many of - and ye shall cast them into the palace,] The senthe richer Israelites might choose to dwell there. Park-tence may be thus translated, “Ye shall cast out yourhurst.
selves," that is, ye shall with haste betake yourselves 14. – I will also visit the altars of Beth-el : &c.] I “to Harmon;" so the Latin Vulgate. W. Lowth. will reckon with Israel for his idolatries in Dan and 4. Come to Beth-el, and transgress; &c.] Go ye up Beth-el, and for those altars which he hath erected now, 0 ye foolish Israelites, to your Beth-el, if you there, and will cause those miserected altars to be beaten please, and sin your fill : go up to Gilgal, and glut yourdown to the ground. Bp. Hall. See 1 Kings xii. 29, selves with the full scope of your iniquities; bring those 32. The destruction of the altar at Beth-el is also fore your morning sacrifices, which are due unto God, bring told, chap. v. 5, and is perhaps referred to in Jer. and offer them to your idols ; and that, which the law xlviii. 13. Abp. Newcome.
of God requires of you, for the maintenance of His Le15. And I will smite the winter house with the summer vites, (that is to say,) lay aside the tithes every third house ;) See the note on Jer. xxxvi. 22.
year for sacred use, do ye that to the priests of your - the houses of ivory] The Romans anciently orna idols : so also var. 5. Bp. Hall. mented their houses with ivory: and the Eastern people A permission, spoken by way of sareasm and irony, might possibly do the same. Sir J. Chardin says, “ the sharply upbraiding them as incorrigible, and not to be ceilings of the Eastern houses are of Mosaick work, and reformed by all the reproofs and admonitions that had for the most part of ivory :” and Dr Russell notices, been given them: like that of Ezekiel, chap. xx. 39, that ivory“ is likewise employed at Aleppo in the deco- / “ Go ye, serve every one his idols." W. Lowth. ration of the more expensive apartments.” Harmer. 5. – proclaim and publish the free offerings :) Or Such houses were probably called “ ivory houses," just “free-will offerings,” Lev. xxii. 18, 21. These offerings