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until they repent.


An exhortation to repentance. c Beforest 14 For I will be unto Ephraim asl 2 a After two days will he revive Before about 780. a lion, and as a young lion to the house us: in the third day he will raise us about 780. of Judah : I, even I, will tear and go up, and we shall live in his sight.

a 1 Cor. 13.4. away; I will take away, and none 3 Then shall we know, if we follow shall rescue him.

on to know the LORD : his going 15 | I will go and return to my forth is prepared as the morning; and + Heb. till place, t till they acknowledge their he shall come unto us as the rain, as they be guilty.

offence, and seek my face : in their the latter and former rain unto the
affliction they will seek me early.


4 TO Ephraim, what shall I do CHAP. VI.

unto thee? O Judah, what shall I do 1 An exhortation to repentance. 4 A com- unto thee? for your || goodness is as | Or, mercy,

plaint of their untowardness and iniquity. a morning cloud, and as the early about 780. MOME, and let us return unto the dew it goeth away.

u Lord: for he hath torn, and he 5 Therefore have I hewed them by will heal us; he hath smitten, and he the prophets; I have slain them by ! Or, that thy will bind us up.

the words of my mouth : || and thy might be, &c.

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ing it “king Jareb ” in the text, and “the king of in His sight,” or in His presence, and attain the true Jareb,” and “the king that should plead,” in the mar- knowledge of God, which they never had before. The gin. Dr. Pocock.

"two days" and the “third day” seem to denote three Jareb was either the name of an Assyrian king, or of distinct periods of the Jewish people. The first day is an Assyrian city: see chap. x. 6. Abp. Newcome. Or, the captivity of the ten tribes by the Assyrians, and of the the phrase describes some powerful monarch, “the two under the Babylonians, considered as one judgment king, who takes up all quarrels," as it may be translated; upon the nation ; beginning with the captivity of the that is, a king, who took upon him to interfere in all ten, and completed in that of the two. The second day quarrels between inferiour powers, to arbitrate between is the whole period of the present condition of the Jews, them, and compel them to make up their differences beginning with the dispersion of the nation by the Roupon such terms as he thought proper to dictate; whose mans. The third day is the period yet to come, beginalliance was of course anxiously courted by weaker ning with their conversion and restoration. This I take states. Such was the Assyrian monarch in the times, to be the sense of the prophecy, in immediate applicato which this prophecy relates. His friendship was tion to the Jews. Nevertheless, whoever is well acpurchased by Menahem, king of Israel, 2 Kings xv. 19, quainted with the allegorical style of prophecy, when he 20; and in a later period solicited by Ahaz, chap. xvi. recollects that our Saviour's sufferings were instead of 5–9. Bp. Horsley.

the sufferings and death of sinners; that we are bap- yet could he not heal you, &c.] We have here the tized into His death; and by baptism into His death, usual scriptural change of persons from “them to are buried with Him; and that He, rising on the third “ you.” For an illustration of the facts alluded to, see day, raised us to the hope of life and immortality; will the history, 2 Chron. xxviii. 16—20. Dr. Pocock. | easily perceive no very obscure, though but an oblique

15. I will go and return to my place,] The sense is, allusion to our Lord's resurrection on the third day; that Jehovah will withdraw the tokens of His presence since every believer may speak of our Lord's death and from the Jewish temple. Bp. Horsley.

resurrection, as a common death and resurrection of all - till they acknowledge their offence,] This is a believers. Bp. Horsley. proof of what God elsewhere declares, “that He hath 3.- his going forth is prepared as the morning ;) His no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but that the appearance, as our Deliverer, is fixed as the return of wicked turn from his way, and live.” God withdraws the morning : we shall be restored by Him from our Himself from His people, not that He would finally re- calamities, as certainly as the rising of the sun chases ject them, but that they might know their wickedness away darkness. Abp. Newcome. and folly in rejecting and forsaking Him, and so “ac-' - and he shall come unto us as the rain, &c.] See knowledge their offence, and seek His face.” Dr. Deut. xi. 14. The periodical rains being looked upon Pocoek.

as necessary causes of great blessings, other things also,

| which produced blessings in other kinds, whether temChap. VI. The three first verses of this chapter should poral or spiritual, are often compared to such rains, be joined to the preceding. The Prophet speaks in his See Deut. xxxii. 2; Ps. lxxii. 6; Prov. xvi. 15; Isai. lv. own person to the end of the third verse. He takes OC-, 10, &c. Dr. Pocock. casion, from the intimation of final pardon to the peni- 4. 0 Ephraim, what shall I do unto thee?7 Here Jetent, given in the conclusion of God's awful denuncia- hovah takes up the discourse again in His own person. tion of judgment, to address his countrymen in words Bp. Horsley. God declares that the true cause of the of mild pathetick persuasion, Bp. Horsley.

impending evils was not any defect of mercy or proviVer. 2. After two days we shall live in his sight.7 | dence in Him, who had used all probable means for There appears in this place a very plain allusion to Christ bringing the people home to Himself, but was to be lying dead in the grave for two days, and on the third found in their own inveterate wickedness. If at any rising again to life. The reference in the margin shews time, desiring to be relieved from some affliction, they this to have been the opinion of our translators. Dr. made a shew of reformation, their goodness was not Pocock.

real, sincere, and permanent, but it soon failed: they Jehovah, who had departed, will return, and again were quickly weary of it, and returned to their evil ways. exhibit the signs of His presence among His chosen | Dr. Pocock. people. So the Jews, converted and restored, will “ live! 5. Therefore have I hewed them by the prophets ; &c.]

Before CHRIST about 750.

about 780

Eccles. 5. 1.

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A complaint of their


untowardness and iniquity. Befores judgments are as the light that goeth | harvest for thee, when I returned the ci

captivity of my people. has 6 For I desired b mercy, and not & 12. 7., sacrifice; and the knowledge of God

CHAP. VII. i Sam. 15.22. more than burnt offerings.

7 But they lI like men have trans- | 1 A reproof of manifold sins. 11 God's wrath gressed the covenant: there have they

against them for their hypocrisy. dealt treacherously against me. W H EN I would have healed Is- about 780.

8 Gilead is a city of them that rael, then the iniquity of Ephhor, cunning work iniquity, and is || polluted with raim was discovered, and the twick- + Heb. erils. blood.

edness of Samaria : for they commit 9 And as troops of robbers wait falsehood; and the thief cometh in,

for a man, so the company of priests and the troop of robbers + spoileth Heh. + Heb. with murder in the way. | by consent: for without. or, to She- they commit || lewdness.

2 And they + consider not in their + Heb. say
10 I have seen an horrible thing in hearts that I remember all their
the house of Israel: there is the wickedness : now their own doings
whoredom of Ephraim, Israel is de- have beset them about; they are

before my face.
11 Also, O Judah, he hath set an 3 They make the king glad with


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Or, enormity.

It is agreeable to the language of Scripture, to represent from His covenant: or, “ like Adam,” as in the margin. the Prophets of God as doing that, which they foretold Dr. Pocock. should be certainly done. Dr. Pocock. See Jer. i. 10, there have they dealt treacherously against me.] and the note there.

“There,” in the covenant; that is, in that matter where- and thy judgments are as the light that goeth forth.] in they ought to have been especially faithful. Dr. PoGod having admonished, reproved, and threatened the cock. people, in order to recall them, but without effect, they 8. Gilead is a city of them that work iniquity,] Gilead, cannot accuse Him of cruelty in inflicting the judg- or Ramoth Gilead, was a city of refuge, Deut. iv. 43; ments which He threatens : such judgments are evi. and such also was Sichem, Josh. xx. 7: both therefore dently deserved; their justice is as clear as the sun, inhabited by priests and Levites. The Prophet means “as the light that goeth forth ;" as manifest as that is to represent the priests as seducers of the people to that to all.” Dr. Pocock.

idolatry, which proved the ruin of the nation. Bp. 6. For I desired mercy, and not sacrifice ;] That is, Horsley. rather than sacrifice: I am better pleased with true good- 9. - murder in the way by consent :] That is, they ness, than with the exactest observance of the external associate themselves for murdering such as fall in their duties of religion, unless they proceed from a sincere way, as troops of robbers lay wait for any passenger to principle of obedience; see Mic. vi. 6-8. The Jews spoil him. One of the marginal readings, “with one are accustomed to express comparisons by negatives, or shoulder," imports the same thing, namely, “by conrejecting the things less worthy. Compare Joel ii. 13, sent," like men putting their shoulders together to move and John vi. 27. W. Lowth. The parallel line clearly some great weight. But if the other reading in the shews that by “not sacrifice" is to be understood in margin, “in the way to Shechem," be taken, it depreference to sacrifice. Abp. Newcome.

scribes the place where such murders and outrages were The words appear to anticipate an answer of the committed by those idolatrous priests and their assopeople, that they were not so unworthy as they were ciates from Gilead. Dr. Pocock. See the foregoing accused of being, since they were constant in offering note. all sorts of sacrifice to God; but God replies, that sacri- 11. Also, O Judah, he hath sent an harvest for thee, 1 fices were not all that was required of them, for that He Also, O Judah, corrupted Israel hath prepared a harvest delighted not in such things for themselves, but only of revenge for thee, in sowing the seeds of idolatry in in respect to other things, which by them were testified, thee. Bp. Hall. “When I returned the captivity of and with which they ought to be accompanied. That My people :” or, more plainly, “ When, or whereas, I sacrifices, when rightly offered, were acceptable to Him, would have turned away the captivity of My people ;" appears from His numerous precepts concerning them that is, I would upon their repentance have averted My in the law. Dr. Pocock.

judgments, which will end in their captivity. W. Lowth, - the knowledge of God Not an inactive specula- Dr. Wells. tive knowledge, but such knowledge as testifies itself by the keeping of God's commandments. By “mercy” ! Chap. VII. ver. 1. When I would have healed Israel, may be understood all the duties of the second table; &c.] When God used all the means of bringing Israel and by “the knowledge of God” all those of the first. | to repentance, such as the admonitions of His Prophets, Dr. Pocock. This is the general rule, comprehending His fatherly chastisements, and the like; then their the sum of all the practical precepts of the Prophets. wickedness farther appeared, in that they would not Bp. Horsley.

hearken to His word, nor be amended, but more obsti7. But they like men have transgressed the covenant:7 nately persisted in their evil courses. Israel, Ephraim, Either “like men” in general, whose quality it is to be and Samaria, design altogether, as either of them might false and treacherous in observing covenants; which do singly, the whole body, consisting of both prince aggravates the accusation, that they, God's peculiar and people. Dr. Pocock. people, should be as regardless of their plighted faith, 3. They make the king glad with their wickedness, &c.] as other nations, that were strangers to Him and aliens They study to please their kings and great men, by



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# Or, the raiser will cease. | Or, from waking.

heat through wine,

A reproof of

manifold sins. fore their wickedness, and the princes with 9 Strangers have devoured his c Before, about 780. their lies.

strength, and he knoweth it not: yea, about 780. 4 They are all adulterers, as an gray hairs are there and there upon oven heated by the baker, || who ceas- him, yet he knoweth not. eth || from raising after he hath knead- 10 And the a pride of Israel testi- a Chap. 5. 5. ed the dough, until it be leavened. fieth to his face: and they do not re

5 In the day of our king the turn to the Lord their God, nor ! Or, with princes have made him sick || with seek him for all this.

bottles of wine; he stretched out his II Ephraim also is like a silly
hand with scorners.

dove without heart: they call to || Or, applied. 6 For they have || made ready their Egypt, they go to Assyria.

heart like an oven, whiles they lie 12 When they shall go, I will
in wait: their baker sleepeth all the spread my net upon them; I will
night; in the morning it burneth as bring them down as the fowls of the
a flaming fire.

heaven; I will chastise them, as their Fulfilled 7 They are all hot as an oven, and congregation hath heard.

have devoured their judges; all their | 13 Woe unto them ! for they have
kings are fallen: there is none among Aed from me: +destruction unto them! + Heb. spoil.
them that calleth unto me.

because they have transgressed against
8 Ephraim, he hath mixed himself me: though I have redeemed them,
among the people; Ephraim is a cake yet they have spoken lies against
not turned.


about 773.

complying with the idolatry which they have set up. thens, and is a professed associate with them : Ephraim W. Lowth. “Their lies” mean their perfidies towards is grown irresolute in his religion ; like a cake that is God, in deserting His service for idolatry. Bp. Horsley. half dough, and half baked; so is he, half Israelite, half

4. They are all adulterers, &c.) They are as much Pagan. Bp. Hall. One thing on one side, another on inflamed with lust, “as an oven heated," or over-heated, the other. Burnt to a coal at bottom; raw dough at “by the baker, who (therefore) ceaseth from raising" or the top. An apt image of a character that is all inmaking any more fire, “ after he hath kneaded the consistencies. Bp. Horsley. dough, until it be leavened.” Dr. Wells.

- a cake not turned. All along the Black sea, 5. In the day of our king &c.] On the king's birth- from the Mæotic lake to the Caspian sea, in Chaldea, day, or his coronation-day, or some other solemn fes- and in Mesopotamia, except in towns, the people often tival kept in his honour, the great men gave themselves make their bread about an inch thick: this they lay on to immoderate drinking, enticing their king to do the a corner of the hearth, and cover it with hot embers same, till he so far forgot himself, as to give the hand and ashes : in a quarter of an hour they turn it. Bp. of fellowship to vain persons. Dr. Pocock. Those, who | Pocock. in their cups made a jest of the true religion, and de- 9. Strangers have devoured his strength,] Such nations, rided the denunciations of God's Prophets, he distin- as either violently assaulted or spoiled him, or such as guished with the most familiar marks of his royal | he applied to for help : as the Assyrians, chap. v. 13; favour. Bp. Horsley. Some recent and notorious act and in this chapter, ver. 11, the Egyptians, Assyrians, of contempt to God, or to His Prophets, or to pub- and others. These “devoured his strength,” his wealth, lick justice, appears here to be alluded to. Abp. New- his riches, and treasure; the flower also of his men, and come.

the fruits of his land. Dr. Pocock. Yet all these afflic6. For they have made ready their heart like an oven, tions do not make him sensible of the disastrous state &c.] As an oven conceals the lighted fire all the night, of his affairs, and that the hand of God is against him. while the baker takes his rest, and in the morning vo W. Lowth. mits forth its blazing flame; so all manner of concupis

gray hairs] The tokens of decay of natural cence is brooding mischief in their hearts, while the strength, and of tendency to dissolution. Dr. Pocock. ruling faculties of reason and conscience are lulled 11. Ephraim also is like a silly dove without heart :) asleep, and their wicked designs wait only for a fair That is, “ without understanding :" see Jer. v. 21. As occasion to break forth. Bp. Horsley.

{"a silly dove,” affrighted at her nest, flies to one place 7. They are all hot as an oven, &c.] “All," that is, and to another for security, and there often falls into the whole body of the people. Of this general corrup some net or snare, and meets with greater danger than tion the pernicious effects are such as concern, not only she would have found at home; so Ephraim, being private persons, but the publick welfare, to the disturb- troubled with the great evils which he felt or feared at ance of all order and government, which must necessa- home, forsook God and His protection, and called on rily result from the destruction and untimely end of the Egypt and Assyria for help, but instead of it met with “judges :" by which some understand the inferiour greater injury.Dr. Pocock. magistrates, others the kings, who are presently more 12. - I will chastise them, as their congregation hath particularly mentioned. Dr. Pocock.

| heard.] As they have heard their punishments declared - all their kings are fallen :) The prophecy looks in the prophetical denunciations in the books of Moses, forward to the fall of the six last kings in uninterrupted which were read in their synagogues every sabbath day. succession, Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Bp. Horsley. Pekah, Hoshea. Bp. Horsley.

13. though I have redeemed them, yet they have 8. Ephraim, he hath mixed himself among the people; spoken lies against me.) Though I have redeemed them &c.] For Ephraim, he hath mixed himself with hea-l out of Egypt, (see Mic. vi. 4,) and afforded them many


Before CHRIST about 760.


A reproof of manifold sins.


Destruction is threatened Beforest 14 And they have not cried unto have transgressed my covenant, and about 780. me with their heart, when they howled trespassed against my law.

upon their beds: they assemble them- 2 Israel shall cry unto me, My
selves for corn and wine, and they God, we know thee.
rebel against me.

3 Israel hath cast off the thing that
15 Though I || have bound and is good : the enemy shall pursue him.
strengthened their arms, yet do they 4 They have set up kings, but not
imagine mischief against me.

by me: they have made princes, and 16 They return, but not to the I knew it not: of their silver and their most High: they are like a deceitful gold have they made them idols, that

bow : their princes shall fall by the they may be cut off.
1. Ps, 73.9. sword for the brage of their tongue: 5 9 Thy calf, O Samaria, hath cast

this shall be their derision in the land thee off; mine anger is kindled against
of Egypt.

them : how long will it be ere they

attain to innocency? CHAP. VIII.

6 For from Israel was it also : the

workman made it; therefore it is not 1, 12 Destruction is threatened for their im

God: but the calf of Samaria shall be
piety, 5 and idolatry.

broken in pieces.
SET the trumpet to † thy mouth. 7 For they have sown the wind,
D He shall come as an eagle against and they shall reap the whirlwind : it || Or,
the house of the Lord, because they hath no || stalk: the bud shall yield corn.

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other signal deliverances, yet they have not given Me This is a manifest allusion to the custom of calling the the glory, but have represented Me by their golden people together by this means. It is not necessary to calf, and have “changed My truth into a lie," Rom. i. suppose, that the Prophet was really to sound a trumpet, 25. W. Lowth. See the note on ver. 3.

but rather that he should call upon the people with all 14. And they have not cried unto me with their heart, possible earnestness and vehemence. Compare Isai. lviii. &c.] Though they have made shew of some great re- 1. Dr. Pocock. Call the people to war : the Assyrian pentance and humiliation, howling, and crying upon the enemy shall come, like an eagle, against the professed beds of their distress, yet they have not with their hearts Church of God, the people of Israel. Bp. Hall. unfeignedly sought unto Me. Bp. Hall. Even when 2. Israel shall cry unto me, My God, we know thee.] they assembled themselves for fear of dearth and famine, Israel shall feignedly cry unto Me, and challenge favour to pray for plenty, for corn and wine, even then did they from Me; and say, My God, we make profession of continue to rebel against God. Dr. Pocock.

Thy name. Bp. Hall. 15. Though I have bound and strengthened their arms, 3. Israel haih cast off the thing that is good :) Either &c.] Though I have bound up their wounds, and given God Himself, who is simply and absolutely "good ;" them new strength and vigour, yet they are continually Matt. xix. 17 : or such things as are pleasing to God, devising some new idolatrous invention, whereby they and therefore “good” as bringing men near to Him, may dishonour Me. W. Lowth. Or, as in the margin, such as His law, His worship, the performance of their “ though I have chastened,” &c. Whether I have in- duty to Him, and the observance of His ways and comflicted punishment on them, or shewed them favour, mandments. Dr. Pocock. they rejected Me for their idols. Abp. Newcome.

4. They have set up kings, but not by me : &c.] In 16. They return, but not to the most High :) A dis- 'the description of those things, which provoked God to tinction is here made between a true and a false, or inflict His judgments upon Israel, He declares their hypocritical conversion. It is not said that they returned apostasy from Him, first in civil matters, then in matnot at all, that they made no shew of repentance; but ters of their religion. Dr. Pocock. that they returned not home to the Lord ; which is princes, and I knew it not:7 That is, God did not what He requires of true converts : “If thou wilt return, own or approve of what they did. Dr. Pocock. O Israel, saith the Lord, return unto Me," Jer. iv. 1. 5. Thy calf, O Samaria, kath cast thee off ;] The calf This is well given notice of by our translators, in sup- or idol, that the Israelites worshipped, is said to cast plying the word “but,” which is not in the original, them off, inasmuch as it was of no avail to them. Dr. “They returned but not to the most High." Dr. ' Pocock, Dr. Wells, Pocock.

6. For from Israel was it also :) This, their calf and - they are like a deceitful bow :) Like an ill con- : calf-worship, is, as all other idols and idolatry, of mere trived bow, which never directs the arrow to the mark. human invention framed by the Israelites, according to W. Lowth. Their intentions, which are pretended to be the thoughts of their own hearts, and the device of their directed to God, are indeed carried quite another way. own heads; and not agreeable to the will and command Dr. Pocock.

of God. Dr. Pocock. - this shall be their derision in the land of Egypt.] | 7. For they have sown the wind, &c.] And as for them, Their blasphemies, and other enormities, shall be a just they shall even reap as they have sown ; they have cause of reproach to them, when they are exiles in sown the wind, and they shall reap a whirlwind ; they Egypt, whither many of them fled, or were carried away have trusted to vanity, and they shall receive loss and captive. See chap. ix. 3, 6. Compare chap. viii. 13 ; disappointment : a famine shall come upon them : the and see the note on Ezek. xxxvi. 20. W. Lowth. grain that they have sown, shall yield no stalk ; or, if

it have a stalk, yet that stalk shall yield no ear; or if an Chap. VIII. ver. 1. Set the trumpet to thy mouth.] { ear, yet that ear shall yield no substance of meal; or, if


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for their impiety

and idolatry. Before Before 110 meal: if so be it yield, the stran- | sacrifices of mine offerings, and eat Before

Before about 760. gers shall swallow it up.

it; but the LORD accepteth them not; about 760. 8 Israel is swallowed up: now shall now will he remember their iniquity, they be among the Gentiles as a vessel and visit their sins: they shall return wherein is no pleasure.

to Egypt. about 771. 9 For they are gone up to Assyria, 14 For Israel hath forgotten his

a wild ass alone by himself: Ephraim Maker, and buildeth temples; and + Heb. joves. hath hired + lovers.

Judah hath multiplied fenced cities : 10 Yea, though they have hired but I will send a fire upon his cities,

among the nations, now will I gather and it shall devour the palaces thereof.
|| Or, begin. them, and they shall || sorrow a little
for the burden of the king of princes.

11 Because Ephraim hath made the distress and captivity of Israel for their
many altars to sin, altars shall be unto

sins and idolatry.
him to sin.

| REJOICE not, O Israel, for joy, 12 I have written to him the great 1 as other people : for thou hast

things of my law, but they were gone a whoring from thy God, thou 1 Or, In the sacrifices of counted as a strange thing,

| hast loved a a reward || upon every a Jer. 14. 17. aneerings 13 || They sacrifice flesh for the cornfloor.

|| Or, in, &c. it do yield any, the strangers, their enemies, shall swal- | 11. Because Ephraim hath made many altars to sin, low it up. Bp. Hall.

altars shall be unto him to sin.] Or a punishment for 8. Israel is swallowed up :) Though they be not his sin. He shall fall from one degree of wickedness brought to utter destruction and annihilation, yet they | and idolatry to another; and his sin shall bring with it shall be so “swallowed up," as it were, by other nations, I its own punishment. W. Lowth. among whom they shall be dispersed, that they shall 12. I have written to him the great things of my law, retain neither the condition, nor the name of Israel, as &c.] I have given unto them My royal law, and have the people of God, or a people at all of their own juris- left it recorded for them, that it might be to them à diction. This hath been long since plainly verified in perpetual direction; but they have slighted it, as if it the ten tribes, which have been for so many years so were a thing that concerned them not. Bp. Hall. lost among the Gentile nations, that even the very name 13. They sacrifice flesh &c.] Though, pretending to of them is perished, and no one can say where they are. worship God, they offered many sacrifices, yet they Dr. Pocock.

offered them with evil intentions, namely, to glut and - as a vessel wherein is no pleasure. As broken feast themselves, but not appease or please Him: and vessels that are put to base uses. Bp. Hall.

therefore it is added, "the Lord accepteth them not.” 9. For they are gone up to Assyria,] Thinking to | Dr. Pocock. make the Assyrians their friends, and under their pro- - they shall return to Egypt.] Or, be reduced to tection to find shelter from what God had denounced an abject oppressed condition, like that of the Egyptian against them. Dr. Pocock. This is not yet the going servitude. Bp. Horsley. into captivity. The captivity, though near at hand, is 14. For Israel hath forgotten his Maker, and buildeth yet to come. This going up is past. It is a voluntary temples; &c.] For Israel hath forgotten his Maker, and, going up, and a crime. The captivity is the punishment. contrary to His commandment, buildeth temples to Bp. Horsley.

idols: and Judah, contrary to the command of the - a wild ass alone by himself :) See the note on same God, hath multiplied fenced cities, as trusting in Job xi. 12. With respect to the expression “ alone by his own strength : but I will send the Assyrian, as himself,” it may be observed, that though wild asses be a fire, upon the cities of Israel, and the Chaldean into often found in the desert in whole herds, yet it is usual the cities of Judah, and they shall consume and waste for some one of them to break away, and separate him- | the palaces thereof. Bp. Hall. self from his company, and run alone at random by himself. Dr. Pocock. See also the note on Job xxxix. 6. Chap. IX. ver. 1. Rejoice not, O Israel, for joy,] It

- Ephraim hath hired lovers.] This alludes to the should seem, that this prophecy was delivered at a time general profusion of the government in forming foreign when the situation of publick affairs was promising : alliances, in which the latter kings, both of Israel and perhaps after some signal success, which had given ocJudah, were equally culpable ; as appears by the his-casion to publick rejoicings. Bp. Horsley. Or, the joy tory of the collateral reigns of Ahaz and Pekah. Their here mentioned may properly mean those rejoicings, allies are called “lovers ;" for every forbidden alliance commonly made among all people at the end of harvest, with idolaters was a part of the spiritual incontinence of when the Gentiles offered sacrifices of thanksgiving for the nation. Bp. Horsley. Nothing could be more fla- / the plenty they enjoyed. W. Lowth. gitious, than that the hire should be given by the adul - as other people :] Those national successes, teress. See Ezek. xvi. 33. Abp. Newcome.

which might be just cause for rejoicing to other people, 10. Yea, though they have hired &c.] Though they are none to thee: for thou liest under the heavy senhave hired allies among the heathen nations, now will I tence of God's wrath for thy disloyalty to Him; and all gather them, in order to deliver them into captivity, and thy bright prospects will vanish, and terminate in thy they shall sorrow in a little time for the burden of cap- destruction. The Gentiles were not guilty in an equal tivity, &c. put on them by the king of Assyria. “A degree with the Israelites; for although they sinned, it little” in this place should be in a little time." The was not against the light of Revelation, in contempt of king of Assyria is styled “the king of princès," as the warnings of inspired Prophets, or in breach of any having kings and princes for his tributaries. Dr. Wells, express covenant. Bp. Horsley. W. Lowth.

- thou hast loved a reward upon every cornfloor.]

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