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CHRIST

CHRIST

The interpretation of

DANIEL.

Daniel's vision. Before even of that horn that had eyes, and 24 And the ten horns out of this Before about 555. a mouth that spake very great things, kingdom are ten kings that shall about 555.

whose look was more stout than his arise : and another shall rise after
fellows.

them; and he shall be diverse from
21 I beheld, and the same horn the first, and he shall subdue three
made war with the saints, and pre- kings.
vailed against them;

25 And he shall speak great words
22 Until the Ancient of days came, against the most High, and shall wear
and judgment was given to the saints out the saints of the most High, and
of the most High; and the time came think to change times and laws: and
that the saints possessed the king- they shall be given into his hand
dom.

until a time and times and the divid-
23 Thus he said, The fourth beast ing of time.
shall be the fourth kingdom upon 26 But the judgment shall sit,
earth, which shall be diverse from all and they shall take away his domin-
kingdoms, and shall devour the whole ion, to consume and to destroy it
earth, and shall tread it down, and unto the end.
· break it in pieces.

27 And the d kingdom and do- d Luke 1. 33. -- even of that horn that had eyes,] Of the little horn, attributes and titles of holiness and infallibility ; exactwhich represents the papal power, it was before said, ing obedience to his ordinances and decrees in prefe“ in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man,” ver. 8: rence to, and open violation of, reason and Scripture; namely, to denote his cunning and foresight, his looking insulting men, and blaspheming God. Bp. Newton. out and watching all opportunities to promote his own - and shall wear out the saints of the most High, interest. And the policy of the Roman hierarchy hath See above, note on ver. 21. almost passed into a proverb. Bp. Newton.

- and think to change times and laws :] Appointing - and a mouth that spake very great things,] Such fasts and feasts, canonizing saints, granting pardons had the Pope, especially in former ages, boasting of his and indulgences for sins, instituting new modes of supremacy, thundering out his bulls and anathemas, worship, imposing new articles of faith, enjoining new excommunicating princes, and absolving subjects from rules of practice, and reversing at pleasure the laws both their allegiance. Bp. Newton.

of God and men. Bp. Newton. -- whose look was more stout than his fellows.] The and they shall be given into his hand until a time

over his fellow bishops, but even over crowned heads. either the saints shall be subject to his power, or his Bp. Newton.

influence shall prevail over the times, or solemnities, and 21. the same horn made war with the saints, &c.] And laws. Possibly both might be meant to be included in below, he “shall wear out the saints of the Most High," the usurpation. Wintle. ver. 25 : that.is, by wars, and massacres, and inquisi. The period here mentioned must be computed accordtions, persecuting and destroying the faithful servants ing to the nature and genius of the prophetick lanof Jesus and the true worshippers of God, who protest guage. According to this “time and times and the diagainst his innovations, and refuse to comply with the viding of time," or half a time, are three years and a half: idolatry practised in the Church of Rome. Bp. Newton, and the ancient Jewish year consisting of twelve months,

22. Until the Ancient of days came, &c.] Until the and each month of thirty days, “ a time and times and half final judgment, when the saints shall sit as assessors a time," or three years and a half, are reckoned in the with God, shall be seated on thrones, and reign as kings Revelation as equivalent to “forty and two months," or and priests with God and Christ, and possess the king-“a thousand two hundred and threescore days," chap. dom for ever, Rev. xx. 4, 6. Wintle.

xi. 2, 3; xii. 6, 14: and a day in the style of the Pro24. — and another shall rise after them ;Rather, phets is a year, Ezek. iv. 6: and it is confessed, that “ behind them :" the meaning appears to be, that the the seventy weeks in the ninth chapter of Daniel are ten horns were not aware of the growing up of “the weeks of years; and consequently 1260 days are 1260 little horn,” till it overtopped them. Jos. Mede. years. So long the little horn, or the papal power, will

- he shall be diverse from the first,] The papal continue: but from what point of time the commencepower being an ecclesiastical and spiritual, as well as a ment of these 1260 years is to be dated, is not so easy civil and temporal authority. Bp. Newton.

to determine. And, as Ireneus saith in a like case, it - he shall subdue three kings.] See note on ver. 8, is surer and safer to wait for the completion of the pro“ before whom there were three" &c.

phecy, than to conjecture and divine about it. When 25. And he shall speak great words against the most the end shall come, then shall we know better whence High,] See ver. 8, 20; chap. xi. 36. St. John plainly to date the beginning. Bp. Newton. alludes to this text, Rev. xiii. 5, 6, where the beast is! 26. But the judgment shall sit, &c.] This being the said “to open his mouth in blasphemy against God.” last of the four earthly kingdoms or monarchies, when This he did by advancing his own authority above that that is destroyed, there will be an end of the present of God, and in derogation to His laws; compare 2 state of things, when all human “rule, authority, and Thess. ii. 4; as also by setting up the worship of power,” shall cease, 1 Cor. xv. 24 ; and “the kingdoms images, and other idolatrous practices, which the Pro- of this world shall become the kingdoms of our Lord, phet Isaiah calls reproaching and blaspheming God, and of His Christ," Rev. xi. 15. W. Lowth. Isai. lxv. 7. W. Lowth,

After what manner these great changes will be efOr, as Symmachus interprets it, “he shall speak great fected, we cannot pretend to say, since God hath not words as the Most High :" setting up himself above all been pleased to reveal it. We see the remains of the “ten laws divine and human, arrogating to himself godlike horns" which arose out of the Roman empire. We see the

about 553.

His vision of
CHAP. VII, VIII.

the ram and he goat. Beforer minion, and the greatness of the 2 And I saw in a vision; and it Before about 555. kingdom under the whole heaven, came to pass, when I saw, that I was about 553.

shall be given to the people of the at Shushan in the palace, which is in
saints of the most High, whose king- the province of Elam; and I saw in

dom is an everlasting kingdom, and a vision, and I was by the river of
| Or, rulers. all || dominions shall serve and obey Ulai.
him.

| 3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and 28 Hitherto is the end of the saw, and, behold, there stood before matter. As for me Daniel, my cogi- the river a ram which had two horns : tations much troubled me, and my and the two horns were high; but one countenance changed in me: but I was higher than † the other, and the + Heb. the

second. kept the matter in my heart.

higher came up last. CHAP. VIII.

4 I saw the ram pushing westward,

and northward, and southward ; so
1 Daniel's vision of the ram and he goat. 13
The two thousand three hundred days of what no...,

of that no beasts might stand before
sacrifice. 15 Gabriel comforteth Daniei, 1 him, neither was there any that could
and interpreteth the vision.

deliver out of his hand; but he did
TN the third year of the reign of according to his will, and became

1 king Belshazzar a vision appeared | great.
unto me, even unto me Daniel, after 5 And as I was considering, be-
that which appeared unto me at the hold, an he goat came from the west
first.

on the face of the whole earth, and “ little horn" still subsisting, though not in its' full pears from hence, that it was usual for the king of strength and vigour, but as we hope upon the decline, Persia to wear, instead of a diadem, a ram's head made and tending towards a dissolution. And having seen so of gold, and adorned with precious stones. Bp. Newmany of these particulars accomplished, we can have no | ton. Rams' heads with horns, one higher and the other reason to doubt that the rest also will be fulfilled in due lower, are still to be seen on the pillars of Persepolis. season, though we cannot frame any conception, how Sir J. Chardin. Christ will be manifested in glory, how the little horn -- the two horns were high ; &c.] This is said, bewith the body of the fourth beast will be given to the cause the empire of the Medes and Persians was a burning flame, or how the saints will take the kingdom, coalition of two very formidable powers : “but one was and possess it for ever and ever. It is the nature of higher than the other, and the higher came up last.” such prophecies not to be perfectly understood till they | The kingdom of Media was the more ancient of the are fulfilled. The best comment upon them will be two, and more famous in history: Persia was of little their completion. Bp. Newton.

note or account till the time of Cyrus, but under Cyrus

the Persians gained and maintained the ascendant. Bp. Chap. VIII. Hitherto the prophecies of Daniel, that Newton. is, from the fourth verse of the second chapter to this 4. I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and chapter, are written in Chaldee. As they greatly con- southward ;) Daniel saw “the ram standing," or estacerned the Chaldeans, so they were published in that blished in his strength, after the succession of the Perlanguage. But the remaining prophecies are written in sian power under Cyrus; and then butting “westward, Hebrew, because they treat altogether of affairs subse- and northward, and southward,” or subduing Lydia, quent to the times of the Chaldeans, and relate not at Babylonia, and Egypt, with their dependencies, repreall to them, but principally to the Church and people of sented in the former vision by three ribs in the bear's God. Bp. Newton.

mouth. Dr. Hales. Ver. 2. - Shushan - Elam ; Ulai.) Elam, in its -- he did according to his will, and became great. ) larger sense, probably comprehended the whole country None of the neighbouring kingdoms being able to withon each side of the river Ulai, or Eulæus, the one part stand its power, the Persian empire was increased and being called Elymais, the other Susiana Shushan, the enlarged to such a degree, that it extended “ from India metropolis, according to Pliny, was placed on this river, even unto Ethiopia, over an hundred and seven and or rather surrounded by it, and seems to have been the twenty provinces,” Esth. i. 1: so that seven provinces capital of both parts. Wintle. See the note on Nehem. were added to the hundred and twenty which it coni. 1.

tained in the time of Cyrus, Dan. vi. 1. Bp. Newton. The Ulai is the same as the Choaspes, according to 5. behold, an he goat] The interpretation of which Rennell's Geography of Herodotus. Dr. Hales. is given in ver. 21. “A goat” is very properly made

3. — there stood before the river a ram] The second the type of the Grecian or Macedonian empire. The empire in the former vision is the first in this : and what first king of the Macedonians, about 200 years before was there compared to a bear is here prefigured by a Daniel, instigated by an oracle, as it is said, made a ram. This “ram having two horns,” according to the goat his ensign, and called his capital city Ægeæ, or explication of the angel Gabriel, was the empire of the the goat's town. Jos. Mede. It is also remarkable, that Medes and Persians, ver. 20; Cyrus, the founder of Alexander's son by Roxana was named the son of the this empire, was son of Cambyses, king of Persia, and goat; and some of his successors are represented on by his mother Mandane was grandson of Astyages king their coins with goat's horns. Bp. Newton. of Media : and afterwards marrying the daughter of an --- came from the west &c.] He came “from the only child of his uncle Cyaxares king of Media, he suc-west;" for Europe lies westward of Asia : he came “on ceeded to both crowns, and united the kingdoms of the face of the whole earth,” carrying every thing before Media and Persia. The propriety of the emblem ap- | him in all the three parts of the world then known: Vol. II.

2 Q

CHRIST

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Daniel's vision of

DANIEL.

· the ram and he goat. CHRIST

efore I touched not the ground: and the goat | upon him: and there was none that c Before about 553. had ta notable horn between his eyes. could deliver the ram out of his about 553.

6 And he came to the ram that hand. touched him had two horns, which I had seen 8 Therefore the he goat waxed + Heb. a horn standing before the river, and ran very great: and when he was strong,

unto him in the fury of his power. the great horn was broken; and for

7 And I saw him come close unto it came up four notable ones a toward a Chap. 11. 4. the ram, and he was moved with the four winds of heaven. choler against him, and smote the 9 And out of one of them came ram, and brake his two horns: and forth a little horn, which waxed exthere was no power in the ram to ceeding great, toward the south, and stand before him, but he cast him toward the east, and toward the down to the ground, and stamped pleasant land.

Ezek. 20. 6.

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“and he touched not the ground;" alluding to the to be kingdoms of Greeks, not of Alexander's own swiftness of his marches, and the rapidity of his con. family, but only of his nation; and neither were they quests. For the same reason the same empire in the to be equal to him in power and dominion : an empire former vision was likened to a “leopard,” which is a united is certainly more powerful than the same empire swift nimble animal; and, to denote the greater quick- divided, and the whole is greater than any of the parts. ness and impetuosity, to “a leopard with four wings.” They were likewise to extend “toward the four winds Bp. Newton.

of heaven :" and in the partition of the empire Cassan-- and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes.] der held Macedon, and Greece, and the western parts; “ The rough goat” (see the 21st verse) “is the king of Lysimachus had Thrace, Bithynia, and the northern Grecia," that is, the kingdom; “ and the great horn regions; Ptolemy possessed Egypt, and the southern between his eyes is the first king :" not the first mo- countries; and Seleucus obtained Syria, and the eastnarch, but the first kingdom, that which lasted during ward provinces. Thus were they divided “toward the the reign of Alexander the Great, and his brother Ari- four winds of heaven." Bp. Newton. dæus, and two young sons, Alexander and Hercules. 9. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, &c.] Sir Isaac Newton.

This " little horn" has been supposed to mean Antio6, 7. And he came to the ram &c.] In these two chus Epiphanes, king of Syria, who was a great enemy verses we have an account of the Grecians overthrowing and cruel persecutor of the Jews. And at first sight the Persian empire. The ram had before “ pushed he does indeed in some features very much resemble westward ;” and the Persians, in the reign of Darius the “little horn;" but on a nearer view it appears, that Hystaspes and Xerxes, had poured down with great in other parts there is no similitude or correspondence armies into Greece; but now the Grecians in return between them. Sir Isaac Newton, with that sagacity carried their arms into Asia, and the he goat invaded which was peculiar to him, and with which he penethe ram that had invaded him. Bp. Newton.

trated into Scripture as well as into nature, perceived - standing before the river, &c.] The first and plainly that the “ little horn" could not be drawn for principal engagement in which Alexander overthrew the Antiochus Epiphanes, but must be designed for some Persians was at the river Granicus in Phrygia. The other subject. Bp. Newton. The description of it throughsucceeding part of this description is a striking repre- out is exactly applicable in all its parts to the Roman sentation of his conquering the Persian monarch in temporal power; and this application is sanctioned also repeated battles, subduing his whole kingdom, taking by the prevailing opinion of the generality of commenall his forts and strong cities, making the king himself, tators. "Dr. Hales. The Romans, who were prefigured with his family, principal officers, &c. prisoners, and by a great “ beast” in the former vision, are here reprethus utterly overturning the Persian empire. Bp. Newton. sented by the “horn” of the goat: for nothing is more

8. Therefore the he goat waxed very great : and when usual, than to describe the same person or thing under he was strong, &c.] This verse is interpreted by the different images upon different occasions; and besides, angel in ver. 22. Nothing is fixed and stable in human in this vision the Roman empire is not designed at affairs; and the empire of the goat, though exceeding large, but only the Roman empire as the horn of the great, was perhaps for that very reason the sooner bro- goat. When the Romans first got footing in Greece, ken in pieces. It was in its full strength, when Alex- then they became a horn of the goat. Out of this horn ander died of a fever at Babylon. He was succeeded they came, and at first were“ a little horn," but in proin the throne by his natural brother Philip Aridæus, cess of time overtopped the other horns. From Greece and by his own two sons Alexander Ægus and Her- they extended their arms, and overran the other parts of cules; but in the space of about fifteen years they were the goat's dominions: and their actions within the doall murdered, and then the first horn or kingdom was minions of the goat, and not their affairs in the western entirely broken. The royal family being thus extinct, empire, are the principal subject of this prophecy. But the governours of provinces, who had usurped the their actions, which are most largely and particularly power, assumed the title of kings, and, by the defeat specified, are their great persecution and oppression of and death of Antigonus in the battle of Ipsus, they the people of God; which renders it probable, that the were reduced to four, Cassander, Lysimachus, Pto- appellation of the “ little horn" might be given them for lemy, and Seleucus, who parted Alexander's dominions the same reason, that the great persecutor and oparnong them, and divided and settled them into four pressor of the saints in the western empire is also called kingdoms. These four kingdoms are the four notable the “ little horn.” It is the same kind of power, and horns, which came up in the room of the first great therefore might be signified by the same name, Bp. horn ; and are the same as the four heads of the leo- | Newton. pard in the former vision. “ Four kingdoms shall stand

which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, up out of the nation, but not in his power :” they were and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.] This

CHRIST

CHRIST

the host.

Daniel's vision of

CHAP. VIII.

the ram and he goat. Before 10 And it waxed great, even || to of transgression, and it cast down the Before about 553. the host of heaven; and it cast down truth to the ground; and it practised, about 553. mind some of the host and of the stars to and prospered.

the ground, and stamped upon them. 131 Then I heard one saint speak

11 Yea, he magnified himself evening, and another saint said untoll it that 1 0r, the | Or, against. || to the prince of the host, and || by | certain saint which spake, How long secrets, or,

him the daily sacrifice was taken shall be the vision concerning the daily, **** away, and the place of his sanctuary sacrifice, and the transgression || of Heb. en was cast down.

desolation, to give both the sanctuary i Or, making against the 12 And || an host was given him and the host to be trodden under

against the daily sacrifice by reason foot ?

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the wonderful numberer.

! Or, the host was giren orer for the transgression

Palmoni,

desolate.

daily sacrilice.

horn therefore was to rise up in the northwest parts of of “taking away the daily sacrifice, and casting down those nations, which composed the body of the goat; the place of the sanctuary;" seem to prefigure the most and from thence was to extend his dominion towards grievous miseries, the utter demolition and extirpation Egypt, Syria, and Judea. Sir Isaac Newton.

of the Jewish state, the dreadful devastation made by The actions of the little horn here described accord the Romans under Titus Vespasian, when “ the stars well with the Romans. He “waxed exceeding great;" fell from heaven, and the powers of the heavens were and so did the Roman empire, even within the territory shaken.” Dr. Zouch. of the goat. “ Toward the south;" the Romans made 12. And an host was given &c.] Or, as we read in the Egypt a province of their empire, and kept possession margin, “the host was given over for the transgression of it for several centuries. “Toward the east;" the against the daily sacrifice, and he cast down the truth to Romans grew very powerful in this direction, conquer the ground, and he practised, and prospered.” Or, as ing and making a province of Syria, which was the the same thing is expressed by the angel, “ He shall eastern kingdom of the goat. “And toward the plea destroy wonderfully,” &c. see ver. 24, 25. The Romans sant land;" that is, Judea: see Ps. cvi. 24; Jer. iii. 19; carried their conquest and their revenge so far, as to Dan. xi. 16, 41. The Romans effectually conquered put an end to the government of the Jews, and entirely and subdued the Jews, first made a province of their to take away their place and nation. Bp. Newton. country, and then destroyed their city and temple, and 13. — unto that certain saint which spake, “Unto dispersed the people, so that after so fatal a fall they that excellent one that was speaking." Wintle. This have never been able to rise again. Bp. Newton. “excellent Saint,” who uttered the response, was the

10. And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; Oracle Himself, who before appeared to Isaiah in glory, &c.] Or, “ against the host of heaven.” This part of sitting on His throne between the Seraphim, Isai. vi. 1; the prophecy relates mostly to the persecution and op- and now appeared to Daniel, “ as a man, standing bepression of the people of God. “ The host of heaven” fore him," and bidding the other angel, whom He are the people and great men of the Jews. Sir Isaac called Gabriel, to explain the vision to the Prophet. Dr. Newton. Either the Jewish state in general, “ the Hales. mighty and the holy people,” ver. 24 : or the priests The word, rendered here “certain Saint," is transand Levites in particular, who are called “stars," as lated in the margin "the Numberer of secrets,” or “the being eminent for their station, and illustrious for their wonderful Numberer;" and must mean a Person of knowledge; and “the host of heaven," as they watched extraordinary rank, as being able to unfold those seand served in the temple, and their service is denomi- crets, which were bid from the angels; and is therenated “a warfare," Numb. viii. 24, 25. Our Saviour fore justly supposed to be the Son of God, called makes use of the like expressions in speaking of the de- “Wonderful, Counsellor," Isai.ix. 6, as being acquainted struction of Jerusalem by the Romans, Matt. xxiv. 29. with all God's purposes and designs; compare John i. Bp. Newton.

18. W. Lowth. In this elevated language is the Jewish hierarchy - How long shall be the vision &c.) Moses had preshadowed out after the manner of the Eastern writers. dicted, that the desolation to follow the Roman capThe Jewish polity, both civil and religious, was the tivity would be of very long continuance, Deut. xxviii. work of Heaven. The government, laws, and worship, 59. And Isaiah had enquired from the Oracle, in vision, of the holy people, were figured by the sun, moon, and How long it should continue ? Isai. vi. 11 ; to which stars. See Matt. xxiv. 29; Mark xiii. 24. Thus the no definite answer was then given. That was reserved fall of Babylon is foretold in Isai. xiii. 10; and the de- / for the highly favoured Daniel, in this remarkable struction of Egypt in Ezek. xxxii. 7, 8; and that of episode, introduced into the midst of the second vision, Idumea in Isai. xxxiv. 4, 5, Dr. Zouch.

and intimately connected therewith; immediately fol11. Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the lowing the account of the destruction of the temple by host,) Or, “ against the prince of the host." Bp. the Romans. Dr. Hales. Neuton. The Messiah, the Prince of the Jews, whom | -- the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, &c.] In he put to death. Sir Isaac Newton. See the note on the original there is no such word as “concerning :" ver. 25.

and Mr. Lowth rightly observes, that the words may be - and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and rendered more agreeably to the Hebrew thus, “ For the place of his sanctuary was cast down.] The Romans how long a time shall the vision last, the daily sacrifice took away the daily sacrifice of the Jews, and utterly be taken away, and the transgression of desolation condestroyed their temple. Bp. Newton.

tinue?” &c. Thus it is rendered in several translations. In the 7th verse the he goat is said to “cast down the The answer is, “ Unto two thousand and three hundred ram to the ground, and to stamp upon him:" by which | days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.” In the is implied the total destruction of the ram. And here original it is “unto two thousand and three hundred the expressions of " casting down some of the host and evenings and mornings,” an evening and morning of the stars to the ground, and stamping upon them;" being in Hebrew the notation of time for a day; and

Before

CHRIST about 553.

+ Heb. made

morning.

Gabriel comforteth Daniel,

DANIEL.

and interpreteth the vision 14 And he said unto me, Unto | toward the ground: but he touched Before CHRIST about 553. two thousand and three hundred me, and 1 set me upright.

+ days; then shall the sanctuary be | 19 And he said, Behold, I will + Heb. evening cleansed.

make thee know what shall be in the me stand + Heb.

15 | And it came to pass, when I, last end of the indignation : for at the standing. justified.

even I Daniel, had seen the vision, time appointed the end shall be.
and sought for the meaning, then, 20 The ram which thou sawest
behold, there stood before me as the having two horns are the kings of
appearance of a man.

Media and Persia.
16 And I heard a man's voice be- 21 And the rough goat is the king

tween the banks of Ulai, which called, of Grecia : and the great horn that c Chap. 9. 21. and said, “ Gabriel, make this man to is between his eyes is the first king. understand the vision.

22 Now that being broken, where17 So he came near where I stood: as four stood up for it, four kingdoms and when he came I was afraid, and shall stand up out of the nation, but fell upon my face: but he said unto not in his power. me, Understand, O son of man: for 23 And in the latter time of their at the time of the end shall be the kingdom, when the transgressors t are + Heb. are

accomplished vision.

come to the full, a king of fierce o 18 Now as he was speaking with countenance, and understanding dark

me, I was in a deep sleep on my face sentences, shall stand up. in allusion to this expression it is said afterwards, “The here given to the Prophet, either to put him in mind vision of the evening and the morning is true.”

that he was but flesh and blood, that he might not be The days without doubt are to be taken agreeably to exalted for having these heavenly visions imparted to the style of Daniel in other places, not for natural, but him; or else it may be interpreted for a mark or title prophetick days; that is, years; and as the question of honour, implying something more than an ordiwas asked, not only how long the daily sacrifice should nary man, even such an one as was highly favoured be taken away, and the transgression of desolation con- and beloved of God. W. Lowth. See the note on tinue, but also how long the vision shall last ; so the Ezek. ii. 1. answer is to be understood; and these two thousand

for at the time of the end shall be the vision. Or, and three hundred days denote the whole time from the “ to the time of the end;" that is, there is a precise beginning of the vision to the cleansing of the sanc time appointed for the accomplishment of the vision, tuary. The sanctuary is not yet cleansed, and conse when it shall certainly be fulfilled. See ver. 19; and quently these years are not yet expired. When these compare chap. ix. 27' ; xi. 35, 36; Hab. i. 3. W. years shall be expired, then their end will clearly shew Lowth. from whence the beginning is to be dated, whether from 19. — in the last end of the indignation :] Or,“ to the the vision of the ram, or of the he goat, or of the little last end of the indignation.” I will explain to thee horn. It is difficult to fix the precise time, when the the whole series of God's judgments upon His people prophetick dates begin, and when they end, till the pro- to the end and conclusion of them. See chap. xii. 8. phecies are fulfilled, and the event declares the certainty W. Lowth. of them. Bp. Newton.

23. And in the latter time of their kingdom, &c.] That 16. And I heard a man's voicewhich called, and said, is, of Alexander's successors. Dr. Hales. The Romans Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.) And I might well be said to stand up “ in the latter time of heard the voice of Him, who was the Word of His their kingdom,” for they saw the end, not only of one Father, speaking in the tone of a man, betwixt the kingdom, but of all the four, which were successively banks of Ulai ; which called and said, Gabriel, it is subdued, or otherwise gotten possession of, by the the pleasure of Him, who is the God of spirits, that Romans. Bp. Newton. thou make this man to understand the vision. Bp. when the transgressors are come to the full, Hall.

Alluding to the various invasions of the Jewish polity The Person who utters this voice seems to be the and religion which took place under the Romans; when, same who is called “the wonderful Numberer,” ver. 13; among other profanations, under the Roman consul because He speaks as one that had authority over the Paulus Æmilius, the Jewish religion was put down, angel Gabriel. W. Lowth.

and the heathen worship was set up in the cities of Daniel was so overpowered by the Divine presence, Judea, and in Jerusalem; and the temple itself was that he fell on his face in a deep sleep or trance towards consecrated to Jupiter Olympius, and his image was the earth, till Gabriel touched him, and restored him to erected upon the very altar. Then indeed “ the transhis senses, and set him upright, and then explained to gressors were come to the full ;” and then, as we see, him more particularly the former historical part of the the Romans “stood up a king of fierce countenance, vision : concluding with a reference to the latter chro- and understanding dark sentences." Bp. Newton. nological part, or “vision of the evening-mornings," - a king of fierce countenance, and understanding that it was “true," or would be verified by the accom- dark sentences, 7 “ A king” in the prophetick style is plishment; but that the accomplishment was remote, or the same as “ a kingdom," and a kingdom is any state * for many days," and that “the vision was shut up," or government. Bp. Newton. or sealed, and its further disclosure hidden for the pre- What follows is a description of the Roman power sent. Dr. Hales.

and policy, in subduing the world by force and fraud. 17.- O son of man:] This title is given to none of That peculiar characteristick of the Romans, “ the the Prophets but Ezekiel and Daniel. Probably it is I fierce countenance,” first noticed by Moses, Deut.

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