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6 But if ye shew the dream, and niel's advancement.
the interpretation thereof, ye shall
receive of me gifts and || rewards and 1 Or, fee, AND in the second year of the great honour : therefore shew me the A reign of Nebuchadnezzar Ne- dream, and the interpretation thereof. buchadnezzardreamed dreams, where- 7 They answered again and said, with his spirit was troubled, and his | Let the king tell his servants the sleep brake from him.
dream, and we will shew the inter2 Then the king commanded to pretation of it. call the magicians, and the astrolo- | 8 The king answered and said, gers, and the sorcerers, and the I know of certainty that ye would Chaldeans, for to shew the king his + gain the time, because ye see the + Chald. buy. dreams. So they came and stood thing is gone from me. before the king.
9 But if ye will not make known 3 And the king said unto them, I unto me the dream, there is but one have dreamed a dream, and my spirit decree for you: for ye have prepared was troubled to know the dream. lying and corrupt words to speak be
4 Then spake the Chaldeans to fore me, till the time be changed : a Chap. 3.9. the king in Syriack, a O king, live for therefore tell me the dream, and I
ever : tell thy servants the dream, shall know that ye can shew me the
5 The king answered and said to 10 9 The Chaldeans answered be-
from me: if ye will not make known a man upon the earth that can shew Þ Chap. 3. 29. unto me the dream, with the inter- the king's matter: therefore there is
es. pretation thereof, ye shall be bt cut no king, lord, nor ruler, that asked
Chald. made piece
longer, at least till the third year of Cyrus, as appears is called the Hebrew tongue in the New Testament. from chap. x. 1. W. Lowth.
The language, spoken in Antioch and other parts of
Syria, differs as a dialect from the two former, and is Chap. II. The prophecies of Daniel are all of them what we now call the Syriack. Wintle, W. Lowth. related to one another, as if they were but several parts - O king, live for ever :7 Or, “ Long live the of one general prophecy, given at several times. The king.” An usual mode of addressing the monarch. first is the easiest to be understood, and every following When he in his turn addressed the people, it was in the prophecy adds something new to the former. Sir Isaac form,“ Peace be multiplied unto you :" see chap. iv. 1. Newton.
Wintle. Ver. 1. — in the second year of the reign of Nebuchad- 5. - The thing is gone from me :) Meaning, “I do not nezzar] The second year, according to the Babylonian recollect it,” according to the Greek and Latin versions: account, or the fourth, according to the Jewish ; that is, or, according to the Syriack, “ The word is most sure in the second year of his reigning alone, or the fourth which I say :" that is, My decree is gone forth and is of his reigning jointly with his father. Bp. Newton. irrevocable. Wintle. Daniel, writing the following history in Chaldea for the - ye shall be cut in pieces,] That is, alive: a dreaduse of the Chaldeans, follows the computation of time ful punishment sometimes inflicted by the Babylonians. in use among them. W. Lowth.
Parkhurst. Compare 1 Sam. xv. 33; Heb. xi. 37; Luke - dreams,] Though it was but one continued xii. 46. The same sort of punishment is still used in dream, it contained a succession of various events. W. | Abyssinia. Bruce. Lowth, Wintle.
8. – I know of certainty that ye would gain the time,) 2.- the sorcerers) See the note on chap. i. 20. By Ye seek delays, in order to gain time; that the king's “sorcerers" seems to be meant a sort of necromancers, attention to other concerns might make him forget this. who pretended to an acquaintance with departed spirits. Wintle. Wintle.
9. — till the time be changed :) Until some other - the Chaldeans, 1 The Chaldeans were so much occasion may divert me from this earnest inquiry, Bp. addicted to the study of the heavenly motions, and to Hall make prognostications from them, that the word “Chal- 1 10. — There is not a man upon the earth &c.] The dean" is used both in Greek and Latin authors for an answer of the Chaldeans was very reasonable, that no astrologer. W. Lowth. According to this sense, we king had ever required such a thing, that it transcended find it used below, ver. 4, for the magicians of every all the powers and faculties of man; God alone could sort. Wintle.
disclose it. But the pride of absolute power cannot 4. — in Syriack,] That is, in the Aramean or Syrian hear any reason, or bear any control. Bp. Newton. The language, as understood in its largest sense, being what furious and arbitrary conduct of Nebuchadnezzar both was spoken by the Assyrians, Babylonians, and many of in this instance, and in that which is recorded in the the neighbouring nations, and the same with what was following chapter, is much illustrated by history, which called the ancient Chaldee. This language, when cor- / shews that such characters are not uncommon among rupted by the introduction of many Hebrew words, I the Eastern monarchs.
1 Or, chief marshal. + Chald.
That I have
Daniel findeth the dream,
and blesseth God. Before such things at any magician, or astro-1 21 And he changeth the times Before 603. loger, or Chaldean.
and the seasons: he removeth kings, 603.
cret things : he knoweth what is in
O thou God of my fathers, who hast
now made known unto us the king's
counsel and wisdom to Arioch the 24 1 Therefore Daniel went in
was gone forth to slay the wise men ordained to destroy the wise men of chief of the of Babylon :
Babylon : he went and said thus unto or, slaughter- 15 He answered and said to Arioch him; Destroy not the wise men of
the king's captain, Why is the de- Babylon : bring me in before the
| 25 Then Arioch brought in Daniel
make known unto the king the in- tai 17 Then Daniel went to his house, terpretation.
of Judah. and made the thing known to Hana 26 The king answered and said to niah, Mishael, and Azariah, his com- Daniel, whose name was Belteshazpanions:
zar, Art thou able to make known 18 That they would desire mer- unto me the dream which I have + Chald. from cies + of the God of heaven concern- seen, and the interpretation therebefore God. jor, inalthey ing this secret; || that Daniel and his of? should not fellows should not perish with the 27 Daniel answered in the preDaniei, &c. rest of the wise men of Babylon. I sence of the king, and said, The
19 | Then was the secret revealed secret which the king hath demanded unto Daniel in a night vision. Then cannot the wise men, the astrologers, Daniel blessed the God of heaven. I the magicians, the soothsayers, shew
20 Daniel answered and said, unto the king; c Ps. 113. 2. Blessed be the name of God for 28 But there is a God in heaven
ever and ever: for wisdom and might that revealeth secrets, and + maketh + Chald. hath are his :
known to the king Nebuchadnezzar 18. That they would desire mercies &c.) Many useful great changes of the world are brought to pass by reobservations might be drawn from this passage on the moving kings and transferring their dominions to nature, the efficacy, and the rewards, of devotion ; on others : by raising some empires and pulling down the power and prevalency of united addresses to Hea others. W. Lowth. ven; and the important benefits, which the piety of a 22. — the light dwelleth with him.7 With Him, and in few holy men may sometimes bring down upon a mul- Him, is all perfection of knowledge, and power of illu-titude. Such improvements must be obvious to every mination. Bp. Hall. attentive reader. Wintle.
28. But there is a God in heaven &c.] Daniel's great 20. — Blessed be the name of God &c.] In this and modesty in disclaiming all merit or extraordinary wisthe three next verses, the Prophet has celebrated the dom on his own part; his piety in giving the glory to praises of the Almighty in a simple, but truly sublime God alone, and at the same time his skill and dexterity and animated, strain of warm and unaffected piety; has in preparing the king's attention, and gradually openmade especial mention of His wisdom and power ; ing his understanding to the reception of the truth, and and illustrated the display of those attributes in seve- the acknowledgment of the one true God, are very reral instances apposite to the subject and occasion. markable. Wintle. The impious king, as St. Jerome Wintle.
justly observes, had a prophetick dream, that, the saint 21.- he changeth the times and the seasons : &c.] The interpreting it, God might be glorified, and the captives,
& 115. 18.
Daniel is brought to the king.
Nebuchadnezzar's dream. Before what shall be in the latter days. Thy | their sakes that shall make known the Before 603. dream, and the visions of thy head interpretation to the king, and that 603. upon thy bed, are these ;
thou mightest know the thoughts of 29 As for thee, O king, thy thy heart. thoughts + came into thy mind upon 31 | Thou, O king, + sawest, and + Chald. wast
seeing. thy bed, what should come to pass behold a great image. This great hereafter : and he that revealeth se- image, whose brightness was excrets maketh known to thee what cellent, stood before thee; and the shall come to pass.
form thereof was terrible. 30 But as for me, this secret is not 32 This image's head was of fine revealed to me for any wisdom that I gold, his breast and his arms of silver, have more than any living, but for his belly and his || thighs of brass, Or, fides.
and those who served God in captivity, might receive even of heathen historians yet preserved, which speak of great consolation. We read the same thing of Pharaoh. this mighty conqueror and his extended empire, and Bp. Newton.
describe him as holding in subjection Egypt, Syria, - the latter days.] This phrase often signifies the Phenicia, and Arabia, as having subdued the greatest times of the Messiah, called the last times or age of the part of Libya and Spain, and as having proceeded as world. See the note on Isai. ii. 2; and so the expres- far as to the pillars of Hercules, and led his army out sion may be understood here : for the prophecy con- of Spain into Thrace and Pontus. But his empire, tained in this vision reaches to the establishment of though of great extent, was yet of no long duration : Messiah's kingdom. See ver. 44, and compare chap. for it ended in his grandson Belshazzar, not seventy x. 14. W. Lowth.
years after the delivery of this prophecy, and not above 30 — but for their sakes that shall make known the in- twenty-three years after the death of Nebuchadnezzar. terpretation to the king,] That this may be the means Bp. Newton. for myself and my three friends to gain your goodwill, his breast and his arms of silver, 7 Which Daniel the better to promote the glory of God, and do kind- interprets, ver. 39, “And after thee shall arise another nesses to our brethren of the captivity. W. Lowth. kingdom inferiour to thee.” The kingdom, which
31. Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image.] ) arose after the Babylonian, was the Medo-Persian. In this vision of the image composed of four metals, the The two hands and the shoulders, saith Josephus, sigfoundation of all Daniel's prophecies is laid. It repre- nify that the empire of the Babylonians should be dissents a body of four great nations, which should reign solved by two kings. The two kings were the kings of over the earth successively ; namely, the people of Ba the Medes and Persians, whose powers were united under bylonia, the Persians, the Greeks, and the Romans. Cyrus, who was son of one of the kings, and son in law And by a stone cut out without hands, which fell upon of the other, who besieged and took Babylon, put an the feet of the image, and brake all the four metals to end to that empire, and on its ruins erected the Medopieces, and “became a great mountain, and filled the Persian, or Persian, as it is more usually called, the whole earth," it further represents, that a new kingdom Persians having soon gained the ascendancy over the should arise after the four, and conquer all those na- Medes. This empire is said to have been inferiour, as tions, and grow very great, and last to the end of all being less than the former, according to the sense of ages. Sir Isaac Newton.
the Latin Vulgate, because neither Cyrus, nor either of - This great image, whose brightness was excellent, his successors, ever carried their arms into Africa or &c.) A great terrible human figure is not an improper Spain, so far as Nebuchadnezzar is reported to have emblem of human power and dominion; and the various done : or rather inferiour, as being worse than the metals, of which it was composed, not unfitly typify the former : for Dean Prideaux asserts, and it may be very various kingdoms that should arise. The order of their truly so asserted, that the kings of Persia were the worst succession is clearly denoted by the order of the parts, race of men that ever governed an empire. This emthe head and higher parts signifying the earlier times, pire, from its first establishment by Cyrus, to the death and the lower parts the latter times. Bps. Chandler and of the last king Darius Codomannus, lasted not much Newton.
more than two hundred years. Bp. Newton. Grotius acutely observes, that this image appeared The arms and shields of the Persians were frequently with a glorious lustre in the imagination of Nebuchad- ornamented or cased with silver: whence Alexander nezzar, whose mind was wholly taken up with admira instituted that remarkable body of veteran infantry, tion of worldly pomp and splendour: whereas the same called Argyraspides, from their silver shields, after the monarchies were represented to Daniel under the shape conquest of Persia, adopting the manners of the conof fierce and wild beasts, chap. vii; as being the great quered nations. Dr. Hales. supporters of idolatry and tyranny in the world. W. -- his belly and his thighs of brass,1 Which Da. Lowth.
niel interprets, ver. 39, “ And another third kingdom 32. This image's head was of fine gold,) Which Da- of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth.” Alerniel interprets, ver. 38, “Thou art this head of gold;" | ander the Great subverted the Persian empire. The kingthou, and thy family, and thy representatives. The dom therefore, which succeeded to the Persian, was the Babylonian therefore was the first of these kingdoms; Macedonian : and this kingdom was fitly represented and it was fitly represented by the “head of fine gold," by brass ; for the Greeks were famous for their brasen on account of its great riches : and Babylon for the armour, their usual epithet being, “the brasen-coated same reason was called by Isaiah “the golden city,” | Greeks." The interpretation of Daniel in Josephus is, chap. xiv. 4. Daniel addresses Nebuchadnezzar, as if that another, coming from the west, completely armed he were a very powerful king, and his empire very large in brass, shall destroy the empire of the Medes and and extensive : “ Thou, O king, art a king of kings :" | Persians. This third kingdom is also said to "bear &c. see verses 37 and 38. Almost all the ancient East-rule over all the earth,” by a figure usual in almost all ern histories are lost: but there are some fragments authors. Alexander himself commanded, that he should
Nebuchadnezzar's dream. Before Before . 33 His legs of iron, his feet part
35 Then was the iron, the clay, c Befors T CHRIST 603. of iron and part of clay.
the brass, the silver, and the gold, 603.
603. ? 34 Thou sawest till that a stone broken to pieces together, and be| Or, which was cut out || without hands, which came like the chaff of the summer was not in hands : as smote the image upon his feet that threshingfloors; and the wind carried ver. 45.
were of iron and clay, and brake them away, that no place was found
for them: and the stone that smote be called the king of all the world: not that he really of these kingdoms :" and it must be during the conquered, or near conquered, the whole world, but he days of some of the last of them, because they are had considerable dominions in Europe, Asia, and Africa ; reckoned “ four” in succession, and consequently that is, in all the three parts of the world then known: this must be the fifth kingdom. Accordingly the and Diodorus Siculus, and other historians, give an ac- kingdom of Christ was set up during the last of count of ambassadours coming from almost all the these kingdoms; that is, the Roman. “The stone” world to congratulate him on his success, or to submit was a totally different thing from the “image,” and to his empire; and then especially, as Arrian remarks, the kingdom of Christ is totally different from the kingdid Alexander appear to himself, and to those about doms of this world. “The stone was cut out of the him, to be master both of the earth and of the sea. mountain without hands," as our heavenly body is said
The Seleucidæ, who reigned in Syria, and the La- (2 Cor. v. 1.) to be “a building of God, an house not gidæ, who reigned in Egypt, successors of Alexander, made with hands;" that is, spiritual, as the phrase is might be designed particularly by “the two thighs” of used in other places, Mark xiv. 58, compared with John brass. And of all his successors they alone might be i. 21: see also Col. ii. 9. This is to be understood of pointed out, because they alone had much connexion the kingdom of Christ, which was formed out of the with the Jewish church and nation. Bp. Newton. Roman empire, not by number of hands, or strength of
33. His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of armies, but without human means, and the virtue of clay.) Which is thus interpreted by Daniel, “And second causes. This kingdom was “set up by the God the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron :" &c. of heaven;" and from hence the phrase of the “ kingSee ver. 40–43. The Romans succeeded next to the dom of heaven” came to signify the kingdom of the Macedonians, and therefore in course were next to be Messiah ; and so it was used and understood by the mentioned. The Roman empire was stronger and Jews, and so it is applied by our Saviour in the New larger than any of the preceding. The Romans brake Testament. Other kingdoms were raised by human in pieces and subdued all the former kingdoms. The ambition and worldly power: but this was the work, iron was “mixed with miry clay," and the Romans not of man, but of God; this was truly, as it is were defiled with a mixture of barbarous nations. The called, the “kingdom of heaven,” and, John xviii. 36, Roman empire was at length divided into ten lesser “a kingdom not of this world ;" its laws, its powers, kingdoms, answering to the ten toes of the image, as were all Divine. This kingdom was never to be dewe shall see hereafter. These kingdoms retained much stroyed, as the Babylonian, the Persian, and the Maceof the old Roman strength, and manifested it upon donian empires have been, and in great measure also several occasions, so that “the kingdom was partly the Roman. This kingdom was to " break in pieces” strong, and partly broken." They “mingled them- and consume all the other kingdoms, to spread and enselves with the seed of men :" they made marriages and large itself, so that it should comprehend within itself alliances one with another, as they continue to do at all the former kingdoms. This kingdom was to “fill this day: but no union ensued ; reasons of state are the whole earth," to become universal, and to stand for stronger than the ties of blood, and interest generally ever. avails more than affinity. Some expound it of the As the fourth kingdom, or the Roman empire, was secular and ecclesiastical powers, sometimes agreeing, represented in a twofold state, first strong and flourishand sometimes clashing and interfering with each other, ing with “ legs of iron," and then weakened and divided to the weakening of both, and endangering of their with feet and toesi, “part of iron and part of clay ;" so breaking to pieces. The Roman empire therefore is this fifth kingdom, or the kingdom of Christ, is derepresented in a double state; first, with the strength scribed likewise in two states, which Mr. Mede rightly of iron, conquering all before it, “his legs of iron;" distinguisheth by the names of the kingdom of the stone and then weakened and divided by the mixture of bar- and the kingdom of the mountain ; the first when “the barous nations, “his feet part of iron and part of clay.” stone was cut out of the mountain without hands," the It subdued Syria, and made the kingdom of the Seleu- second when "it became itself a great mountain, and cidæ a Roman province in the year 65 before Christ; filled the whole earth.” “The stone was cut out of the it subdued Egypt, and made the kingdom of the Lagidæ mountain without hands,” the kingdom of Christ was a Roman province in the year 30 before Christ: and in first set up, while the Roman empire was in its full the fourth century after Christ, it began to be torn in strength with “legs of iron.” The Roman empire was pieces by the incursions of the barbarous nations. Bp. afterwards divided into ten lesser kingdoms, the remains Newton.
of which are subsisting at present. The image is still 34, 35. Thou sawest till that a stone was cut out with standing upon his feet and toes of iron and clay; the out hands,] Which is interpreted and explained by kingdom of Christ is still “ a stumblingblock and a rock Daniel, in the 44th and 45th verses, “And in the days of offence;" but the stone will one day “smite the of these kingdoms shall the God of heaven set up a image upon the feet” and toes, and destroy it utterly, kingdom," &c. This description can with propriety be and will itself “become a great mountain, and fill the understood only, as the ancients understood it, of the whole earth :” or in other words, Rev. xi. 15, “The kingdom of Christ. “And in the days of these kings;" | kingdonas of this world shall become the kingdoms of that is, in the days of some of them. As “in the days our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign for ever when the judges ruled,” Ruth i. ), signifies "in the and ever.” We have therefore seen the kingdom of days when some” of the judges ruled : so “in the the stone,” but we have not yet seen the kingdom of days of these kings" signifies, “ in the days” of some " the mountain.” Some parts of this prophecy still
macle is head of the shall aptie, and
The interpretation of the dream. DANIEL.
Daniel's advancement. c. Before the image became a great mountain, I were part of iron, and part of clay, so c Before 603. and filled the whole earth.
| the kingdom shall be partly strong, , 603. 36 1 This is the dream; and we and partly || broken.
| Or, brillle. will tell the interpretation thereof be- 43 And whereas thou sawest iron fore the king.
mixed with miry clay, they shall 37 Thou, o king, art a king of mingle themselves with the seed of kings : for the God of heaven hath men: but they shall not cleave tone + Chald. this given thee a kingdom, power, and to another, even as iron is not mixed strength, and glory.
with clay. 38 And wheresoever the children 44 And in † the days of these Chald. their of men dwell, the beasts of the field kings shall the God of heaven set up“ and the fowls of the heaven hath a kingdom, d which shall never be a Chap. 4. 3, he given into thine hand, and hath destroyed : and the + kingdom shall &7. 14, 27. made thee ruler over them all. Thou not be left to other people, but it Luke 41. 3s.
shall break in pieces and consume all Chald. 39 And after thee shall arise ano these kingdoms, and it shall stand thereos. ther kingdom inferior to thee, and for ever. another third kingdom of brass, 45 Forasmuch as thou sawest that which shall bear rule over all the the stone was cut out of the mountain earth.
| || without hands, and that it brake in || Or, which
terpretation thereof sure.
niel, and said, Of a truth it is, that
remain to be fulfilled: but the exact completion of the mighty conqueror, that he engaged no enemy which he other parts will not suffer us to doubt of the accomplish- | did not conquer; besieged no city which he did not ment of the rest also in due season. Bp. Newton. take; and made attempts on no nation which he did not
37. Thou, O king, art a king of kings :) So Nebuchad- subdue. Wintle. nezzar is styled, Ezek. xxvi. 7, because he had kings 40. And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron :) for his vassals and tributaries : and so Artaxerxes, king See the note on ver. 33. of Persia, Ezra vii. 12. W. Lowth. It is a title given to 44. And in the days of these kings] That is, kingdoms. the kings of Abyssinia at this day. Bruce.
See the note on ver. 34. for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, - and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, &c.] He might perhaps think, like some of his prede- This kingdom shall not be transferred like the former cessors, that his conquests were to be ascribed to his ones, but shall be of a very different nature, shall crush own fortitude and prudence: see Isai. x. 13. The all temporal kingdoms, and shall be universal, unchangeProphet therefore assures him, that his success must able, and eternal. Wintle. be primarily imputed to the God of heaven. Bp. |
| 45. Forasmuch as thou sawest &c.] There should not Newton.
have been a full stop placed at the end of the last verse, 38. — the beasts of the field and the fouls of the hea- as our translation is commonly pointed : the particle ven] The Greek adds, “and the fish of the sea.” What “forasmuch” carrying on the sense from the foregoing ever right thy subjects can claim, either in their pos- words, as in verses 40 and 41. W. Lowth. sessions, or in any perquisites thereto belonging, is all
the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof held of thee, as the supreme lord. Compare Jer. xxvii. 6. sure.] The king, hearing his dream related with such W. Lowth.
exactness, might be better assured of the truth of the - Thou art this head of gold.] See the note on interpretation, and of the great events which should ver. 32.
follow. Bp. Newton. 39. — another kingdom inferior to thee,] See the note 46. Then the king - fell upon his face, and worshipped on ver. 32, “his breast and his arms of silver.”
Daniel,] Or,“ did reverence to Daniel.” The king
on ver. 32, “his belly and his thighs of brass."
respect, as were consonant to Oriental manners. Wintle. -- which shall bear rule over all the earth] See what 47.- Of a truth it is, that your God is a God of gods, is said of Alexander of Macedonia at the beginning of and a Lord of kings,] Superiour to all the gods or the first book of Maccabees. It is reported of this demons who are worshipped by men; the supreme