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Before CHRIST

CHRIST

The resurrection of dry bones.
EZEKIEL

The promises sn up upon their feet, an exceeding Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and Before about 587. great army.

for all the house of Israel his compa- about 587.
11 I Then he said unto me, Son nions :
of man, these bones are the whole 17 And join them one to another
house of Israel: behold, they say, into one stick; and they shall become
Our bones are dried, and our hope is one in thine hand.
lost: we are cut off for our parts. 18 | And when the children of thy

12 Therefore prophesy and say people shall speak unto thee, saying,
unto them, Thus saith the Lord God; Wilt thou not shew us what thou
Behold, O my people, I will open meanest by these ?
your graves, and cause you to come 19 Say unto them, Thus saith the
up out of your graves, and bring you Lord God; Behold, I will take the
into the land of Israel.

stick of Joseph, which is in the hand
13 And ye shall know that I am of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel
the Lord, when I have opened your his fellows, and will put them with
graves, O my people, and brought him, even with the stick of Judah,
you up out of your graves,

and make them one stick, and they
14 And shall put my spirit in you, shall be one in mine hand.
and ye shall live, and I shall place 20 I And the sticks whereon thou
you in your own land : then shall ye writest shall be in thine hand before
know that I the Lord have spoken their eyes.
it, and performed it, saith the Lord. 21 And say unto them, Thus saith

15 9 The word of the LORD came the Lord God; Behold, I will take
again unto me, saying,

the children of Israel from among the 16 Moreover, thou son of man, heathen, whither they be gone, and take thee one stick, and write upon will gather them on every side, and it, For Judah, and for the children of bring them into their own land : Israel his companions: then take ano 22 And I will make them one nather stick, and write upon it, For tion in the land upon the mountains

out of put my til shall place

tion from the several countries, whither they were dis- | themselves to the same party, as appears from 2 Chron. persed, over the whole world ; expressed by their being xi. 12-16; xv. 9; xxx. 11, 18. Hence the expression, scattered towards all winds, chap. v. 10 ; xii. 14. W. “for Judah, and for the children of Israel his comLowth.

panions." Calmet. 11.- these bones are the whole house of Israel :1 The

For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and for all &c.] state of death and dryness, of dispersion and abandon. Upon Reuben's forfeiting his birthright, that privilege ment, in which you see them, marks the captivity to was conferred upon the sons of Joseph, of whom which they are reduced. I will draw them from that Ephraim had the precedence, i Chron. v.1; Gen. xlviii. state. Calmet.

20; which caused him to be reckoned the head of the 12. your graves,] Alluding to their being buried, ten tribes. Samaria, the seat of that kingdom, was likeas it were, in the land of their captivity. The Jews wise situated in the tribe of Ephraim, and Jeroboam their seemed as absolutely deprived of their own country, as first king was an Ephraimite. Upon these accounts the persons committed to the grave are cut off from the land name of Ephraim signifies in the Prophets the whole of the living. The foregoing similitude shews in a beau | kingdom of Israel, as distinct from that of Judah. W. tiful manner, that God, who could raise the dead, had Lowth. The union of the two sticks may be suppower to restore them. Abp. Newcome.

posed to signify in a more extended sense, the assemThe Jews, in the state of their dispersion and capti- bling, not only of the Jews of all the tribes, but also vity, are called the “ dead Israelites” in Baruch, chap. of the people of all nations in the Church of Christ. iii. 4. And their restoration is described as a “resurrei Calmet. tion” by Isaiah, chap. xxvi. 19; at which time “their | 19. - which is in the hand of Ephraim,] Which is bones" are said to "flourish," or to be restored to their wielded as a sceptre in the hand of Ephraim, and of the former strength and vigour, in the same Prophet, chap. other nine tribes of Israel, the companions of their chief Ixvi. 14. In like manner St. Paul expresses their con- | tribe Ephraim. Abp. Newcome. version by “life from the dead,” Rom. xi. 15. W. --- they shall be one in mine hand. I will make Lowth.

them one nation, and appoint one King to rule over 16. - take thee one stick, and write upon it, ] That is, them, the Messiah ; see ver. 22. W. Lowth. one rod : the expression alludes to Numb. xvii. 2, This prophecy was fulfilled very imperfectly in the where Moses is commanded to take twelve rods, one for persons of the Jews after the captivity, both because each tribe, and to write the name of the tribe upon the neither the tribe of Judah, nor the other tribes, returned rod. W. Lowth.

entire, and because they were not governed by kings of - For Judah, and for the children of Israel his com- the family of David. Calmet. panions :) When Jeroboam, at the head of his com- 22. And I will make them one nation &c.] And I will panions, withdrew from his obedience to the house of unite My Church all the world over in one : and one David, the tribes of Benjamin, Judah, and Levi, still King, even the Messiah, whom I shall send, shall be adhered to the government of Rehoboam. Besides these King to them all, and they shall no more be so divided three tribes, many Israelites from the other tribes joined ) in profession, as if they were different kingdoins, ruled

CHRIST

CHRIST about 587.

20. & 14. 11.

30. 9.

of Christ's kingdom.
CHAP. XXXVII, XXXVIII.

The army of Gog. Before of Israel; and a one king shall be and my servant David shall be their Before about 587. king to them all: and they shall be prince for ever.

6 no more two nations, neither shall | 26 Moreover I will make a cove- De RO

they be divided into two kingdoms nant of peace with them; it shall be ch. 34. 25. any more at all :

an everlasting covenant with them: ' 23 Neither shall they defile them- and I will place them, and multiply selves any more with their idols, nor them, and will set my d sanctuary in d 2 Cor. 6. 16. with their detestable things, nor the midst of them for evermore. with any of their transgressions: but 27 My tabernacle also shall be with I will save them out of all their them: yea, I will be e their God, and e Chap: 11. dwellingplaces, wherein they have they shall be my people. sinned, and will cleanse them: so 28 And the heathen shall know that shall they be my people, and I will I the LORD do sanctify Israel, when be their God.

my sanctuary shall be in the midst of b Isai. 40. 11. 24 And • David my servant shall them for evermore. Jer. 23. 5. &

be king over them; and they all shall
ch. 34. 23.
have one shepherd : they shall also

CHAP. XXXVIII.
walk in my judgments, and observe 1 The army, 8 and malice of Gog. 14 God's
my statutes and do them.

judgment against him.
25 And they shall dwell in the land AND the word of the Lord came
that I have given unto Jacob my H unto me, saying,
servant, wherein your fathers have 2 Son of man, set thy face against
dwelt; and they shall dwell therein, a Gog, the land of Magog, ll the chief a Rev, 20, 8.
even they, and their children, and prince of Meshech and Tubal, and of the chief.

their children's children for ever: prophesy against him, by divers sovereigns, but in the main substance of reli- | themselves, who shall join themselves to the Jews, as gion shall be one. Bp. Hall.

the Church of God and temple of truth : see chap. - and one king shall be king to them all :) The xxxvi. 23. W. Lowth. Messiah is described as King of the Jews in most of the prophecies of the Old Testament, beginning with that Chap. XXXVIII. ver. 2. - set thy face against Gog, of Genesis, chap. xlix. 10, concerning Shiloh. From the land of Magog,] Or, of the land of Magog. Magog David's time He is cominonly spoken of as the Person is reckoned among the sons of Japhet : see Gen. x. 2 : in whom the promises relating to the perpetuity of Da- and Ezekiel here uses Magog as the country of which vid's kingdom were to be accomplished. This was a Gog was prince. W. Lowth, Abp. Newcome. truth unanimously owned by the Jews; see John i. 49; ! It has been the subject of much discussion amongst the to which our Saviour bore testimony before Pontius learned, what is the meaning of this remarkable prophecy; Pilate, when the question being put to Him, “ Art thou who is designed under the name of Gog: and to what pea king ?” He made answer, “Thou sayest,” (the truth,) riod of history the fulfilment of it belongs: On the one “that I am a King." St. Paul, alluding to these words, hand it has been thought, that the whole prophecy recalls them “a good confession," i Tim. vi. 13. The ceived its completion in the Jewish Church in the times same truth Pontius Pilate himself asserted in that inscrip- succeeding the Babylonish captivity ; that by Gog is tion, which by the direction of Providence he ordered to designed Antiochus Epiphanes ; and that the deliverbe written upon the cross ; see John xix. 19 : so that ances predicted to the Church are those which occurred the chief priests impiously renounced their own avowed in the times of the Maccabees. On the other hand, it is principles, when they told Pilate that they had no king believed that the prophecy is to be referred to some pebut Cesar. W. Lowth.

| riod of the Christian Church, either past, or yet to come; 23. - nor with their detestable things,] Or “abomi- that by Gog are either represented generally the enemies nations," as the word is elsewhere translated, and com- of the Christian Church, who have been discomfited by monly applied to idols: see chap. xx. 7 ; 2 Kings xxiii. the superintending providence of God; or some parti13. W. Lowth.

cular enemies, who were to arise at some future period, - out of all their dwellingplaces, wherein &c.] See either of the conversion of the Jews to Christianity, or, chap. xxxvi. 20, 25, 28.

as some suppose, of their restoration to their own land; 26. - and will set my sanctuary in the midst of them or, as others maintain, of a second advent of the Mes&c.] I will set My Church in the midst of them, which siah to reign personally on earth. Amidst this great shall continue to the end of the world; and I will dwell variety of opinions, on a subject of so great difficulty in their hearts as in My temple for ever. Bp. Hall and obscurity, it is best to maintain a cautious reserve

If we understand “for evermore” in a limited sense, in forming a decision, and to wait for that clearer light and the condition of obedience implied, the rebuilding of which Providence may hereafter vouchsafe to us, in the the temple may be in the first instance foretold. At the full developement of the whole scheme of Scriptural final restoration of the Jews, God will place His taber- / prophecies. Pole's Syn. Crit. nacle and sanctuary among them in a larger sense. The other Prophets speak of some future enemy of Abp. Newcome.

the Jews and the Church under a similar description. 28. And the heathen shall know] The conversion of But in what manner this magnificent prophecy is to rethe Jewish nation, and their being restored to their for-ceive its completion, time only can explain. Dr. Gray. mer state of favour and acceptance with God, will be a - the chief prince of Meshech und Tubal,] The work of Providence taken notice of by the heathens king or head of those northern nations which lie upon

Before CHRIST

CHRIST

a mischievous purpose.

confidently.

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The army, and
EZEKIEL.

malice of Gog. Before 3 And say, Thus saith the Lord cover the land, thou, and all thy Before about 587. God; Behold, I am against thee, O bands, and many people with thee. about 587.

Gog, the chief prince of Meshech 10 Thus saith the Lord God; It
and Tubal:

shall also come to pass, that at the 4 And I will turn thee back, and same time shall things come into thy • Chap. 39. 2. put bhooks into thy jaws, and I will mind, and thou shalt || think an evil Or, conceive

bring thee forth, and all thine army, thought:
horses and horsemen, all of them 1 1 And thou shalt say, I will go up
clothed with all sorts of armour, to the land of unwalled villages; I
even a great company with bucklers will go to them that are at rest, that
and shields, all of them handling dwell" || safely, all of them dwelling 101,
swords:

without walls, and having neither“
5 Persia, Ethiopia, and || Libya bars nor gates,
with them; all of them with shield 12 + To take a spoil, and to take + Heb.to spoil

a prey; to turn thine hand upon the to prey the 6 Gomer, and all his bands; the desolate places that are now inhabited, prey. house of Togarmah of the north and upon the people that are gathered quarters, and all his bands: and many out of the nations, which have gotten people with thee.

cattle and goods, that dwell in the 7 Be thou prepared, and prepare + midst of the land.

+ Heb. narel. for thyself, thou, and all thy company 13 Sheba, and Dedan, and the that are assembled unto thee, and be merchants of Tarshish, with all the thou a guard unto them.

young lions thereof, shall say unto 8 9 After many days thou shalt be thee, Art thou come to take a spoil ? visited : in the latter years thou shalt hast thou gathered thy company to come into the land that is brought take a prey? to carry away silver back from the sword, and is gathered and gold, to take away cattle and out of many people, against the goods, to take a great spoil ? mountains of Israel, which have been 14 9 Therefore, son of man, pro

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out of the nations, and they shall | the Lord God; In that day when my
dwell safely all of them.

people of Israel dwelleth safely, shalt
9 Thou shalt ascend and come like thou know not it?
a storm, thou shalt be like a cloud to 15 And thou shalt come from thy

the Euxine sea, and border upon mount Caucasus. See provinces of the north of Mesopotamia; and even Chalnote on chap. xxvii. 13. W. Lowth.

dea, Mesopotamia, Syria, and Babylon. Calmet. 4. — and put hooks into thy jaws,] See chap. xxix. 4. 7. - and be thou a guard unto them.] Do thou be It is an allusion to the manner of taking the crocodile. their chief, or leader. Calmet. Let them rely upon See Bp. Lowth's note on Isai. xxxvii. 29. I will disap- thy prowess and conduct as their leader. W. Lowth. point all thy designs. W. Lowth.

8. thou shalt come into the land that is brought back - and I will bring thee forth,] The sense would be from the sword,] The “ land" is often put for those plainer, if the words were thus translated, “after I have who inhabit it : compare Jer. xxxi. 2. The land therebrought thee forth, &c. ;' in which sense the copula- fore that is brought back from the sword must mean, tive, here translated “and,” is sometimes used. W. those who should survive after the hardships they had Lowth.

suffered in their sereral dispersions, and the judgment 5. Persia, Ethiopia, and Libya] Their allies, Ethiopia that should fall upon the disobedient in their return and Libya, are called Cush and Phut in the Hebrew ; home. W. Lowth,. Abp. Newcome. and are joined together as allies, chap. xxx. 5. Persians 11. And thou shalt say, I will go up to the land of unare joined in like manner with Africans, chap. xxvii. 10. walled villages ; &c.] I will go up to a land that is W. Lowth.

easily invaded and overrun, as that which consists of - all of them with shield and helmet :) The unwalled villages not able to bear out an assault : I will go Libyans, or people of Phut, are described in Jer. xlvi. to a secure people, that dwell as they think safely in the 9, as “handling the shield ;" and Xenophon relates of confidence of the strength and number of the inhabitthem, that they were remarkable for their great and ants. Bp. Hall. large shields. W. Lowth.

13. Sheba, and Dedan, and the merchants of Tarshish,] 6. Gomer,] The most ancient Celts, who were per- These were great traders. See notes at chap. xxvii, 12, haps originally situated on the confines of Europe and 15, 20, 22. These merchants, as soon as they heard of Asia. Cimmerians ; a very old and celebrated people, this intended invasion, came into Gog's camp, as to a who inhabited the peninsula of Crim Tartary. Michaelis. market, to buy both persons and goods which should Gomer is joined with Magog, Gen, x. 2. W. Lowth. come into the conqueror's power. W. Lowth.

- Togarmah of the north quarters,] Cappadocians. - with all the young lions thereof,l Meaning, proSee note on chap. xxvii. 14. Abp. Newcome. In the bably, their chief merchants, who are described as so Scripture language, the quarters of the north mean the many princes, Isai. xxiii. 8, and are called " lions,'

CHRIST

23. & 37. 28.

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God's judgment
CHAP. XXXVIII, XXXIX.

against him. Before place out of the north parts, thou, 21 And I will call for a sword Before about 587. and many people with thee, all of against him throughout all my moun- about 587.

them riding upon horses, a great tains, saith the Lord God: every
company, and a mighty army: man's sword shall be against his bro-

16 And thou shalt come up against ther.
my people of Israel, as a 'cloud to 22 And I will plead against him
cover the land; it shall be in the with pestilence and with blood; and
latter days, and I will bring thee I will rain upon him, and upon his
against my land, that the heathen bands, and upon the many people
may know me, when I shall be sanc- that are with him, an overflowing
tified in thee, O Gog, before their rain, and great hailstones, fire, and
eyes.

brimstone.
17 Thus saith the Lord God; Art. 23 Thus will I c magnify myself, Chap. 36.

thou he of whom I have spoken in and sanctify myself; and I will be + Heb. by the old time t by my servants the pro- | known in the eyes of many nations,

phets of Israel, which prophesied in and they shall know that I am the
those days many years that I would Lord.
bring thee against them?
18 And it shall come to pass at

CHA P. XXXIX.
the same time when Gog shall come 1 God's judgment upon Gog. 8 Israel's vic-
against the land of Israel, saith the tory. 11 Gog's burial in Hamon-gog. 17
Lord God, that my fury shall come The feast of the fowls. 23 Israel, having
up in my face.

been plagued for their sins, shall be ga-
19 For in my jealousy and in the

thered again with eternal favour.
fire of my wrath have I spoken, THEREFORE, thou son of
Surely in that day there shall be a 1 man, prophesy against Gog, and
great shaking in the land of Israel; say, Thus saith the Lord God; Be-

20 So that the fishes of the sea, hold, I am against thee, O Gog, the
and the fowls of the heaven, and the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal :
beasts of the field, and all creeping 2 And I will turn thee back, and
things that creep upon the earth, and I leave but the sixth part of thee, and ) Or, strike
all the men that are upon the face of will cause thee to come up from the plagues ; or,
the earth, shall shake at my presence, | north parts, and will bring thee upon back with an

and the mountains shall be thrown the mountains of Israel : | Or, towers, down, and the || steep places shall 3 And I will smite thy bow out of ch. 38. 4.

fall, and every wall shall fall to the thy left hand, and will cause thine sides of the ground.

arrows to fall out of thy right hand.no because of the injustice and oppression they commonly The Prophets often describe God's judgments upon practised in their commerce. W. Lowth.

particular countries or persons, as if it were a dis15. — out of the north parts,] See ver. 6. and note. solution of the whole world. See Isai. xiii. 10. W.

17.- Art thou he] Art thou not he? A sense which | Lowth. the particle of interrogation often imports. See the note 21. And I will call for a sword against him] I will on chap. xx. 4. W. Lowth.

appoint a sword to destroy him. So God is said to - of whom I have spoken in old time by my serrants call for a dearth upon the land of Canaan, Ps. cv. 16. &c.] The enemy, here said to be foretold of old by the W. Lowth. Prophets, is probably described under the names of such 22. And I will plead against him] Or, I will plead nations as were the chief enemies to the Jews in the with him : see chap. xx. 35. God pleads with men by particular times of each Prophet. To particular prophe- His judgments, which are a manifest token of the vengecies of this nature we may add those prophecies which ance due to their sins: see Isai. lxvi. 16; Jer. xxv. speak of some great and general destruction of God's 31. Pestilence is joined with blood here, as it is chap. enemies before the day of judgment, or consummation of v. 17; xiv. 19; xxviii. 23. W. Lowth. all things : such are Ps. cx. 5, 6 ; Isai. xxvi. 20, 21; and I will rain upon him, and upon his bands, &c.] xxxiv. 1; Jer. xxx. 7, 10; Joel iii. 9, 14 ; Obad. ver. Compare Rev. xx. 8, 9. It is plain that the extraordi15. W. Lowth.

nary circumstances mentioned ver. 19-22, remain to 18. my fury shall come up in my face.] An expres- be accomplished on the future enemies of the Jews, sion taken from human passions, which cause the blood when God's people are reinstated in His favour. Abp. to fly up into the face. So Isaiah (chap. xxx. 27.) de- | Newcome. scribes Almighty God as “ burning with anger," His lips being "full of indignation, and His tongue as a de Chap. XXXIX. ver. 2.- and will cause thee to come vouring fire.” W. Lowth.

up from the north parts,] The words may be better 19. – a great shaking] All the circumstances of an translated, “after I have caused thee to come up, &c." earthquake are described in this and the following verse: See a like construction, chap. xxxviii. 4. W. Lowth. compare Zech. xiv. 3—. Houbigant.

1 3. And I will smite thy bow out of thy left hand, &c.] VOL. II.

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Before CHRIST

CHRIST

+ Heb. to derour. + Heb, the face of the field.

held ? For I have si

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| Or, confidently.

schat I am the Land they shalt that they msaacl be buyihe shall the

continuance.

Israel's victory.

EZEKIEL. : Gog's burial in Hamon-gog. Beforest 4 Thou shalt fall upon the moun- 1 that day, that I will give unto Gog a. about 587. tains of Israel, thou, and all thy bands, place there of graves in Israel, the about 587.

and the people that is with thee: I valley of the passengers on the east

will give thee unto the ravenous birds of the sea: and it shall stop the + Heb. wing. of every + sort, and to the beasts of | || noses of the passengers: and there | Or, mouths. the field + to be devoured.

shall they bury Gog and all his mul-
5 Thou shalt fall upon of the open titude: and they shall call it The
field : for I have spoken it, saith the valley of || Hamon-gog.
Lord God.

12 And seven months shall the tude of Gog.
6 And I will send a fire on Magog, house of Israel be burying of them,
and among them that dwell || care- that they may cleanse the land.
lessly in the isles : and they shall 13 Yea, all the people of the land

shall bury them; and it shall be to 7 So will I make my holy name them a renown the day that I shall be known in the midst of my people Is- glorified, saith the Lord God. rael; and I will not let them pollute | 14 And they shall sever out #men + Heb. men of my holy name any more: and the of continual employment, passing heathen shall know that I am the through the land to bury with the LORD, the Holy One in Israel. | passengers those that remain upon

8 | Behold, it is come, and it is the face of the earth, to cleanse it: done, saith the Lord God; this is the after the end of seven months shall

they search. 9 And they that dwell in the cities 15 And the passengers that pass of Israel shall go forth, and shall set through the land, when any seeth a on fire and burn the weapons, both man's bone, then shall he + set up a + Heb. build,

the shields and the bucklers, the bows sign by it, till the buriers have buried || Or, jarelins. and the arrows, and the || handstaves, it in the valley of Hamon-gog. Or, make a and the spears, and they shall || burn 16 And also the name of the city them with fire seven years :

shall be || Hamonah. Thus shall they || That is, 10 So that they shall take no wood cleanse the land. out of the field, neither cut down any 17 And, thou son of man, thus out of the forests; for they shall burn saith the Lord God; Speak + unto Heb. to the the weapons with fire : and they shall every feathered fowl, and to every wing. spoil those that spoiled them, and rob beast of the field, Assemble yourthose that robbed them, saith the selves, and come; gather yourselves Lord God.

on every side to my || sacrifice that I ! 0r. 11 | And it shall come to pass in do sacrifice for you, even a great sa

day whereof i hhord Gon; lind it is essengers' elband to puente, passing

Ishal that dwell in. after the of the ear

fire of them.

The multitude.

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I will make void and frustrate all the attempts and en- sea :) The sea of Gennesareth, as the Chaldee Paradeavours that thou shalt make against My people; and phrast explains it. In the Hebrew language, all disappoint all thy warlike preparations. Bp. Hall. lakes are called seas. The same is called “the East

6. And I will send a fire on Magog,] Fire is among sea," chap. xlvii. 18, to distinguish it from the Medithe fiercest of God's judgments; see chap. xxx. 8, and terranean, called “the Great sea westward,” Josh. xxiii. note. Magog is the land of Gog. W. Lowth. 4. The valley near this lake is called “the valley of the

and among them that dwell carelessly in the isles :7 | passengers," because it was a great road, by which the In the maritime regions, bordering perhaps on the Me- merchants and traders from Syria and other Eastern diterranean : see chap. xxxviii. 13. Abp. Newcome. All countries went into Egypt. W. Lowth. countries lying upon the seacoast are called islands in

and it shall stop the noses of the passengers:] So the Hebrew language. W. Lowth.

as all the passengers shall stop their noses by reason of 7.- and I will not let them pollute my holy name any the noisome stench of the dead bodies. Bp. Hall. more : 1 The words of the Hebrew run thus; I will not

of Hamon-gog.) The multitude of Gog. See pollute My holy name any more; that is, I will not the margin. suffer it to be polluted by seeming to desert My people: 14.- after the end of seven months After seven see chap. xiv. 9, and note. W. Lowth, Abp. New months have been employed by all the people in burycome.

ing the dead, ver. 12, carcases shall still remain un. 9. - seven years :] Meaning perhaps generally, “many buried. Abp. Newcome. years.” The Hebrews frequently so use the number 16. And also the name of the city shall be Hamonah.) ós seven.” Grotius.

See the margin. A city perhaps afterwards to be built 10. So that they shali take no wood out of the field, ] | near this valley, to perpetuate the memory of the transThe quantity of these weapons will afford sufficient fuel action. W. Lowth, Bp. Hall. for that time. It must be remembered, that much fuel 17. – to my sacrifice] This bold imagery is founded is not required in the warm climates of the East. Cal- upon the custom of invitations to feasts after sacrifices ; met.

see Gen. xxxi. 54; 1 Sam. xvi. 3; Zeph. i. 7; compare 11. - the valley of the passengers on the east of the I Isai. xxxiv. 6, which Ezekiel seems to have imitated ;

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