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CHRIST about 594.
God's irrevocable sentence.
A remnant shall be reserved. Before grievously, then will I stretch out daughters, but they only shall be de- ,Before. ... about 594. mine hand upon it, and will break the livered themselves. cle.26.26. staff of the bread thereof, and will 19 g Or if I send a pestilence into ch. 4. 16. & 5. send famine upon it, and will cut off that land, and pour out my fury upon man and beast from it:
it in blood, to cut off from it man and d Jer. 15. 1. 14. Though these three men, Noah, beast:
Daniel, and Job, were in it, they 20 Though Noah, Daniel, and Job,
nor daughter; they shall but deliver 15 1 If I cause noisome beasts to their own souls by their righteousOr, bereave. pass through the land, and they || spoil ness.
it, so that it be desolate, that no man 21 For thus saith the Lord God;
four sore judgments upon Jerusalem, 16 Though these three men were the sword, and the famine, and the + Heb. in tie † in it, as I live, saith the Lord God, noisome beast, and the pestilence, to
they shall deliver neither sons nor cut off from it man and beast?
forth, both sons and daughters: be-
concerning the evil that I have brought
to execute judgment upon them, the few righteous that But when the Almighty's irreversible decree is gone are left among them shall not be able by their prayers out against a nation, even the prayers of such favourites and intercessions to deliver the nation from the judg- of Heaven would be ineffectual to procure their deliverment decreed against it, “they shall but deliver their ance. The Prophet, in this allusion to Abraham's inown souls ;” as we see in the case of Sodom, where tercession for Sodom, declares from God, that when there were none righteous but Lot and his family; those His judgments come out against the land of Judea, the just persons were saved themselves, but no intercession righteous found in it should only save themselves : could avail to save the city. W. Lowth.
which plainly shews a Providence extending to particuAs there is a time of mercy, when the righteousness lars. Bp. Warburton. of one or a few may reprieve a whole nation from de- 19. — in blood,] “ Blood,” says Grotius, “ denotes struction; see Gen. xviii. 32; Ps. cvi. 30; Jer. v. 1: so every kind of premature death.” In conformity to this when the appointed time of their fatal stroke is come, the Chaldee Paraphrase explains it, “with great destructhough Noah, Daniel, and Job should be in the midst tion of men's lives.” Abp. Newcome, W. Lowth. of it, they could prevail no further than the delivery of 21. – How much more when I send my four &c.] How their own souls. Bp. Sanderson.
much more should there be an utter destruction, when - and will break the staff of the bread thereof, | I send, &c. &c. W. Lowth. If it is just with respect See chap. iv. 16.
to other countries that the good alone should escape 14. Though these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, punishment, how much more with respect to Jeruwere in it,) Daniel was then in captivity; he was taken salem, after such repeated instructions and admoniin the third year of Jehoiakim, Dan. i. 1; after this, / tions? Abp. Newcome. Jehoiakim reigned eight years, 2 Kings xxii. 36; and 22. Yet, behold, therein shall be left a remnant] Notthis prophecy, as appears from chap. viii. 1, was uttered withstanding these four sore judgments, some shall in the sixth year of Jehoiachin's captivity, who suc- escape and be brought into Chaldea to be your compaceeded Jehoiakim, and reigned only three months, 2 nions in captivity; compare chap. vi. 8; Jer. lii. 29, 30. Kings xxiv. 6, 8; therefore at this time Daniel had | W. Lowth. been fourteen years in captivity, and was little more — both sons and daughters :] See ver. 16, 18, 20, than thirty years of age. It is observable how early the of this chapter. fame of his piety had spread over Chaldea. Abp. New-/ --- and ye shall see their way and their doings :] Ye come, W. Lowth.
shall be made sensible of their guilt and reformation. All these persons were eminent for their piety. Noah Abp. Newcome. Those very persons whom I have reand his family were saved from the universal deluge, served from destruction, and who shall come here into and obtained a promise from the Most High, that He captivity with you, shall suffice to justify My rigour; would never again destroy the world by an inundation you shall witness what their conduct is, and shall acof water. Daniel interceded with the Almighty for the knowledge that destruction has been justly brought whole nation of the Jews, and obtained a promise of upon a nation so perverse and so corrupted. Calmet, their restoration, Dan. ix. And Job was appointed by Bp. Hall. God Himself to make intercession for his three friends. I 23. And they shall comfort you,] This will compose
trespassed a trespass.
By the unfitness of the vine branch, EZEKIEL. is shewed the destruction of Jerusalem
Before or when ye see their ways and their God; As the vine tree among the Before about 594. doings: and ye shall know that I trees of the forest, which I have given about 59 4.
have not done without cause all that to the fire for fuel, so will I give the
7 And I will set my face against
them; they shall go out from one fire,
and another fire shall devour them;
ny and ye shall know that I am the Lord,
when I set my face against them. AND the word of the LORD came 8 And I will make the land deson unto me, saying,
late, because they have + committed + Heh. 2 Son of man, What is the vine a trespass, saith the Lord God. tree more than any tree, or than a branch which is among the trees of
CHAP. XVI. the forest?
1 Under the similitude of a wretched infant is 3 Shall wood be taken thereof to
shewed the natural state of Jerusalem. 6 do any work ? or will men take a pin
God's extraordinary love towards her. 15
Her monstrous whoredom. 35 Her grievous of it to hang any vessel thereon ?
judgment. 44 Her sin, matching her mo4 Behold, it is cast into the fire ther, and exceeding her sisters, Sodom and for fuel; the fire devoureth both the Samaria, calleth for judgments. 60 Mercy
ends of it, and the midst of it is burned. is promised her in the end. + Heb. Will + Is it meet for any work?
A GAIN the word of the LORD 594. 5 Behold, when it was whole, it h came unto me, saying, 1. Heb. made was † meet for no work : how much 2 Son of man, cause Jerusalem to
less shall it be meet yet for any work, know her abominations,
God unto Jerusalem; Thy + birth + Heb.culling 6 1 Therefore thus saith the Lord and thy nativity is of the land of Ca- habitation.
it prosper ?
out, or, habitation.
your minds, and make you give glory to God, and ac- 4. Behold, it is cast into the fire for fuel ;1 Wood is knowledge His judgments to be righteous, though they very rare in the East: they are reduced therefore to touch you very nearly in the destruction of your friends adopt twigs, leaves, &c. Amongst these D'Arvieux and country. W. Lowth.
notices vine twigs as used for the purpose of fuel. From the latter part of this chapter we learn, that Fragments to Calmet. the sword, famine, pestilence, and other the like calami = the fire devoureth both the ends of it, &c.] A fit ties, are the punishments inflicted by God upon coun- representation of the present state of Judea, when both tries and nations. Especially we are called upon to its extremities were consumed by the ravages of a consider what is here said of Noah, Daniel, and Job, foreign enemy, and the midst of it, where the capital those holy men, so acceptable in the sight of God, that city stood, is ready to be destroyed ; just as a fire if they were among a nation, which God had deter- spreads toward the middle part of a stick when both mined to destroy, they could not prevent its destruc-ends of it are lighted. W. Lowth. tion. The intercession of good men prevaileth much, 7.- another fire shall devour them ;7 Some of the but is not always effectual for others : nevertheless God inhabitants of Jerusalem were destroyed in their own takes care of His faithful servants, and exempts them country, and others in Egypt. Abp. Newcome. How from those punishments and miseries, to which the dreadful the effects of the raging element of fire are in wicked and sinners are exposed. Ostervald.
devouring and consuming any combustible matter on
which it seizeth, is a thing so well known, that to comChap. XV. ver. 2. Son of man, What is the vine tree pare any thing and the effects of it thereto, is the &c.] The vine is a noble plant in respect to the fruit strongest expression of extensive mischief, and utter it bears ; but in regard of its wood, no shrub is so destruction, that can be used ; see Amos i. 4; Jer. vii. mean; it is so far from affording any useful timber, 20. Dr. E. Pocock. that not even a pin can be made from it, on which any vessel may be hung. Lo, such is Israel ! if it bore good Chap. XVI. ver. 2. — cause Jerusalem to know her fruit, it would be dear and precious to Me, but in itself abominations,] Declare to them that are with thee, and it is but mean and base in comparison of other nations, to them that are at Jerusalem; to these declare by letter, and unfit for any service : it is only meet to be cast into to those by word of mouth, what state was theirs in the fire for fuel. Bp. Hall.
their infancy, what I did for them, namely, for the The chief excellence of a parable is, that it contains whole nation of the Jews. Poole. an image, which is known and proper to the subject, and 3. — Thy birth and thy nativity is of the land of Cathe use of which was plain, and determined by custom: naan ; &c.] Jerusalem is here represented under the the necessary consequence of which is perspicuity, image of an exposed infant, whom God preserved from wherein the chief beauty of an allegory consists. The destruction, brought up, espoused, and exalted to soveProphets frequently make use of these kinds of images reignty: but she proved faithless and abandoned; and by way of comparison or illustration : and such is this therefore God threatens her with severe vengeance, but of the useless vine, by which these ungrateful people graciously promises that hereafter He will fulfil His are more than once described. Bp. Lowth.
early covenant with her. The allegory is easily under
thee a million.
God's extraordinary love
towards Jerusalem. Before naan; thy father was an Amorite, 1 8 Now when I passed by thee, and Before CHRIST
CHRIST and thy mother an Hittite.
looked upon thee, behold, thy time 594. 4 And as for thy nativity, in the was the time of love; and I spread day thou wast born thy navel was not my skirt over thee, and covered thy
cut, neither wast thou washed in water nakedness : yea, I sware unto thee, | Or, when I || to supple thee ; thou wast not salted and entered into a covenant with thee, at all, nor swaddled at all.
saith the Lord God, and thou be5 None eye pitied thee, to do any camest mine. of these unto thee, to have compassion 9 Then washed I thee with water; upon thee; but thou wast cast out in yea, I throughly washed away thy the open field, to the lothing of thy + blood from thee, and I anointed + Heb. bloods. person, in the day that thou wast born. thee with oil.
.6 | And when I passed by thee, 10 I clothed thee also with broider1 Or, trodden and saw thee || polluted in thine owned work, and shod thee with badgers'
blood, I said unto thee when thou wast skin, and I girded thee about with
11 I decked thee also with orna1. Heb. made 7 I have t caused thee to multiply ments, and I put bracelets upon thy
as the bud of the field, and thou hast hands, and a chain on thy neck.
increased and waxen great, and thou 12 And I put a jewel on thy fore-
· hair is grown, whereas thou wast 13 Thus wast thou decked with
gold and silver; and thy raiment was stood; and as Mr. Lowth observes, has much force, 7. I have caused thee to multiply &c.] For multitude liveliness, and vehemence of eloquent amplification. the people are compared to the numberless buds of the The images are adapted to a people immersed in sensu- herb; for flourishing they are like the bud in the beauty ality. Abp. Newcome, Bp. Lowth.
of its spring: and both include the goodness and rich- of the land of Canaan ;) As your fathers so- ness of the land they dwelt in. Poole. journed in the land of Canaan before they came to have
and thou art come to excellent ornaments :) As any right or property in it; so you, their posterity, have jewels and rich vestments set off a beautiful person, so all along resembled the manners of Canaan, more than the successes in enterprises, rich returns in merchanthose of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, your ancestors. dise, and fruitfulness of the country itself, were the W. Lowth.
lustre of thy beauty, which all thy neighbours courted : - thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother an thou wast adorned with the choicest blessings of Divine Hittite.] Those are said to be our parents, in the Scrip- Providence. Poole. ture dialect, whose manners we resemble : see ver. 45 8. — thy time was the time of love ;] When I rejoiced of this chapter; John viii. 44. There is an expression in thee, and espoused thee to be My wife. Poole. of the same import in the History of Susanna, ver. 56, I spread my skirt over thee,] See Ruth iii. 9. I that seems to be copied from this text, “ () thou seed took thee under My protection, as a husband doth the of Chanaan, and not of Juda, beauty hath deceived thee, / wife. W. Lowth. and lust hath perverted thine heart.” W. Lowth. It is 9. Then washed I thee with water ; &c.] The allegory the language of indignation and reproof. Abp. New- is here continued, and declares what more was done to come. See the note on Job xxx. 29.
prepare this virgin for advancement by this marriage 4.- in the day thou wast born] The forlorn condi covenant. The Prophet probably alludes to a very antion of the Israelites in Egypt is here described under cient custom among the Eastern people, of purifying the similitude of a newborn infant, exposed in its native virgins who were soon to be espoused : see Esth. ii. 12. filthiness, without any friend to pity its condition, or to Poole. I added every thing that could contribute to take the least care of it. W. Lowth, Bp. Hall.
thy beauty and ornament. The anointing with oil was - not salted at all,] Galen says, that by rubbing an essential part in a festival dress, Ruth ii. 3; Isai. Ixi. a small quantity of salt upon a newborn infant, the skin | 3; Matt. vi. 17. W. Lowth. is rendered thicker and more solid. Abp. Newcome. 10. — and shod thee with badgers' skin, &c.] This and
5. — but thou wast cast out in the open field,] Every the following verses allude to those parts of women's one knows the barbarous custom which prevailed among dress, which serve not only for use, but for ornament; the ancients, of exposing their children on account of and represent the varieties of wealth, luxury, and hopoverty, or some natural defect. This inhuman prac-nour, which were bestowed by God upon the Jewish tice was not permitted among the Hebrews : but Ezekiel | people. W. Lowth. alludes to it here, as a thing common and well known - badgers' skin,] See note at Exod. xxv. 5: and amongst other nations. Calmet.
respecting the shoes worn, see note at Cant. vii. l. 6. — when thou wast in thy blood, 7 Whilst as yet po- ! 12.- a jewel on thy forehead,] The same which is body took so much care of thee, as to wash thee from called a “nose jewel," Isai. iii. 21. See note at Gen. thy native filthiness, ver. 4, I took pity on thee, as a xxiv. 22. traveller that passes by and sees an infant lie exposed ; 1 and a beautiful crown upon thine head.] Crowns and I provided all things necessary for thy support. or garlands were used in times of publick rejoicing ; W. Lowth.
| from whence is derived that expression of St. Paul, a
whoredom of Jerusalem. Before of fine linen, and silk, and broidered sons and thy daughters, whom thou a 594. work; thou didst eat fine flour, and hast borne unto me, and these hast 594.
honey, and oil : and thou wast ex- | thou sacrificed unto them f to be de-
| 22 And in all thine abominations
23 And it came to pass after all
17 Thou hast also taken thy fair 25 Thou hast built thy high place jewels of my gold and of my silver, at every head of the way, and hast
which I had given thee, and madest made thy beauty to be abhorred, and + Heb. of a to thyself images † of men, and didst hast opened thy feet to every one that
commit whoredom with them, I passed by, and multiplied thy whore
18 And tookest thy broidered gar- doms.
bours, great of flesh; and hast in-
with I fed thee, thou hast even set 27 Behold, therefore I have stretch+ Heb. a.., it before them for pa sweet savour: ed out my hand over thee, and have
and thus it was, saith the Lord God. diminished thine ordinary food, and
20 Moreover thou hast taken thy delivered thee unto the will of them
“ crown of rejoicing," i Thess. ii. 19. Virgins were obscene figures which were carried in the ceremonies of sometimes adorned with crowns : see Baruch vi. 9: | Tammuz or Adonis. Calmet. and such ornaments were commonly put on the heads 20. — thy sons and thy daughters, 1 See notes at Lev. of persons newly married. W. Lowth.
xviii. 21; Deut. xviii. 10. i3. — thou didst eat fine flour, and honey, and oil:] 25. Thou hast built thy high place at every head of the Thy country afforded all manner of plenty and delica- way, &c.] These and the following expressions allude cies. W. Lowth.
to the practices of common harlots, who used to fre14. And thy renown went forth among the heathen for quent the most publick places to allure passengers to thy beauty :7 Thy name was great and honoured among them : see Prov. ix. 14, 15: idolatry being in this chapthe most distant nations, for the prosperity of thy counter and elsewhere compared to fornication. W. Louth. try, the riches of thy merchants, the abundance of thy See Isai. lvii. 5; Jer. ii. 23, 24. See notes at Deut. peace, the excellent form of thy civil government and | xii. 2. its laws, and the holiness, purity, and truth of thy re
and hast opened thy feet &c.] Thou hast comligion. Poole.
municated in idolatry with every nation that has had 15. – and playedst the harlot &c.] Hast yielded over any intercourse with thee. Bp. Hall. thyself to the spiritual fornications of all the nations 26. — the Egyptians. They were remarkable for many round about thee. Bp. Hall.
gross idolatries, and the Jews had learned to practise 16. And of thy garments thou didst take, &c.] Those them. See chap. xx. 7, 8; Lev. xx. 3; Deut. xxix. 16, ornaments of wit, of strength, of wealth, which I had | 17; Josh. xxiv. 14. Of all the idolatrous nations the bestowed upon thee, thou hast turned to the counte- Egyptians have exercised the greatest indecencies in nancing and furtherance of gross idolatries. Bp. Hall. their worship. Calmet.
- the like things shall not come, 7 Such things have 27. — have diminished thine ordinary food, 7 I will never before been, and shall never be again, without abandon you like an adulteress. The law commanded bringing down My vengeance upon the authors of them. that certain things should be given by husbands to Calmet.
their wives. See Exod. xxi. 10. God says, that He 17. — images of men,] Images of deified heroes. W. will take away all these things from His faithless spouse. Lowth. See chap. xxiii. 14, 15. Probably the Prophet Calmet. might have intended in this passage an allusion to those --and delivered thee unto the will &c.] As a punish
+ Heb. with dgments of
+ TIeb. bribert.
Jerusalem's monstrous whoredom. CHAP. XVI.
Her grievous judgment. c Refers Before
that hate thee, the || daughters of the given unto thee, therefore thou art Before CHRIST
594. Philistines, which are ashamed of thy contrary.
35 Ý Wherefore, 0 harlot, hear
thy whoredoms with thy lovers, and
37 Behold, therefore I will gather 13 How weak is thine heart, saith all thy lovers, with whom thou hast the Lord God, seeing thou doest all taken pleasure, and all them that thou these things, the work of an imperious hast loved, with all them that thou whorish woman;
hast hated; I will even gather them
eminent place in the head of every discover thy nakedness unto them,
32 But as a wife that committeth blood are judged; and I will give thee
39 And I will also give thee into
take † thy fair jewels, and leave thee Heb. 34 And the contrary is in thee naked and bare. from other women in thy whoredoms, 40 They shall also bring up a ment. whereas none followeth thee to com- company against thee, and they shall mit whoredoms : and in that thou stone thee with stones, and thrust
givest a reward, and no reward is thee through with their swords. ment of the idolatries which king Ahaz introduced embraced the Jewish religion ; but that no Gentile peoamongst you : see ver. 57; and 2 Chron, xxviii. 18, 19. ple took in any of its rites into their national worship. “ The daughters of the Philistinez" are here put for the Bp. Warburton. Philistines; as the daughters of Samaria, Sodom, and 36. — by the blood of thy children,] See ver. 20; Jer. the Syrians, stand for the people of those places, ver. ii. 34. 46, 48, 57; to carry on the allegory and comparison be- ' 37.— all thy lovers,] Thy allies. tween them and Jerusalem, being all of them described
with all them that thou hast hated ;7 Compare as so many lewd women prostituting themselves to ver. 41. Such were Edom, Moab, and Ammon; who idols : see ver. 41. By the same metaphor Samaria always bore a spite to the Jews, and insulted over their and Sodom are called sisters to Jerusalem, ver. 46. W. calamities, chap. xxv. 3, 8, 12. W. Lowth. Lowth.
- and will discover thy nakedness? I will put thee - which are ashamed of thy lewd way. 7 Those to shame and confusion before the faces of those which have not forsaken the religion of their country, as you consorted with thee in thine idolatries. Bp. Hall. After Jews have done; nor have been so fond of foreign the taking of Jerusalem, the shame of that unhappy city idolatries. Compare chap. v. 7; Jer. ii. 11. W. Lowth. was fully seen. The enemy beat down, broke in pieces, Or it means, that they were ashamed of the excess, and pillaged the idols, to which she had delivered herto which their abominations were carried by the Jews. self: she then found too late the vanity of her hopes,
30. How weak is thine heart,] Having neither strength and the absurdity of her worship. Calmet. of judgment to discern the truth and purity of religion, / 38. — as women that break wedlock] Adultery and nor strength of resolution to hold fast to it. Poole. idolatry, which is spiritual adultery, were both capital
- imperious — woman ;] No way restrained in thy offences by the law, Lev. xx. 10; Deut. xvii. 2, 7. Abp. licentiousness. Abp. Newcome.
Newcome. 31. – thine eminent place) See ver. 16, 24.
- and shed blood] See ver. 21, 36. 33. — but thou givest thy gifts &c.] The Jews are - and I will give thee blood in fury and jealousy.] often upbraided for making leagues with idolaters, See Isai. xlix. 26. I will drench thee with thine own and courting their favours by presents, and by com- blood, shed in My fury and jealousy. Abp. Newcome. plying with their idolatries, Isai. xxx. 6; lvii. 5—9. See Ps. lxxix. 3. W. Lowth.
40. — and they shall stone thee with stones,] The ordi34. — whereas none followeth thee to commit whore- nary punishment for adultery was stoning, John viï. 5. doms :) It is not meant, that no particular Gentile ever So the walls of the city of Jerusalem were beaten down
instruments of thine orna