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h Deut. 24.
surely Ále his transey shall not be
taken to 1 pledge.
by his own good
or bad actions. fore surely die; his + blood shall be upon die. The son shall not bear the Before
iniquity of the father, neither shall 594. 14 | Now, lo, if he beget a son, the father bear the iniquity of the + Heb.bloods.
that seeth all his father's sins which son: the righteousness of the righte- 16.
ness of the wicked shall be upon him. 3:
surely live, he shall not die.
hath given his bread to the hungry, ousness that he hath done he shall
23 i Have I any pleasure at all i Chap. 33. 11.
cording to all the abominations that 18 As for his father, because he the wicked man doeth, shall he live? cruelly oppressed, spoiled his brother All his righteousness that he hath by violence, and did that which is not done shall not be mentioned : in his good among his people, lo, even he trespass that he hath trespassed, and shall die in his iniquity.
in his sin that he hath sinned, in them 19 q Yet say ye, Why? doth not shall he die. the son bear the iniquity of the fa- 25 | Yet ye say, The way of the k Chap. 33. ther? When the son hath done that LORD is not equal. Hear now, () which is lawful and right, and hath house of Israel; Is not my way equal ? kept all my statutes, and hath done are not your ways unequal ? them, he shall surely live.
26 When a righteous man turneth 20 The soul that sinneth, it shall away from his righteousness, and com
13. — his blood shall be upon him.] His destruction should repent, and that the repentant should live? Is is owing wholly to himself. See chap. xxxiii. 4. W. not this the sum of My Gospel, which I send into the
world? Do not I call, and cry, and sue to men, that 19. Yet say ye, Why? doth not the son &c.] The they would return from their sins, and be saved? Bp. Jews still appealed to their own experience, as the ground Hall. In conformity to this St. Paul instructs us, that of their complaint, mentioned ver. 2. God replies, that “God would have all men to be saved,” and is “ not now every man shall bear his own burden. W. Lowth, willing that any should perish,” i Tim. ii. 4; 2 Pet. ïïi. Abp. Newcome.
9. W. Lowth. 20. The soul that sinneth, it shall die.) The people, 24. - All his righteousness that he hath done &c.] whom Ezekiel addressed, presumptuously complained | Such an one sins against a clearer light, and greater that they were punished for the sins of their forefa convictions, and is withal guilty of ingratitude, in thers, though in truth they had merited their captivity doing despite unto the Spirit of grace. “It had been hy persisting in evil. God therefore, very consistently better for him not to have known the way of righteouswith His former declarations, here announces by the ness, than, after he hath known it, to turn from the Prophet His purpose to make such distinction between holy commandment,” 2 Pet. ii. 21. W. Lowth. the righteous and the wicked, that each man should 25. Yet ye say, The way of the Lord is not equal.] be sensible of having deserved his sufferings. And he Why? Because He punishes the children for the faassures the people, with especial reference to eternal thers : for this is the subject of the chapter. God had punishment, that “the soul that sinned should die," already answered this complaint: see ver. 5, 9, &c. and that “the son should not bear the iniquity of his Here He gives another reason to justify His conduct; father:" that each should be responsible only for his namely, that those very persons who complain that own conduct. Dr. Gray.
“ The way of the Lord is not equal,” and “our fathers 21. But if the wicked will turn &c.] See the note have eaten sour grapes, and our teeth are set on edge;"> from Bp. Sanderson on chap. xxxiii. 14.
these Jews themselves are culpable in many ways, and 23. Have I any pleasure at all that the wicked should have well deserved to be found guilty. “Are not your die ] That those which are now wicked should die ways unequal ?" Calmet. everlastingly? Is it not rather My desire that men 26, 27. When a righteous man turneth away from his VOL. II.
God exhorteth to repentance.
A lamentation for Beforer mitteth iniquity, and dieth in them; transgressions, whereby ye have a 594. for his iniquity that he hath done shall transgressed ; and make you a m new 594. he die.
heart and a new spirit: for why will
der the parable of lions' whelps taken in a
30 Therefore I will judge you, O Israel,
to his ways, saith the Lord God. A lioness: she lay down among lions, . Matt. 3. 2. Repent, and turn ll yourselves from 'she nourished her whelps among young
all your transgressions; so iniquity lions.
| 3 And she brought up one of her
righteousness, &c.] It is an opinion that prevails among duces by God's grace a new heart, and a change of inthe Jews even till this day, that at the day of judgment clinations, followed by actual amendment, reformation, a considerable number of good actions shall overbalance and future holiness of life. Ostervald. men's evil ones. See chap. xxxiii. 13. So they thought 32. For I have no pleasure in the death of him that it a hard case for a man who had been righteous the dieth,] The holy Scriptures in general expressly defar greater part of his life, if he did at last commit ini- clare, that the good and gracious God was from the quity, that his former righteousness should avail him beginning, and is still, using the best, fittest, and wisest nothing. In opposition to this doctrine God here de- means to render all His creatures, one as well as another, clares, that a righteous man sinning, and not repenting, blessed and happy : and if any of them, through their should die in his sins; and that a wicked man, upon own selfwilled obstinacy and perverseness, miss of these his repentance, should save his soul alive. W. Lowth. joys, it will be greatly contrary to His inclination and
30. — every one according to his ways,] You complain desire. Thus when Adam was in paradise, the good of the partiality of My providence, therefore will I be God kindly cautioned him against the danger of disindeed impartial to you, and deal with you according obedience. And when man by transgression fell, He to your deserts : you demand justice, and you shall have immediately comforted him, by telling him of the it; but remember that it will descend in punishment. remedy He had prepared for his reconciliation and reSince you call Me so strictly to account, I will be strict covery, even the Seed of the woman, which was to and exact in My reckoning with you: “I will judge bruise the serpent's head; that Seed, in whom all the you, 0 house of Israel, every one according to his nations of the earth were to be blessed; and who in the ways, saith the Lord God.” Dr. Ogden.
fulness of time, was to "give His life a ransom for many," 31. – and make you a new heart &c.] The Prophets' to “taste death for every man.” And in consequence often exhort the Jews to an inward purity and holiness, of this first promise, how gracious, yea, how compasthereby to take them off from relying upon an out- sionate, is the tenour of every declaration, which He ward legal righteousness, and an exactness in the ob- made from time to time on this head. “Have I any servance of the ritual parts of the law. By thus in- ' pleasure at all that the wicked should die ? saith the structing them in a more excellent way of serving God, Lord God: and not that he should return from his than the ceremonial law did directly prescribe, they ways, and live? Make you a new heart and a new prepared their minds for receiving those truths which spirit: for why will ye dic, O house of Israel ?” Why the Gospel would more fully discover. God promises will ye die, O sons of Adam ? seeing that God would (chap. xxxvi. 26) to“ give them a new heart, and to have all men to be saved, and is not willing that any “put within them a new spirit;" here He exhorts them should perish, but that all should come to repentance. to make themselves a new heart, and a new spirit. | Dean Tucker. See the note on Chap. xxxiii. 11. Which difference of expression is thus to be reconciled; that although God works in us to will and to do, and Chap. XIX. ver. 1. - take thou up a lamentation &c.] is the first Mover in our regeneration, yet we must work Sing a funeral dirge for the princes of Israel. Comtogether with His grace, at least willingly receive it and pare chap. xxvi. 17; xxvii. 2. W. Lowth. not quench or resist its motions. W. Lowth.
2. — A lioness :] An allusion to Gen. xlix. 9. Grotius. The repentance, to which God here joins the pro- | Judea was among the nations, like a lioness among the mise of pardon, is that which withdraws a man from beasts of the forest. She had strength and sovereignty. sin, and leads him, as is often repeated in this chapter, Abp. Newcome. Or, perhaps, on account of her feroto repair the evil he has done by restitution, and by cious and cruel disposition : see chap. vii. 23; Jer. xxii. all other possible means. In a word, the Lord declares, 17. W. Lowth. there is no repentance effectual, but that which pro- 3. - one of her whelps :) See ver. 6. Jehoahaz the
Or, their widows.
the princes of Israel,
and for Jerusalem. c Before it learned to catch the prey; it de- was fruitful and full of branches by Beforer voured men.
| reason of many waters.
brought him with chains unto the land her stature was exalted among the a 2 Kings 23. of a Egypt.
thick branches, and she appeared in Jer. 29. 11. 5 Now when she saw that she had her height with the multitude of her
waited, and her hope was lost, then branches.
| she was cast down to the ground, and
13 And now she is planted in the
to be a sceptre to rule. This is a la-
1 God refuseth to be consulted by the elders of 1 Or, in hooks. 9 And they put him in ward || in
Israel. 5 He sheweth the story of their chains, and brought him to the king
rebellions in Egypt, 10 in the wilderness,
27 and in the land. 33 He promiseth to
gather them by the gospel. 45 Under the
ND it came to pass in the seventh about 593. quietness, or, 10 , Thy mother is like a vine || in A. year, in the fifth month, the tenth
* thy blood, planted by the waters : she day of the month, that certain of the
in thy likeness.
son of Josiah is meant: whom Pharaoh-necho put in vine in the time of her first peaceable plantation. Bp. bonds, and took into Egypt, 2 Kings xxiii. 33, 34. He Hall. See the margin. followed not the good example of his father Josiah. - planted by the waters :) This circumstance is W. Lowth, Abp. Newcome.
mentioned of the vine, chap. xvii. 8. Abp. Newcome. 4.- in their pit, 7 Like a lion who is taken in a pit- / In a very fruitful soil. Poole. Compare ver. 16; and fall covered with earth and branches, that he may fall see Ps. i. 3; Jer. xvii. 8. into it in passing over. Calmet.
11. — strong rods for the sceptres of them that bare The Arabs dig a pit where the lions are observed to rule,] From her sprung sovereign princes, who were enter the enclosures for cattle, and covering it slightly themselves very powerful, and made their people appear with reeds or small branches of trees, they frequently considerable among their neighbours. A rod or sceptre decoy and catch them. The practice is alluded to in is an emblem of authority. W. Lowth. this passage. Dr. Shaw.
- among the thick branches,] Of other trees. In 5. — her hope was lost,7 The object of her hope, several countries they join the vines to trees, about which Jehoahaz, detained in Egypt. Abp. Newcome.
they wind themselves and run very high. Michaelis. - another of her whelps,] She set up another of 12. But she was plucked up in fury,] God in His the seed royal, even Jehoiakim the son of Josiah. anger removed her out of her land. Compare Jer. xii. Bp. Hall. Pharaoh seems to have made this appoint- | 14. W. Lowth. ment with the joint consent of the people: the younger 13. And now she is planted in the wilderness, &c.] brother had been set up without the participation of Her people are carried captive and planted like a vine Pharaoh. W. Lowth.
in a foreign and a barren soil. Bp. Hall, Abp. New6.- he went up and down among the lions, &c.] He come. ruled fiercely and wickedly among his people, and fol. 14. And fire is gone out of a rod of her branches, &c.] lowed those courses of oppression and violence, which | Signifying that Zedekiah's breaking his oath of fealty his brother had led him into. See Jer. xxii. 13–17; to the king of Babylon, hath been the occasion of the xxxvii. 2. Bp. Hall.
utter destruction of the royal family, and the entire 7.- he knew their desolate palaces,] He made him ruin of the government. W. Lowth, Bp. Hall. self master of the riches and pleasant seats of the great - This is a lamentation, and shall be for a lamentamen of the land. W. Lowth.
tion.] Ezekiel composed this lamentation five years 8.- set against him See 2 Kings xxiv. 2.
before the destruction of Jerusalem actually took place. 9. - that his voice should no more be heard upon the He here predicts, that it should be remembered, and mountains of Israel.] The words allude to a lion's seek- that it should be sung by future generations. Calmet. ing his prey upon the mountains. W. Lowth. 10. Thy mother is like a vine in thy blood,] Like a Chap. XX. ver. 1. – in the seventh year,] Of Jehoi
. & 23. 36.
them to knor. d Lev. 18. 5. Rom. 10. 5. Gal. 3. 12.
Deut. 5. 12.
God sheweth the story of
Israel's rebellions in Egypt, Before elders of Israel came to enquire of the sake, that it should not be polluted c Before T about 593. Lord, and sat before me.
before the heathen, among whom about 593. 2 Then came the word of the they were, in whose sight I made Lord unto me, saying
myself known unto them, in bring3 Son of man, speak unto the elders ing them forth out of the land of of Israel, and say unto them, Thus Egypt. saith the Lord God; Are ye come to 10 Wherefore I ' caused them to c Exod. 13. enquire of me? As I live, saith the go forth out of the land of Egypt, Lord God, I will not be enquired of and brought them into the wilderby you.
ness. ! Or, plead 4 Wilt thou | a judge them, son of 11 And I gave them my statutes, a Chap. 22. man, wilt thou judge them ? cause and shewed them my judgments, Heb. made
them to know the abominations of a which if a man do, he shall even live a Lev. 18. 5.
the Lord God; In the day when I e sabbaths, to be a sign between me e Exod. 20. 8. || 0r, sware : chose Israel, and || lifted up mine and them, that they might know that & 35. 2.
'hand unto the seed of the house of I am the Lord that sanctify them.
them in the land of Egypt, when I against me in the wilderness: they
6 In the day that I lifted up mine man do, he shall even live in them;
14 But I wrought for my name's
unto them in the wilderness, that I
17 Nevertheless mine eye spared
achin's captivity. Compare chap. i. 2; viii. 1. All the 9. But I wrought for my name's sake,] This is elseprophecies recorded from the eighth chapter to this pro- where assigned as the reason why God did not punish bably belong to the sixth year of the captivity. W. the Israelites according to their deserts; namely, beLowth.
cause it would turn to God's dishonour in the heathen - certain of the elders] See note on chap. viii. 1. world; as if He were not able to make good those gra4. Wilt thou judge them,] Wilt thou plead with Me cious promises He had given them ; see chap. xxxvi. for them any more? Bp. Hall. See also the margin of 21, 22; Exod. xxxii. 12, Numb. xiv. 13. This was a our Bible. But the words may be more significantly proper consideration to check the vain presumption of translated, “Wilt thou not judge them?” that is, Wilt the Jews, who imagined that God's gracious dealings thou not reprove or condemn them? See ver. 30 of were owing to their own desires; see ver. 44 of this this chapter, and chap. xxxviii. 17: the phrase is pro- chapter, and chap. xxxvi. 22. W. Lowth. See the note perly rendered by our translators, 2 Sam. xxiii. 17: and on Jer. xiv. 7. see 1 Sam. ii, 27 ; and the note there. W. Lowth, Abp. 11. - live in them.] Lev. xviii. 5. Enjoy a long life Newcome.
and every temporal blessing ; eternal life, though not 5.- lifted up mine hand] That is, sware: this being promised, would also have been the lot of the true a gesture used in swearing, Gen. xiv. 22; Exod. vi. 8; Israelite. Abp. Newcome. See the note on chap. Dan. xii. 7. Bp. Hall.
xviii. 9. 7.-- the abominations of his eyes,] His idols. See chap. 15.— I lifted up my hand] I sware; see ver, 5 and xviii. 6. Abp. Newcome.
in the wilderness,
and in the promised land. Before , did I make an end of them in the 24 Because they had not executed Before
* CHRIST wilderness.
my judgments, but had despised my 593.
statutes that were not good, and
| 26 And I polluted them in their
late, to the end that they might know 21 Notwithstanding the children that I am the Lord. rebelled against me: they walked 27 q Therefore, son of man, speak not in my statutes, neither kept unto the house of Israel, and say unto my judgments to do them, which them, Thus saith the Lord God; if a man do, he shall even live in Yet in this your fathers have blasthem; they polluted my sabbaths : phemed me, in that they have f com- + Heb. then I said, I would pour out my mitted a trespass against me. fury upon them, to accomplish my 28 For when I had brought them anger against them in the wilder- into the land, for the which I lifted ness.
up mine hand to give it to them, 22 Nevertheless I withdrew mine then they saw every high hill, and all hand, and wrought for my name's the thick trees, and they offered there sake, that it should not be polluted in their sacrifices, and there they prethe sight of the heathen, in whose sented the provocation of their offersight I brought them forth. I ing: there also they made their sweet
23 I lifted up mine hand unto them savour, and poured out there their also in the wilderness, that I would drink offerings. scatter them among the heathen, and 29 Then || I said unto them, What high place disperse them through the countries; is the high place whereunto ye go? Bamat:
trespassed a trespass.
1. Or, I told them what the
18. But I said unto their children in the wilderness, chose them, as is intimated in ver. 25. The original This refers to the many pathetical exhortations contained word for “ give,” is frequently used in the permissive in the Book of Deuteronomy, particularly those in chap. sense; and therefore “I gave them” in this verse may xxix, xxx, xxxi, and xxxii, which were uttered after amount to no more than “I suffered such things." that rebellious generation were all consumed, as God Vitringa, Dr. Waterland, W. Lowth, Dr. Berriman. See had threatened them, (see Numb. xiv. 32, 33; xxvi. also Ps. lxxxi. 12; Rom. i. 24. 64, 65,) and were designed as warnings to succeeding 26. - I polluted them in their own gifts, in that they generations, Deut. xxxi. 16–21. W. Lowth.
caused to pass through the fire &c.] This sufficiently in25. Wherefore I gave them also statutes that were not timates what kind of statutes and judgments God was good,] God intended not here His own statutes and just before speaking of; namely, the rites and practices judgments, but the idolatrous statutes and judgments, of the heathen, whereby God polluted them, that is, the corrupt principles and practices, of the heathen na- gave them up to their own hearts' lusts, to defile and tions, to which He sometimes gave up and abandoned pollute themselves. The Israelites had provoked God His own people, because they first deserted and aban- many ways, and more especially by their frequent idoldoned Him. This is the sense given to the passage by atries; and therefore God gave them up to the vilest the Targum of Jonathan, and in the speech of St. Ste- and most deplorable idolatry of all; namely, that of phen in the New Testament, Acts vii. 42; and the con- offering up their children as burnt offerings to Moloch. text points to the same interpretation; for that this is Vitringa, Dr. Waterland its true sense appears chiefly from this, that God here
that I might make them desolate, &c.] The condescribes these statutes and judgments by characters sequence of which was, that they would be exposed to directly opposite to those He gives of His own in the My anger, and at length would acknowledge My hand same chapter. For it appears from ver. 11, 13, 21, and in the judgments inflicted on them. Abp. Newcome. other passages, that the chief distinction of God's own 28. — then they saw every high hill, &c.] They cast law was that a man “should live in them;" whereas He their eyes upon those hills and groves whereon the expressly says of these, that they were statutes and heathen had been wont to offer their idolatrous sacrijudgments, whereby “they should not live.” Also, at fices; and there, contrary to My commandments, they ver. 18, we have mention of statutes and of judgments, made their sinful oblations to provoke Me to wrath. (the same words in the Hebrew as in this verse,) yet not | Bp. Hall. meaning God's statutes and judgments, but the corrupt 29. — What is the high place &c.] What mean you customs and manners of their idolatrous ancestors, such that ye go to the high place? Should you not go to the as God permitted or gave them up to, because they | altar of God, and bring your sacrifices to the temple.