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The judgment of Israel for idolatry. EZEKIEL.

A remnant shall be saved. Before bring the sword upon thee. I the that ye may have some that shall es- Before 594. Lord have spoken it.

cape the sword among the nations, 594.

when ye shall be scattered through

the countries.
1 The judgment of Israel for their idolatry. 9. And they that escape of you

8 A remnant shall be blessed. 11 The shall remember me among the nations
faithful are exhorted to lament their cala- whither they shall be carried captives,

because I am broken with their whor-
AND the word of the Lord came ish heart, which hath departed from
A unto me, saying,

me, and with their eyes, which go a 2 Son of man, set thy face toward whoring after their idols: and they a Chap. 36. 1. the amountains of Israel, and pro shall lothe themselves for the evils phesy against them,

which they have committed in all 3 And say, Ye mountains of Israel, their abominations. hear the word of the Lord God; 10 And they shall know that I am Thus saith the Lord God to the the Lord, and that I have not said in mountains, and to the hills, to the vain that I would do this evil unto rivers, and to the valleys ; Behold, I, them. even I, will bring a sword upon you, 11 q Thus saith the Lord God; and I will destroy your high places. Smite b with thine hand, and stamp b Chap. 21.

4 And your altars shall be deso- with thy foot, and say, Alas for all *** ! Or, sun late, and your || images shall be bro- the evil abominations of the house of so ver. 6. ken: and I will cast down your slain Israel ! for they shall fall by the men before your idols.

sword, by the famine, and by the + Heb. give. 5 And I will + lay the dead car

cases of the children of Israel before 12 He that is far off shall die of the
their idols; and I will scatter your pestilence; and he that is near shall
bones round about your altars. fall by the sword; and he that remain-

6 In all your dwellingplaces the eth and is besieged shall die by the
cities shall be laid waste, and the famine : thus will I accomplish my
high places shall be desolate; that fury upon them.
your altars may be laid waste and 13 Then shall ye know that I am
made desolate, and your idols may the LORD, when their slain men shall
be broken and cease, and your images be among their idols round about
may be cut down, and your works their altars, upon every high hill, in
may be abolished

all the tops of the mountains, and
7 And the slain shall fall in the under every green tree, and under
midst of you, and ye shall know that every thick oak, the place where they
I am the Lord.

did offer sweet savour to all their 8 | Yet will I leave a remnant, idols.

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images : and so ver. 6.

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Thus God punishes men for their rebellion, adapting 8.- a remnant,] A gracious exception that often their punishment to their crimes; and treating with the occurs in the Prophets, when they denounce general greatest severity those, who, having had the greatest judgments against the Jews; implying, that God will share of His favours, ungratefully abuse them. Oster- still preserve a remnant of that people, to whom He vald.

will fulfil the promises made to their fathers. See chap.

xiv. 22; Jer. xliv. 14. W. Lowth. Chap. VI. ver. 2. of Israel,] Israel being carried 9. shall remember me] They shall repent ; the evils away captive, Judah is called Israel; and perhaps pos- which they suffer shall make them reflect upon their sessed a great part of the country. Abp. Secker. wickedness, and turn unto their God. Calmet.

3. — to the mountains, and to the hills,] See Deut. - I am broken with their whorish heart,] I have xii. 2; Jer. ii. 20; iii. 6. The altars built for idol wor- been overprovoked by their wicked idolatries. See the ship were commonly placed upon mountains and hills. / note at Exod. xxxiv. 16. Bp. Hall. Abp. Newcome.

11.- Smite with thine hand, &c.] Be vehement and 4.- images] The word used here is generally sup- passionate in expressing thy sorrow and indignation posed to signify such images as were erected to the for the sins and judgments of thy people. Bp. Hall. honour of the sun, and is therefore translated sun images 12. He that is far off'] Out of the reach of the enemy. in the margin of our Bible. See Isai. xvii. 8. W., W. Lowth. Lowth.

| 13. — and under every green tree, and under every thick 5. before their idols ;] This passage seems to imply, | oak,] The offering of sacrifices in groves and shady that God would permit the Chaldeans to slay the Jews places was another ancient rite of idolatry ; see Isai. i. at the feet of their idols, where they should fly for re-29: upon which account groves and images are often fuge. Calmet.

I joined together by the sacred writers. W. Lowth.



Or, desolate



The final desolation

of Israel. Beforen 14 So will I stretch out my hand 7 The morning is come unto thee, ci 594. upon them, and make the land deso- | thou that dwellest in the land : the 594.

ote late, yea, || more desolate than the time is come, the day of trouble is from the wilderness toward Diblath, in all their near, and not the || sounding again of || Or, echo.

habitations: and they shall know that the mountains.
I am the LORD.

8 Now will I shortly pour out my

fury upon thee, and accomplish mine

anger upon thee: and I will judge
i The final desolation of Israel. 16 The

thee according to thy ways, and will
mournful repentance of them that escape.
20 The enemies defile the sanctuary because

recompense thee for all thine abo-
of the Israelites' abominations. 23 Under | minations.
the type of a chain is shewed their miserable 9 And mine eye shall not spare,

neither will I have pity: I will re-
M OREOVER the word of the compense + thee according to thy Heb. upon
I LORD came unto me, saying, ways and thine abominations that are

2 Also, thou son of man, thus saith in the midst of thee; and ye shall
the Lord God unto the land of Israel; know that I am the Lord that smit-
An end, the end is come upon the eth.
four corners of the land.

10 Behold the day, behold, it is
3 Now is the end come upon thee, come: the morning is gone forth; the
and I will send mine anger upon thee, rod hath blossomed, pride hath bud-

and will judge thee according to thy ded. + Heb.give. ways, and will trecompense upon 11 Violence is risen up into a rod thee all thine abominations.

of wickedness: none of them shall 4 And mine eye shall not spare remain, nor of their || multitude, nor | Or, tumult. thee, neither will I have pity : but I of any of || their's: neither shall there || Or, their will recompense thy ways upon thee, be wailing for them. and thine abominations shall be in the 12 The time is come, the day midst of thee: and ye shall know that draweth near: let not the buyer reI am the LORD.

joice, nor the seller mourn: for wrath 5 Thus saith the Lord God; Anis upon all the multitude thereof. evil, an only evil, behold, is come. 13 For the seller shall not return

6 An end is come, the end is come: to that which is sold, † although they 4 Heb. though

it + watcheth for thee; behold, it is were yet alive: for the vision is touch- yet among the against thee. come.

ing the whole multitude thereof, which living.

tumulluous persons.

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14.- toward Diblath,] Diblath was part of the 7. The morning is come unto thee,] The expression desert in the borders of Moab; it occurs in several alludes to the time when the magistrates used to give places of the Bible : Numb. xxxiii. 46; Jer. xlviii. 22. sentence against offenders, which was in the morning. Calmet.

W. Lowth.

- and not the sounding again of the mountains.] Chap. VII. ver. 2. unto the land of Israel ;7 The The day of thy grievous trouble is actually and really whole country of Judea ; see chap. vi. 2, and note. It come; which thou shalt find sensibly to be no empty is probable that Manasses, and his successors in the and vain sound of an echo among the mountains, but kingdom of Judah, had the dominion of the whole land a true and feeling, destruction. Bp. Hall. of Canaan, formerly divided into the two kingdoms of 10. the rod hath blossomed, pride hath budded. The Judah and Israel, as tributaries under the kings of rod of oppression and of wickedness, ver. 11, prevails Assyria. Dean Prideaux.

among the Jews, and their pride increases. Abp. New- upon the four corners] St. Jerome says, that the ton. iniquity of the Jews was now arrived at its height; and 11.- into a rod of wickedness :) This appears to be that the calamity, which the Prophet foretold, would a continuation of the figure in the former verse; the not be peculiar to this or that place, or to this or that rod had blossomed, and hath now produced the fruit tribe, but would fall upon all the people, and all the of wickedness, and all is ripe for judgment. Calmet. parts of the promised land. Calmet.

12. — let not the buyer rejoice, nor the seller mourn :) 4. — thine abominations shall be in the midst of thee:7 The buyer will have no reason to rejoice because he will The punishment of your abominable idolatries shall not enjoy what he hath bought; nor the seller cause be manifest among you. Abp. Newcome.

to mourn for the loss of his possessions, which the ap5. - an only evil,] That evil is come upon thee proaching captivity will for ever deprive him of. W. which alone shall make a despatch of thee: there shall | Lowth. need no other to second it. Bp. Hall."

13. - although they were yet alive :] By the privi6.- it watcheth for thee;] Literally, “it awaketh lege of the law, (see Lev. xxv. 13,) he who had sold his against thee;" see the margin: see ver. 10 of this chap- heritage had a right to re-enter upon it at the year of ter, and Jer. i. 12. The anger of the Lord, which had jubilee. But here the Prophet informs the sellers, slept, is now roused against thee. Calmet.

'that even if they should outlive the general calamity,



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of his life.

I Or, made it unto them an unclean thing.

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The mourning of them that escape. EZEKIEL. The enemies defile the sanctuary. Before shall not return; neither shall any | they made the images of their abo- Before 594., strengthen himself || in † the iniquity minations and of their detestable things 594.

therein: therefore have I || set it far,
life is in his 14 They have blown the trumpet, from them.
+ Hleb. his even to make all ready; but none 21 And I will give it into the hands

goeth to the battle : for my wrath is of the strangers for a prey, and to the
upon all the multitude thereof. wicked of the earth for a spoil; and

15 The sword is without, and the they shall pollute it.
pestilence and the famine within : he 22 My face will I turn also from
that is in the field shall die with the them, and they shall pollute my secret
sword; and he that is in the city, place: for || the robbers shall enter | Or, burglers.
famine and pestilence shall devour into it, and defile it.

23 I Make a chain: for the land is
16 9 But they that escape of them full of bloody crimes, and the city is
shall escape, and shall be on the full of violence.
mountains like doves of the valleys, 24 Wherefore I will bring the worst
all of them mourning, every one for of the heathen, and they shall possess
his iniquity.

their houses: I will also make the a Isai. 13. 7. 17 All á hands shall be feeble, and pomp of the strong to cease; and + Heb. go into all knees shall + be weak as water. || their holy places shall be defiled. Or, they b Isai. 15.2, 18 They shall also bgird themselves 25 + Destruction cometh; and they their holy 37. with sackcloth, and horror shall cover shall seek peace, and there shall be 14.06.

them; and shame shall be upon all none.
faces, and baldness upon all their | 26 Mischief shall come upon mis-

chief, and rumour shall be upon ru-
19 They shall cast their silver in mour; then shall they seek a vision

the streets, and their gold shall be of the prophet; but the law shall + Heb. for a fremoved: their Csilver and their perish from the priest, and counsel or, unclean- gold shall not be able to deliver them from the ancients. c Prov. 11. 4. in the day of the wrath of the Lord: 27 The king shall mourn, and the Zeph. 1; 18: they shall not satisfy their souls, nei- prince shall be clothed with desolation, y Or, because ther fill their bowels : || because it is and the hands of the people of the is their stum- the stumblingblock of their iniquity. land shall be troubled : I will do unto

20 | As for the beauty of his or- | them after their way, and + according Heb. wità nament, he set it in majesty : but to their deserts will I judge them; ments.

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yet being in captivity they could not enjoy the benefit well be their best and greatest ornament; but, &c. See of the law, nor return any, more to their possessions. chap. v. 11. Bp. Hall, W. Lowth, Calmet. Bp. Hall, W. Lowth.

therefore have I set it far from them.] See the -- neither shall any strengthen himself &c.] Neither margin. The Prophets, to denote the certainty of the shall any wicked man have cause to encourage him- event, speak of what is to come as if it were already self in the vain confidence of impunity from sin. Bp. done. W. Lowth. Hall.

21. - the strangers] The Chaldeans. 14. but none goeth to the battle :] Such is the 22. — enter into it,] My secret place or sanctuary, judicial cowardice that prevails; see ver. 17. Abp. New- | Abp. Newcome. come.

23. Make a chain :) Jeremiah is commanded to make 16. -- like doves of the valleys, Doves are found in bonds and yokes, Jer. xxviii. 2. And Ezekiel is here the valleys on account of the waters they find there, in directed to make a chain, to foreshew the approaching which they delight. Harmer.

captivity, when king and people should be carried in - all of them mourning,] St. Jerome renders it, chains to Babylon. See 2 Kings xxv. 7; Jer, xl. 1. “ all of them trembling;" an epithet ascribed to W. Lowth, Abp. Newcome. doves, Hos. xi. 11; who are by nature timorous. W. 24. the worst of the heathen,] The Chaldeans ; see Lowth.

chap. xxx. 11–24. They were at that time the op19. -- their gold shall be removed:] Or, shall be ac-pressors of the world, and a terrour to all the countries counted an unclean thing; see the margin: as utterly round about them. W. Lowth. unprofitable for their relief. Bp. Hall.

- the pomp of the strong] Compare chap. xxiv. they shall not satisfy] Their silver and their 21, and xx. 6; Lev. xxvi. 19. The excellency of their gold shall not remove the distresses of famine during strength; that is, the temple. Abp. Secker. the siege, because they have employed them to adorn 26. but the law shall perish from the priest, &c.] But, their idols, the iniquitous causes of their fall. Abp. as a just punishment for their former neglect and secuNewcome, W. Louth.

rity, God shall take away His gifts from their priests 20. As for the beauty of his ornament, he set it &c.] and prophets, so as they shall not be able to declare His As for His beautiful and glorious temple, He placed it will unto them for their direction and preservation. Bp. in great majesty among them, as that which might | Hall.




summus is megery, is jealouterusalem, God ofnd, be



AND : God's wrathi fuppens towa

The image of jealousy.


The chambers of imagery. fores, and they shall know that I am the where was the seat of the image of Before 594. Lord.

Tjealousy, which provoketh to jealousy. 594. CHAP. VIII.

4 And, behold, the glory of the

God of Israel was there, according to
1 Ezekiel, in a vision of God at Jerusalem, |
5 is shewed the image of jealousy, 7 the

the vision that I saw in the plain. b Chap. 1. 28.
chambers of imagery, 13 the mourners for 5 | Then said he unto me, Son of
Tammuz, 15 the worshippers towards the man, lift up thine eyes now the way
sun. 18 God's wrath for their idolatry. toward the north. So I lifted up mine
AND it came to pass in the sixth eyes the way toward the north, and
h year, in the sixth month, in the behold northward at the gate of the
fifth day of the month, as I sat in altar this image of jealousy in the
mine house, and the elders of Judah | entry.
set before me, that the hand of the 6 He said furthermore unto me,
Lord God fell there upon me. Son of man, seest thou what they do?

2 Then I beheld, and lo a likeness even the great abominations that the
as the appearance of fire: from the house of Israel committeth here, that
appearance of his loins even down- I should go far off from my sanctuary?
ward, fire; and from his loins even but turn thee yet again, and thou
upward, as the appearance of bright- shalt see greater abominations.
ness, as the colour of amber. | 7 | And he brought me to the

3 And he a put forth the form of door of the court; and when I looked,
an hand, and took me by a lock of behold a hole in the wall.
mine head; and the spirit lifted me 8 Then said he unto me, Son of
up between the earth and the heaven, man, dig now in the wall: and when
and brought me in the visions of God I had digged in the wall, behold a
to Jerusalem, to the door of the inner door.
gate that looketh toward the north; 9 And he said unto me, Go in, and

a Dan. 5. 5.

Chap. VIII. ver. 1. - in the sixth year, in the sixth beheld women sitting and weeping for Tammuz, and month,] This date is one year and two months after the Tammuz was Adonis; see ver. 14. Abp. Newcome, Bp. commencement of the vision, chap. i. 1. Abps. Newcome | Hall, Calmet.

By that time the sins of this wretched people were and the elders of Judah sat before me,] Men of ripe for the punishment of their approaching captivity, note for their age or authority, perhaps such as had they had polluted themselves with all kinds of Egyptian been members of the greater or lesser consistories be- abominations, as appears from this famous vision of fore their captivity. W. Lowth.

the Prophet, wherein their three capital idolatries are so - sat before me,] This was the posture of those, clearly described. The Prophet represents himself as who came to hear the instructions of any Prophet or brought in a vision to Jerusalem, and at “the door of teacher. Compare chap. xiv. l; xx. 1; xxxiii. 31; 2 the inner gate that looked toward the north," he saw Kings iv. 38. In aftertimes the teachers sat in a chair “the seat of the image of jealousy, which provoketh to or eminent seat, and the hearers on lower forms at the jealousy." This is a prelude to the visions, which defeet of their master; see Luke x. 39; Acts xxii. 3. W. scribe the various idolatries of the house of Israel, Louth. See the note on Deut. xxxiii. 3.

where, in the noblest stretch of an inspired imagination, This chapter and the three following contain the par. idolatry is itself personified and made an idol, and the ticulars of a single vision. Calmet.

image sublimely called “the image of jealousy," which 3. the form of an hand,] Just as the form of a hand the Prophet explains by observing, that “it was that appeared writing upon the wall, Dan. v. 5. W. Lowth. which provoked God to jealousy." He then proceeds

in the visions of God) By mental representation ; to the various scenery of the inspired vision. Bp. Waras if the Prophet had been personally present. It seems | burton. most probable that every thing to chap. xi. 24. passed 4. – in the plain.] See chap. iii. 22, 23. while the Prophet was in a trance, chap. xi. 25. Ezekiel 5. — at the gate of the altar? Probably so called from relates his vision to the elders who sat before him. W. the time of Ahaz, who placed the brasen altar to the Lowth, Abp. Newcome.

north of the altar, built according to the model of that the image of jealousy, What this image was which he had seen at Damascus, 2 Kings xvi. 14. Abp. which rivalled Jehovah with the Jews, cannot be ascer Newcome.

that it was the image of Baal, which having been forsake it, and deliver it up to the heathen to be polerected by Manasseh, and afterwards destroyed by Jo- | luted, chap. vii. 21, 22. W. Lowth. We may suppose siah, had been probably restored by his successors. a reference to chap. ix. 3 ; x. 18 : in both which texts Others think, that the expression was intended to ex- the glory of the Lord is said to have changed its place. press the false gods in general, by the worship of which | Michaelis. the anger of God had been excited against His people; 7. the door of the court;] The east gate of the inner or it may be, that the false divinity was Adonis : and court, over which was the council chamber where the this conjecture is not without some appearance of Sanhedrim used to meet. Dr. Lightfoot. reason, as the Prophet, upon his return to the northern 8. dig now in the wall :] We have here a very lively gate, where he had first seen “the image of jealousy," I and circumstantial description of the celebrated mysteries

sala Uso Unwm

Before un CHRIST

which was fate of the Lome, to the

The various idolatry


practised in Jerusalem. Before behold the wicked abominations that 13 9 He said also unto me, Turn Before CHRIST 594.. they do here.

thee yet again, and thou shalt see 594.
10 So I went in and saw; and be- greater abominations that they do.
hold every form of creeping things, 14 Then he brought me to the
and abominable beasts, and all the door of the gate of the LORD's house
idols of the house of Israel, pourtray- which was toward the north ; and,
ed upon the wall round about. behold, there sat women weeping for

11 And there stood before them | Tammuz.
seventy men of the ancients of the 15 I Then said he unto me, Hast
house of Israel, and in the midst of thou seen this, O son of man? turn
them stood Jaazaniah the son of Sha- thee yet again, and thou shalt see
phan, with every man his censer in greater abominations than these.
his hand; and a thick cloud of incense 16 And he brought me into the
went up.

inner court of the Lord's house, and,
12 Then said he unto me, Son of behold, at the door of the temple of
man, hast thou seen what the ancients the Lord, between the porch and the

of the house of Israel do in the dark, altar, were about five and twenty men, c Chap. 9. 9. every man in the chambers of his with their backs toward the temple of

imagery? for they say, · The LORD the LORD, and their faces toward the
seeth is not; the LORD hath for east; and they worshipped the sun
saken the earth.

toward the east.

of Isis and Osiris. For 1st, the rites are represented as mourning. Chandler observed the continuance of this performed in a secret subterraneous place, ver. 7-9.custom when travelling in Greece. The weeping for This secret place was, as the Prophet tells us, in the Tammuz is described as performed near a door of the temple. And such kind of places for this use the temple, perhaps with a view to such a custom. HarEgyptians had in their temples, as we learn from a mer. similitude of Plutarch: “ Like the disposition,” says 15. - turn thee yet again, &c.] This is a description he, “and the ordonnance of their temples, which in one of the Persian superstition. It is to be observed, that, place enlarge and extend themselves in wings and fair when the Prophet is bid to turn from the Egyptian to and open aisles; in another, sink into dark and secret the Phenician rites, he is then said to look towards the subterraneous vestries, like the adyta of the Thebans." north, ver. 14, the situation of Phenicia with respect to 2dly, These rites were celebrated by the Sanhedrim, or Jerusalem ; consequently, he before stood southward, the elders of Israel, ver. 11. Now it appears from the the situation of Egypt with respect to the same place. best accounts we have of the mysteries, that none but And when from thence he is bid to turn into the inner princes, rulers, and the wisest of the people, were ad-court of the Lord's house, to see the Persian rites, this mitted to their most secret celebrations. 3dly, The was east, the situation of Persia : with so much exactpaintings and imagery on the walls of this subterraneous ness of representation is the whole vision conducted. apartment answer exactly to the descriptions, which the Again, as the mysterious rites of Egypt are said, agreeancients have given us, of the mystick cells of the ably to their usage, to be held in secret by their “elders” Egyptians. Bp. Warburton.

and rulers only, so the Phenician rites, for the same 10.- of creeping things, and abominable beasts,] This reason, are shown as they were celebrated by the people practice, so strongly reprobated here, was probably in open day. And the Persian worship of the same, borrowed from the Egyptians. Diodorus Siculus says, which was performed by the Magi, is here said to be “ Round the room in Thebes, where the body of king observed by the priests alone; “ five and twenty men Osymanduas seemed to be buried, a multitude of cham- with their faces toward the east.Bp. Warburton. bers was built, which had elegant paintings of all the 16. - between the porch and the altar,] The place beasts sacred in Egypt.” Abps. Secker and Newcome. where the Jewish priests invoked the mercy of Jehovah See the note from Bryant on Deut. iv. 18. Pictures for the people. See Joel ii. 17. were as much prohibited by the law as carved images,

five and twenty men,] Possibly the twelve priests Numb. xxxiii. 52; Lev. xxvi. 1. W. Lowth.

and twelve Levites of the weekly service, with the high 11.- Jaazaniah] Probably a prince of the people. priest. Calmet. See the close of chap. xi. 1. Abp. Newcome. Shaphan

their backs toward the temple] They turned their was well known under the reign of king Josiah. "See backs to God Almighty, and their faces to the sun. 2 Kings xxii. 3, 9. The seventy “ ancients,” or elders Perhaps Hezekiah may allude to some such idolatrous with him, were probably the members of the Sanhedrim, practice in that confession of his, 2 Chron. xxix. 6, or great council of the Jews. Bp. Hall.

« Our fathers have done evil in the eyes of the Lord, 12. - in the dark,] No darkness, or secrecy, can hide and have forsaken Him, and turned away their faces the knowledge of men's sins from Him, who knoweth | from the habitation of the Lord, and turned their backs " all things : no concealment can shelter sinners from “They turned their back unto Him, and not their face;" His judgment. Ostervald.

as Jeremiah expresses their contempt towards Him, 14. — weeping for Tammuz,] The ancient expositors chap. ii. 27; xxxii. 33. For this reason the people were consider Tammuz as Adonis.

commanded to come in at the north or south gate of the This was the Phenician superstition. It was derived outward court of the temple when they came to worship, from the Egyptians, and afterwards the Phenicians im- | that they might not at their return turn their backs proved it. Bp. Warburton, W. Lowth.

upon God. See chap. xlvi. 9. The Jews always turned The ancient Greeks used to place their dead near the their faces towards the temple when they worshipped. doors of their houses, and to attend them there with 'W. Lowth, Dr. Spencer.

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