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/ saith thy of Moah
a Amos 1. 13.
and his people.
CHAP. XLVIII, XLIX. The judgment of the Ammonites. Before 38 There shall be lamentation ge- / force: but la fire shall come forth Before CHRIST about 600. nerally upon all the housetops of out of Heshbon, and a flame from the about 600. Moab, and in the streets thereof: for I midst of Sihon, and shall devour the Nur
I Numb. 21. have broken Moab like a vessel where- corner of Moab, and the crown of 28. in is no pleasure, saith the Lord. the head of the + tumultuous ones. Heb.
children of 39 They shall howl, saying, How ! 46 Woe be unto thee, O Moab ! noise.
is it broken down ! how hath Moab the people of Chemosh perisheth : for + Heb. neck. turned the + back with shame! so thy sons are taken f captives, and Heb. in
shall Moab be a derision and a dis- thy daughters captives.
47 q Yet will I bring again the
shall spread his wings over Moab. judgment of Moab. | Or, The 41 || Kerioth is taken, and the strong holds are surprised, and the
CHAP. XLIX. mighty men's hearts in Moab at that
| 1 The judgment of the Ammonites. 6 Their day shall be as the heart of a woman
restoration. 7 The judgment of Edom, 23
of Damascus, 28 of Kedar, 30 of Hazor, in her pangs.
34 and of Elam. 39 The restoration of 42 And Moab shall be destroyed Elam. from being a people, because he hath II CONCERNING the Ammon- about 600.
magnified himself against the LORD. | V ites, thus saith the LORD; Hath "Or, Against. Isai. 24. 17, 43 * Fear, and the pit, and the Israel no sons? hath he no heir? why
snare, shall be upon thee, O inha- then doth || their king inherit a Gad, !! Or, Melcom. bitant of Moab, saith the LORD. and his people dwell in his cities?
44 He that fleeth from the fear shall 2 Therefore, behold, the days come, fall into the pit; and he that getteth saith the LORD, that I will cause an up out of the pit shall be taken in the alarm of war to be heard in Rabbah b Amos 1. 14. snare : for I will bring upon it, even of the Ammonites; and it shall be a upon Moab, the year of their visita- desolate heap, and her daughters shall tion, saith the LORD.
be burned with fire: then shall Israel 45 They that fled stood under the be heir unto them that were his heirs,
shadow of Heshbon because of the saith the Lord. ting themselves when in great anguish : but we are not | 47. Yet will I bring again the captivity of Moab &c.] commonly told, what part they wounded. The modern The Moabites were afterwards restored to their counArabs gash their arms, which are often bare : it appears try, as appears from Josephus. W. Lowth. from this passage the ancients wounded themselves in the same part. Harmer.
Chap. XLIX. ver. 1. Concerning the Ammonites,] 38. — upon all the housetops? Compare Isai. xv. 3. | This downfal of the Ammonites is foretold by other
40.- he shall fly as an eagle,] That is, the Babylo Prophets. See the margin. It is uncertain when this nian conqueror; with evident allusion to Deut. xxviii. prophecy was delivered : for the probable time of its 49. Compare chap. xlix. 22. Dr. Blayney.
completion, see the note on chap. xlviii. 1. Dr. Blayney. In the flying of an eagle there are two circumstances
why then doth their king inherit Gad,] It is proespecially remarkable : Ist, The rapidity with which it bable from hence, that when the king of Assyria carried rushes on its prey, noticed in Hab. i. 8; 2 Sam. i. 23 ; away captives the Gadites and their brethren, who dwelt Lam. iv. 19; and other places of Scripture. 2dly, Its beyond Jordan, 2 Kings xv. 29; 1 Chron. v. 26; the peculiar manner of fully expanding its wings, which Ammonites, either by the consent or connivance of the supplied an epithet for the eagle to the Greek poets, and Assyrian conqueror, took possession of their vacant which is also particularly noticed in chap. xlix. 22. country, to which they had no pretensions of right, so Parkhurst.
long as any of the ancient owners or their posterity 43. Fear, and the pit, and the snare, &c.] See Isai. were in being. The word, rendered “their king,” xxiv. 17, 18; and the notes there.
might be rendered, according to most of the ancient 45. They that fled stood under the shadow of Heshbon versions, more properly “Melcom,” (see the margin,) &c.) They that fled thought they should find good as the proper name of the chief deity of the Ammonites, shelter in the strong forts of Heshbon; but they shall who is so called, 1 Kings xi. 5. See below, ver. 3, and be deceived: for so far shall Heshbon be from being the note there. As Jehovah is said to have given His able to defend itself, that the destruction, which shall people Israel the lands they possessed, so the idolatrous begin there, shall reach to all the utmost parts of the nations considered their acquisitions as obtained by the dominions of Moab, and shall light upon the heads of favour of their respective idols. See Judg. xi. 24. Dr. those insolent undertakers that were the cause of these Blayney. wars and tumults. Bp. Hall.
2. — her daughters shall be burned with fire:] That “The midst of Sihon” means the city of Sihon, or is, the smaller cities, which are reckoned as so many Heshbon : see Numb. xxi. 28. The Prophet fitly applies daughters to their mother city. Compare Ps. xlviii. 11; to the present case the words of an ancient poem, made xcvii. 8. W. Lowih. on Sihon's conquests over Moab, and recited by Moses - then shall Israel be heir &c.] This is understood as above. W. Lowth.
to have been fulfilled when Judas Maccabeus defeated
1 Heb. their suiciency.
valley floweth away.
of Edom. c Before 3 Howl, O Heshbon, for Ai is O inhabitants of Dedan; for I will Before about 600. spoiled: cry, ye daughters of Rabbah, bring the calamity of Esau upon him, about 600.
gird you with sackcloth; lament, and the time that I will visit him.
run to and fro by the hedges; for 9 If @grapegatherers come to thee, e Obad. ver. | Or, Melcom. || their king shall go into captivity, would they not leave some gleaning Chap. 48. 7. and his priests and his princes toge- grapes ? if thieves by night, they will ther.
destroy † till they have enough.
sliding daughter? that trusted in her he shall not be able to hide himself:
and his neighbours, and he is not.
to drink of the cup have assuredly
not go unpunished, but thou shalt
more in Teman ? is counsel perished saith the Lord, that Bozrah shall
waste, and a curse; and all the cities turned back. 8 Flee ye, || turn back, dwell deep, thereof shall be perpetual wastes.
the Ammonites, and took their towns, 1 Mac. v. 6, &c. Scripture. Niebuhr, speaking of their conduct under Zephaniah speaks in like manner, chap. ii. 9. Dr. certain circumstances of dissatisfaction, says, “ all the Blayney.
tribe retires to the bottom of the desert, whither the 3. Howl, O Heshbon, for Ai is spoiled:7 When Ai | Turks dare not follow :" and Savary says concerning (not the place mentioned Josh. viii, but a city of the the wandering or Bedouin Arabs, “ Always on their Ammonites,) is destroyed, then is it time for Heshbon, guard against tyranny, on the least discontent they pack the chief city of the Moabites, to lament her danger. up their tents, lade their camels with them, ravage the W. Lowth.
flat country, and plunge into the burning sands, whi-- run to and fro by the hedges ;) Like persons ther none can pursue them, and where they alone dare distracted, seeking a place of concealment. Poole. dwell.” Parkhurst.
— for their king shall go into captivity,] Rather, - Dedan ;] The Dedanites were Arabians, of the “Melcom shall go &c.” Compare chap. xlviii. 7; and posterity of Dedan the grandson of Abraham, Gen. xxv. see the note on chap. xliii. 12. W. Lowth, Dr. Blayney. 3. They seem in later times to have been subdued by
7. Concerning Edom,] The destruction of Edom, or the Idumeans, and incorporated with them. W. Lowth. Idumea, is likewise foretold by Ezekiel, chap. xxv. 12 9. If grapegatherers come to thee, &c.] The vintage -14; xxxv. 2, &c.; Joel iii. 19; Amos i. 11, 12; and can hardly be gathered so clean, but that there will be by Obadiah. Dr. Blayney.
Ja gleaning left. Compare Isai. xvii. 6. Nay, the house- Is wisdom no more in Teman ?? The Eastern | breakers commonly leave something behind them. But part of the world, by which is chiefly meant Arabia and the desolation which is coming upon thee shall be so the adjacent countries, was famous for the study of entire, that scarcely a remnant shall be preserved : comwisdom ; see 1 Kings iv. 30. The Edomites appear to pare Obad. ver. 5. W. Lowth. have put in their claim to this distinction. W. Lowth. 11. Leave thy fatherless children, &c.] It is doubted
8. – dwell deep,] When the Arabs have drawn upon whether these words are a threatening or a promise. If themselves such a general resentment of the more fixed a promise, the sense is, that though this great destrucinhabitants of those countries, that they think them- tion should come upon the body of the Edomites, yet selves unable to stand against them, they withdraw into God would take care of some of their fatherless children, the depths of the great wilderness, where none can whose parents being carried into captivity, they had follow them with any hopes of success. It is probable, none to provide for them. If they be taken as a threatthat the “ dwelling deep,” which Jeremiah recommendsening, they imply ruin to them as well as to the rest. to the Arab tribes here and at ver. 30, means this plung- Poole. ing far into the deserts, rather than going into caves 12.- Behold, they whose judgment was not to drink of and dens, as has been sometimes supposed. For al- the cup &c.] Behold, even My people the Jews, which, though people, who live a settled kind of life, have prac- in comparison of thee, had no reason to be put to these tised this method of security, the Arabs, who lead a extremities of judgments, they have been plagued sewandering life in tents, look upon caves as traps, rather verely by My just hand: and shalt thou think to go than as places of defence. Harmer.
| unpunished? Bp. Hall. The language of modern travellers, in describing this 13. - Bozrah1 One of the chief cities of Idumea: custom of the Arabs, corresponds with the language of see Isai. xxxiv. 6 ; lxiii, 1. W. Lowth. “All the cities
CHRIST about 600.
Before vius CHRIST
me in judg.
of Edom. Before 14 I have heard a frumour from a lion from the swelling of Jordan Before, about 600. the Lord, and an ambassador is sent against the habitation of the strong: about 600. f Obad. ver.
unto the heathen, saying, Gather ye but I will suddenly make him run
man, that I may appoint over her ?
that shepherd that will stand before ment. 16 Thy terribleness hath deceived me? thee, and the pride of thine heart, o 20 Therefore hear the counsel of thou that dwellest in the clefts of the the LORD, that he hath taken against rock, that holdest the height of the Edom; and his purposes, that he
hill: though thou shouldest make thy hath purposed against the inhabitants : Obad. ver. 6 nest as high as the eagle, I will of Teman : Surely, the least of the
bring thee down from thence, saith flock shall draw them out: surely he
shall make their habitations desolate
shall be astonished, and shall hiss at of their fall, at the cry the noise
thereof was heard in the + Red sea. Heb. i Gen. 19. 25. 18 i As in the overthrow of Sodom 22 Behold, he shall come up and
and Gomorrah and the neighbour Aly as the eagle, and spread his wings
be as the heart of a woman in her
ch, 50. 40.
thereof:” the daughter cities, that appertain to Bozrah, among the trees and bushes by the river side, are forced the prime city. Bp. Hall.
out of their covert, and infest the neighbouring plains. 14. I have heard a rumour from the Lord, &c.] The To this circumstance the Prophet here alludes. Dr. Prophets often represent God as summoning armies, Blayney. and setting them in array of battle against those people -- I will suddenly make him run away from her :] whom He has decreed to destroy. See chap. 1. 9—21; The most probable sense of these words is, that they li. 11; Isai. xiii. 2, 3; xviii. 3. God's stirring up men's indicate the Edomites running away from Nebuchadminds to invade such countries is described here, as if nezzar out of their own country, which seems to be He had sent an ambassador to the Chaldeans and their understood by “her.” Poole. “Him," namely, “the confederates, to engage them in a war against the Idu- son of man," of whom it was said in the preceding means, according to the methods in which early princes / verse, that he should not abide or dwell there. Dr. use to engage their allies : compare chap. li. 27, 28. W. | Blayney. Lowth.
- and who is a chosen man, that I may appoint over 16. - 0 thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, her] That is, I will single out a man remarkable for Compare Obad. ver. 4; Numb. xxiv. 21; and see the his prowess; namely, Nebuchadnezzar, and place him note there. Saint Jerome, who lived in the neighbour- at the head of the army, which shall execute My vengehood, tells us, in his commentary upon Obadiah, that ance upon Edom. W. Lowth. Idumea was a rocky mountainous country. W. Lowth. — who will appoint me the time and who is that
17.- shall hiss] See the note on chap. xix. 8. shepherd &c.] Who will challenge Me to meet him in
18. As in the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah &c.] the field, as if we were upon equal terms? Or what A proverbial expression denoting an utter desolation : leader or general can enter the lists with Me? The see chap. I. 40; İsai. xiii. 19. W. Lowth.
word “shepherd” often signifies a prince or comWe know little more of the history of the Edomites, mander : see chap. vi. 3 ; xxv. 34. But here it is used than as it is connected with that of the Jews : and where in opposition to the “lion," mentioned before; as if he is the name or the nation now? They were swallowed had said, A shepherd may as well encounter a lion, as up and lost, partly among the Nabathean Arabs, and the best appointed warriour contend with God Almighty, partly among the Jews : and the very name was abo- or those whom He makes the instruments of His venlished and disused about the first century after Christ. geance. W. Lowth. Thus were they rewarded for insulting and oppressing 20. — Surely the least of the flock shall draw them out : 7 their brethren the Jews, and hereby were fulfilled the The very meanest and basest of the Chaldean army prophecies of Jeremiah in this chapter; and of the other shall discomfit and overthrow the proud inhabitants of Prophets enumerated in the note on the seventh verse. Teman. Bp. Hall. Bp. Newton.
21. The earth is moved at the noise &c.] The sur19. Behold, he shall come up like a lion &c.] A de- rounding countries are astonished at its ruin, and the scription of Nebuchadnezzar, marching with his army sound of it reaches even to the Red sea, which was at a against Idumea. W. Lowth. Upon occasion of the considerable distance from the land of Edom. The inundations, to which the Jordan is subject, (see the Prophet compares the destruction of a nation to the fall note on chap. xii. 5,) we are told by Maundrell, that of a great building : see Ezek. xxvi. 15; xxxi. 16. W. several sorts of wild beasts, which are wont to harbour Lowth.
seized on her: in filee, and fear hard purpose against do mhath con
The judgment of Damascus, of Kedar, JEREMIAH.
of Hazor, and of Elam. c Before 23 g Concerning Damascus. Ha-1 30 qm Flee, +get you far off, dwell. Beforeca about 600. math is confounded, and Arpad : for deep, O ye inhabitants of Hazor, about God.
n they have heard evil tidings: they saith the LORD; for Nebuchadrezzar, + Heb, melted. are + fainthearted; there is sorrow king of Babylon hath taken counsel + lieb. fit || Or, as on the || on the sea ; it cannot be quiet. against you, and hath conceived a greu
24 Damascus is waxed feeble, and purpose against you.
neither gates nor bars, which dwell
32 And their camels shall be a
most corners; and I will bring their or, that hare 1 Amos 1. 4. 27 And I will kindle a 'fire in the calamity from all sides thereof, saith
wall of Damascus, and it shall con- the Lord.
28 9 Concerning Kedar, and con- for dragons, and a desolation for ever:
Elam in the beginning of the reign of
the corners of
23. Concerning Damascus.] Damascus was the capital having anciently a petty prince or king over it. W. of the kingdom of Syria, and had seemingly at this time Lowth. swallowed up all the other petty sovereignties of that the men of the east.] As the Arabians are called country. Isaiah had before uttered a prophecy con- in the Scripture dialect. W. Lowth. cerning it of calamitous import, chap. xvii; which had 29. Their tents and their flocks &c.] Their substance been fulfilled by Tiglath-pileser's taking it, and carry- consisted in their cattle, their furniture, and their tents, ing away the people captives to Kir, 2 Kings xvi. 9. from whence the country itself is called “the tents of Amos also had foretold the same event, chap. i. 3-5. Kedar," Ps. cxx. 5 : with these they removed from place But it had recovered itself after the fall of the Assyrian to place for the convenience of pasture. See Isai. xiii. empire, and is here doomed to suffer again the like cala 20. W. Lowth. mities from the resentment of Nebuchadnezzar, pro- 31. Arise, get you up unto the wealthy nation, &c.] bably about the same time with the other nations. See Arise, () ye Chaldeans; get ye up to the wealthy nation the note on chap. xlviii. 1. Dr. Blayney.
of the Hazorites, that dwell without care in their tents; - Hamath - and Arpad :] See the note on Isai. abounding with flocks and herds in the desert, where x. 9.
they dwell apart without cities or towns. Bp. Hall. - there is sorrow on the sea ;] The word may be 34. — against Elam] Elam was an independent and interpreted of the Arabians, who lay on the seacoast :even powerful kingdom in the days of Abram, Gen. or, adopting the marginal reading, “ as on the sea,” we xiv. 1. When the monarchy of Persia was established may understand the sentence in the sense of Isaiah's under Cyrus, Elam was blended into, and formed a part words, “They are like the troubled sea, when it cannot of it: but before that time they were two distinct kingrest,” chap, lvii. 20. W. Lowth.
doms. According to the present prophecy, Elam is 25. How is the city of praise not left, &c.] How is it, spoken of as having actually become a province of the that so goodly and famous a city as Damascus, so Babylonish empire, Dan. viii. 2: and Daniel appears to praised, so admired, hath not the favour to be spared have presided over it, having Shushan for the seat of from sackcloth and vastation? Bp. Hall.
his government. It therefore probably was, as the name 27.- Ben-hadad.] This seems to have been a com would lead us to suppose, the country called by heathen mon name for the kings of Syria, as Pharaoh was for writers Elymais, which Pliny and Strabo, in conformity those of Egypt. Dr. Blayney. See the note on Gen. with Daniel, describe as separated from Susiana by the xii. 15.
river Eulæus, or Ulai. On the final subversion of the 28. Concerning Kedar, and concerning the kingdoms of Babylonish monarchy, Elam was restored again, as is Hazor,] The kingdoms whose metropolis is Hazor or intimated below, ver. 39, to its former possessors, who Petra. Kedar was that part of Arabia inhabited by the had fought under the banners of the Medes and Perposterity of Kedar, Ishmael's son, Gen. xxv. 13; called sians. See Isai. xxi. 2. Dr. Blayney. likewise “ the kingdoms of Hazor;" each division 35.- the bow of Elam,] Isaiah thus speaks of the
The restoration of Elam.
CHAP. XLIX, L.
The judgment of Babylon. Before the four winds from the four quarters lon is taken, Bel is confounded, Mero- Before
of heaven, and will scatter them to-dach is broken in pieces; her idols595.
l 3 For out of the north there com-
time, saith the LORD, the children of
Lord their God.
Lord in a perpetual covenant that
shall not be forgotten.
6 My people hath been lost sheep: 1, 9, 21, 35 The judgment of Babylon. 4, their shepherds have caused them to
17, 33 The redemption of Israel. To astray. they have turned the 595. THE word that the LORD spake away on the mountains: they have
1 against Babylon and against the gone from mountain to hill, they 1 Heb. by the land of the Chaldeans + by Jeremiah have forgotten their + restingplace. Heb, place " the prophet.
17 All that found them have de2 Declare ye among the nations, voured them: and their adversaries + Heb.lift up. and publish, and + set up a standard; said, We offend not, because they
publish, and conceal not: say, Baby- bave sinned against the LORD, the
1. Chap. 48.
to lie down in.
Elamites, chap. xxii. 6; “ And Elam bare the quiver.” Prideaux on Gen. x. 9. “ Merodach ” might be the Strabo says, that the mountainous parts of Elymais bred name of one of their kings, that was afterwards deified chiefly archers : and Livy and other heathen writers by some of his subjects. W. Lowth. speak of the Elymean bowmen. Dr. Blayney. 1 3. — out of the north there cometh up a nation &c.]
36. - four winds from the four quarters of heaven, ] The Medes, who lay to the north of Babylon : see ver. That is, enemies from every quarter. Wars and com- | 9, 41. W. Lowth. motions are metaphorically denoted by winds: see chap. — which shall make her land desolate, 7 See the note iv. 11, 12; li. 1; Dan. vii. 2. W. Lowth.
on Isai. xiii. 20—22. 38. And I will set my throne in Elam,] Nebuchad- 4. In those days,-the children of Israel &c.] In those nezzar acting under the commission and authority of days the children of Israel, and the children of Judah, God, the establishment of his power was in effect the shall, through the favour of the Persian monarchs, go setting up of the throne or dominion of His principal. up together, weeping for joy to return to their counDr. Blayney, W. Lowth.
try, and to the place of God's worship and service. Bp. 39. – I will bring again the captivity of Elam,] See Hall. “ In that time” will denote “ during the time of note on ver. 34.
Babylon's desolation:" which, being designed to be per
petual, will comprehend as well the time of the general Chap. L. This chapter and the next contain a pro- restoration of Israel and Judah in the latter days, as that phecy concerning the fall of Babylon, intermixed and of their more immediate and partial return from Babylon. contrasted with predictions concerning the redemption Dr. Blayney. of Israel and Judah, who were not, like those oppressors, 5. — a perpetual covenant] We find the Jews, after to be finally extirpated, but to survive them, and upon their return from Babylon, in Nehemiah's time, entertheir repentance and conversion to be pardoned and ing into a covenant to walk in God's law, and to obey restored. The prophecy was delivered and sent to Him, Neh. ix. 38; X. 1, &c. But by the “perpetual," Babylon in the fourth year of Zedekiah's reign, as ap- or “everlasting covenant,” may probably be understood pears from chap. li. 59. Dr. Blayney.
| that of the Gospel. Dr. Blayney. Ver. 2. - set up a standard ;] To call people toge- 6. — their shepherds have caused them to go astray,] ther, and impart to them these good tidings. The de- Their pastors and governors have led them to commit struction of Babylon would be likewise a sort of signal idolatry, of which the mountains were a principal scene: to the Jews, to assemble together, in order to their see chap. ii. 20 : iii. 6, 23; Ezek. vi. 3, 4, 13; xviii. 6, return home : the time of their captivity being then to &c. And “they have gone from mountain to hill,” expire. W. Lowth.
varying the object or place of their idolatrous worship, - Bel-Merodach] See the second note on chap. and forgetting the sanctuary of their God, where alone xliji. 12; and concerning “Bel,” see the note from Dean I they ought to have set up their rest. Dr. Blayney.