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hand of the prophet.
Baruch writeth a new copy. CHAP. XXXVI, XXXVII.
Zedekiah made king. Before and write in it all the former words, the son of Jehoiakim, whom Nebu- Before about 605. that were in the first roll, which chadrezzar king of Babylon made about 599.
Jehoiakim the king of Judah hath king in the land of Judah.
| 2 But neither he, nor his servants,
priest to the prophet Jeremiah, say-
David: and his dead body shall be out among the people: for they had
15 Then Pharaoh's army was come + Heb. visit 31 And I will + punish him and forth out of Egypt: and when the
his seed and his servants for their Chaldeans that besieged Jerusalem
7 Thus saith the LORD, the God
and there were added besides unto 8 And the Chaldeans shall come 1 Heb. as them many + like words.
again, and fight against this city, and
take it, and burn it with fire. CHAP. XXXVII.
9 Thus saith the LORD; Deceive
not † yourselves, saying, The Chal- + Heb. souls. 1 The Egyptians having raised the siege of deans shall surely depart from us:
the Chaldeans, king Zedekiah sendeth to for they shall not depart.
| 10 For though ye bad smitten the
tent, and burn this city with fire. AND king a Zedekiah the son of 11 q And it came to pass, that
Josiah reigned instead of Coniah when the army of the Chaldeans was
about 599. a Chap. 22.
2 Chron. 36.
30. — in the day to the heat, and in the night to the tainly it shall, to wicked men, to augment their reckonfrost.] In Syria, and in other parts of the East, it appears ing at the last day ; much less shall spiritual wantonfrom the accounts of various authors, that the nights are ness and intemperance be overlooked, and escape such as cold and frosty as the days are sultry. Harmer. See imputation. Reading. the note on Gen. xxxi. 40.
32. — and there were added besides unto them many like Chap. XXXVII. ver. 1.- Zedekiah -- whom Nebuwords. And this was all that Jehoiakim got by burn- chadrezzar - made king] He made him a tributary ing the prophecy of Jeremiah. When Jeremiah and king, by imposing on him an oath of homage to the king Baruch wrote the second roll, they were directed by God of Babylon. See 2 Chron. xxxvi. 13; Ezek. xvii. 13. to add to it several things, which were not in the former; | W. Lowth. aggravations, no doubt, of Jehoiakim's punishment for 3. — Jehucal the son of Shelemiah] This man came his impious burning of the first roll. And very just it in the place of Pashur, who, together with Zephaniah, was, that his doom should be aggravated. For, if every brought the former message from Zedekiah. See the abuse of temporal blessings shall be imputed, as cer- | introductory note to chap. xxi. Dr. Blayney. Vol. II.
midst of the people.
to the Chasaying, Thou Jeremiah the put me in this people, thay servants,
Jeremiah is imprisoned,
and cast into the dungeon. Before + broken up from Jerusalem for fear him secretly in his house, and said, Before 590. of Pharaoh's army,
Is there any word from the Lord? 12 Then Jeremiah went forth out And Jeremiah said, There is : for, to ascend of Jerusalem to go into the land of said he, thou shalt be delivered into || Or, to slip Benjamin, || to separate himself thence the hand of the king of Babylon. thence in the in the midst of the people.
18 Moreover Jeremiah said unto
The king of Babylon shall not
supplication, I pray thee, be accepted fall." 15 Wherefore the princes were before thee; that thou cause me not wroth with Jeremiah, and smote him, to return to the house of Jonathan and put him in prison in the house of the scribe, lest I die there. Jonathan the scribe: for they had 21 Then Zedekiah the king commade that the prison.
manded that they should commit Je16 | When Jeremiah was entered remiah into the court of the prison, || Or, cells. into the dungeon, and into the cabins, and that they should give him daily a
and Jeremiah had remained there piece of bread out of the bakers'
street, until all the bread in the city
12. — to separate himself thence in the midst of the and afflictions of his sovereign : especially at a moment people.] He went forth from Jerusalem with the rest of when he had incurred the perilous suspicion of favourhis countrymen, to go into his native place, in the tribe ing the cause of the enemy. Richards. of Benjamin, to live there apart for a time. Bp. Hall. I 20. — lest I die there.] A discretionary power is
13. — in the gate of Benjamin,] The gate leading out given to the keeper to treat his prisoners just as he of Jerusalem towards the country of Benjamin. W. pleases. If he receives large fees, he will treat the acLowth.
cused well : but if he has a greater regard for those who - Hananiah ;) Probably that Hananiah, whose have imprisoned a man, he will treat the prisoner with death Jeremiah foretold, chap. xxviii. 17. If so, this the greatest inhumanity. This account of Eastern imdescendant of his thought to revenge his grandfather's prisonment gives great force to the supplication of quarrel. W. Lowth.
Jeremiah, that he might not be remanded to the house 15. — for they had made that the prison.] There is of Jonathan the scribe, lest he should die there. Sir J. nothing extraordinary in making the dwellinghouse of Chardin, Harmer. a great man a prison, according to either the ancient or 21. – into the court of the prison,] Not belonging to modern manners of the East. See Gen, xxxix. 20. the house of Jonathan the scribe, where the dungeon Even in the royal palace itself we find there was a pri- was ; but the court of the prison in the king's house, son, chap. xxxii. 2. Sir John Chardin says, “ The East- mentioned chap. xxxii. 2. Dr. Blayney. ern prisons are not public buildings erected for that -- the bakers' street,] In ancient times an oven in purpose, but a part of the house in which their criminal the East was designed to serve only a single famiiy. judges dwell. As the governour and provost of a town, “ The bakers' street" was perhaps a temporary regulaor the captain of the watch, imprison such as are accused tion to supply the wants of the soldiers assembled for in their own houses, they set apart a canton of it for that the defence of Jerusalem ; as at Algiers, according to purpose, when they are put into these offices, and choose Dr. Shaw, besides money, the soldiers receive each a for the jailor the most proper person they can find of number of loaves every day. If so, it was natural their domesticks.” Jonathan's house probably became for the king to order Jeremiah a piece or cake of a prison in consequence of his being made a royal bread from thence every day after the same manner. scribe, or, as we should term him, a secretary of state. Harmer. Dr. Blayney, Harmer.
It is here to be noticed, that God protected Jeremiah, 16. - into the dungeon, and into the cabins, 7 Or and softened the heart of Zedekiah towards him, so that " cells," as in the margin. The dungeon appears to he not only saved him from the dungeon, but fed him have been an underground prison with separate cells or likewise, while the siege lasted and the famine prevailed apartments for the prisoners. Calmet.
| in Jerusalem. Thus Providence sets bounds to the 17. – thou shalt be delivered into the hand of the king malice of the wicked, delivers the righteous, and causes of Babylon. It is a proof of the firmness and integrity good men to meet with comfort and assistance in the of the Prophet, that he should thus predict the captivity I worst of times. Ostervald.
Ebed-melech maketh suit for him, CHAP. XXXVIII. and getteth him some enlargement.
| the dungeon there was no water, but Before CHAP. XXXVIII.
mire : so Jeremiah sunk in the mire.
Ethiopian, one of the eunuchs which
was in the king's house, heard that
gate of Benjamin;
1 Mattan, and Gedaliah the son of the king's house, and spake to the
spoken unto all the people, saying, done to Jeremiah the prophet, whom a Chap. 21. 9. 2 Thus saith the Lord, a He that they have cast into the dungeon; and
remaineth in this city shall die by the t he is like to die for hunger in the Heb, he will
Take from hence thirty men + with Heb. in
11 So Ebed-melech took the men
such words unto them: for this man pian said unto Jeremiah, Put now + Heb. peace. seeketh not the f welfare of this peo- these old cast clouts and rotten rags ple, but the hurt.
| under thine armholes under the cords.
dungeon : and Jeremiah remained in
cast him into the dungeon of Malchiah 14 9 Then Zedekiah the king sent, 10, of the the son || of Hammelech, that was in and took Jeremiah the prophet unto
the court of the prison : and they let him into the || third entry that is in . Or, down Jeremiah with cords. And in the house of the LORD: and the king princ
Chap. XXXVIII. This chapter, with which the four Ebed-melech was; called here an eunuch, or officer of last verses of chap. xxxix. are obviously connected, con- the king's house. Compare chap. xxix. 2 ; xxxiv. 19. tains the last transaction, in which Jeremiah was pro In the Hebrew he is called the Cushite. W. Lowth. phetically concerned before the taking of Jerusalem. See the note on Numb. xii. 1.
It is particularly noted that he was an Ethiopian or Ver. 5. – for the king is not he that can do any thing Cushite, to let us know that this Prophet of the Lord against you.] The king evidently speaks this in disgust found more kindness from a stranger who was a native with the princes for endeavouring to frustrate his cle- heathen, than from his own countrymen. Poole. mency. He had once rescued. Jeremiah out of their - the king then sitting in the gate of Benjamin ;) hands, and taken him under his royal protection. But That is, in the publick place of judicature. Bp. Hall. his prerogative, he tells them, was likely to avail but | See the notes on Gen. xxiii. 10; Job v. 4. little, when opposed by their obstinate and repeated im- 9.- These men have done evil in all that they have portunities. The power was in reality theirs, and not done to Jeremiah) An honourable testimony to the his. Dr. Blayney.
probity of the Prophet's character. Bp. Watson. 7. – Ebed-melech the Ethiopian,] Josephus mentions, for there is no more bread in the city.] The stores that Solomon, amongst other merchandise, brought are almost all spent. Poole. slaves from Ethiopia ; which was afterwards the prac 14.— into the third entry] Most probably the farthest tice of the Greeks and Romans. Such a slave probably part of the passage, leading from the_king's house to
Jeremiah counselleth king Zedekiah. JEREMIAH.
The conference is concealed. Beforer said unto Jeremiah, I will ask thee al 22 And, behold, all the women that Before
thing; hide nothing from me. are left in the king of Judah's house 589.
15 Then Jeremiah said unto Zede- shall be brought forth to the king of kiah, If I declare it unto thee, wilt Babylon's princes, and those women thou not surely put me to death ? and shall say, † Thy friends have set thee + Heb. Men
of thy peace. if I give thee counsel, wilt thou not on, and have prevailed against thee : " hearken unto me?
thy feet are sunk in the mire, and
17 Then said Jeremiah unto Ze- + thou shalt cause this city to be + Heb, thou
unto thee, and say unto thee, Declare
I presented my supplication before
Jeremiah, and asked him: and he told
21 But if thou refuse to go forth, of the prison until the day that Jeruthis is the word that the Lord hath salem was taken: and he was there shewed me:
when Jerusalem was taken.
the altar in the temple, and terminating with the“ brasen The advice of Jeremiah clearly proves, that the descaffold,” mentioned 2 Chron. vi. 13. To this, as the struction of Zedekiah was not so determined, but that most retired place, king Zedekiah may have brought the he might have prevented it. The Divine threatenings Prophet, to confer with him with the greatest privacy. and predictions, and God's knowledge of futurity, do Dr. Blayney.
not deprive men of their liberty, since the evils, with 15. — If I declare it unto thee, wilt thou not surely put which they are threatened, are brought on them by their me to death ?]' The Prophet had so much experience own fault. Ostervald. of the unsteadiness of the king's temper, of his back-1 22. And, behold, all the women &c.] Thou, that art wardness in following good counsel, and want of courage afraid of the insultings of men that are thy subjects, to stand by those that durst advise him well, that he shalt fall under the insultings and taunts of the women. might with good reason resolve not to venture his life | Poole. to serve a man, that was in a manner incapable of being 28. — until the day that Jerusalem was taken :) The directed. And although God had shewed him what behaviour of Zedekiah in this transaction is memorwould be the effect of his advice, if it were followed, able. That prince had a regard for Jeremiah, and even (ver. 17,) yet it doth not appear that He had command wished to follow his advice : he was moved with what ed him to make this known to Zedekiah. W. Lowth. the Prophet had told him, and almost determined to
wilt thou not hearken unto me?'] Rather, “thou do as he advised : but his fear of the rulers of the peowilt not hearken to me.” The prophet might well ple prevented him. Thus do sinners act. When God conclude so from his former behaviour, chap. xxxvii. 2. speaks to them, they are sometimes affected; there are W. Lowth, Dr. Blayney.
still some remains of good in them, which press them 17.-- then thy soul shall live, &c.] See the notes on to their duty; but they are hindered from following chap. iv. 28; xyii. 25.
the dictates of their conscience by a false shame, by
with him judgments.
Jerusalem is taken.
CHAP. XXXIX. Zedekiah is sent to Babylon. CHAP. XXXIX.
| night, by the way of the king's gar- Before
den, by the gate betwixt the two 588. 1 Jerusalem is taken. 4 Zedekiah is made blind, and sent to Babylon.
iah is made walls: and he went out the way of
ols. and he went out the wav of
8 The city
kiah in the plains of Jericho: and a 2 Kings 25. TN the a ninth year of Zedekiah when they had taken him, they
1 king of Judah, in the tenth month, | brought him up to Nebuchadnezzar
judgment upon him.
slew all the nobles of Judah.
|| Or, chief 41 And it came to pass, that when 9 Then Nebuzar-adan the 1 + capZedekiah the king of Judah saw them, tain of the guard carried away captive of the exand all the men of war, then they | into Babylon the remnant of the peo- slaughtermen: fled, and went forth out of the city by ple that remained in the city, and 10.11, &c.
And so ver.
their fear of men, and by other the like motives, so that! 4. — by the gate betwixt the two walls :) We find they let slip the favourable opportunity, and, after a mention made of two walls, one exterior to the other, long struggling and resistance, they take the worst side 2 Chron. xxxii. 5. Probably between these two walls and perish. This was the cause of Zedekiah's ruin. might have been a private postern, through which the The Scripture remarks, that he humbled not himself, king and his followers might escape from the besiegers, when Jeremiah spake unto him in the name of God; who surrounded the city, and undoubtedly kept a strict and, notwithstanding the solicitations of the Prophet, watch at the principal gates. Dr. Blayney. and the conviction of his own conscience, resolved not 1 5. — in the plains of Jericho :] Compare Josh. v. 10. to yield to the Chaldeans. The warnings contained in This is called “ the way of the plain” or “wilderness," this chapter are the last that God gave him ; and, as he Josh. viii. 15; and “the plain of the wilderness," 2 neglected to improve them, it was afterwards too late to Sam. XV. 28; xvii. 16; and elsewhere “the wilderness do so, and he drew upon himself and upon his sub- of Judea ;" see Matt. ïïi. 1. W. Lowth. jects the utmost miseries, as we find related in the fol
Riblah] See the note on chap. xlix. 23. Most lowing chapter. Ostervald.
interpreters suppose this city to be the same which was
called Antioch in aftertimes, when it was rebuilt by SeChap. XXXIX. ver. 2. — the city was broken up.7 | leucus. W. Lowth. Such breaches were made in the walls, that the army - where he gave judgment upon him.] Or, “proof the Chaldeans entered. W. Lowth.
ceeded judicially against him.” The Hebrew phrase is 3. — in the middle gate,] See the note on Isai. xxii. literally, “discoursed judgments with him ;" and implies 1. “The middle gate,” or, “the gate of the centre," all the several steps of a judicial process; as the arraignseems to have been a gate of communication in the ment, trial, conviction, and condemnation. Zedekiah middle of the valley between the two parts of the city, had sworn allegiance to the king of Babylon, and was sometimes called “the higher” and “the lower city," therefore liable to be tried and condemned as a rebel The Chaldeans entered the city on the north side by a and traitor. See 2 Chron. xxxvi. 13; Ezek. xvii. 16, breach in the walls, and immediately rushing forward, / 18. Dr. Blayney. and posting themselves in this gate, in the very heart or 7. — he put out Zedekiah's eyes, &c.] See the notes entrance of the city, they thereby became masters at on 2 Kings xxv. 7; Jer. xxxiv. 2; and Ezek. xii. 14; will of the whole. Zedekiah with his troops, perceiving also on 1 Sam. xi. 2. this, fled out at the opposite gate on the south side. Among capital punishments in Abyssinia may be Dr. Blayney.
reckoned the plucking out of the eyes : this is generally Nergal-sharezer, &c.] As Nergal-sharezer oc- inflicted upon rebels : it does not often prove fatal, curs twice, the next word seems to be an addition to though performed in the coarsest manner with an iron the name by way of distinguishing the person. Pro- forceps, or pincers. Xenophon tells us, this was one bably “Saingar, “Rab-saris,” and “ Rab-mag,” were of the punishments used by Cyrus : and Ammianus all titles of office; as we find “Rab-tebachim," which Marcellinus mentions, that Sapor king of Persia bawe render “ captain of the guard,” ver. 11; or it might nished Arsaces, whom he had taken prisoner, to a cerbe, “ commander in chief of the forces," was the title tain castle, after having pulled out his eyes. Bruce. of Nebuzar-adan. Dr. Blayney.
9.- the remnant of the people that remained in the