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Before CHRIST

CHRIST

about 590.

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Deut. 15. 12.

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Jeremiah delivereth Zedekiah

JEREMIAH.

into the hands of his enemies Before 10 Now when all the princes, and 17 Therefore thus saith the LORD; , about 591., all the people, which had entered into Ye have not hearkened unto me, in about 590.

the covenant, heard that every one proclaiming liberty, every one to his
should let his manservant, and every brother, and every man to his neigh-
one his maidservant, go free, that none bour: behold, I proclaim a liberty for
should serve themselves of them any you, saith the Lord, to the sword, to
more, then they obeyed, and let the pestilence, and to the famine; and
them go.

I will make you + to be removed Heb. for a
11 But afterward they turned, and into all the kingdoms of the earth. e Deut. 28.
caused the servants and the handmaids, 18 And I will give the men that ch. 29. 19.
whom they had let go free, to return, have transgressed my covenant, which
and brought them into subjection for have not performed the words of the
servants and for handmaids.

covenant which they had made before 12 I Therefore the word of the me, when they cut the calf in twain, LORD came to Jeremiah from the and passed between the parts thereof, LORD, saying,

19 The princes of Judah, and the 13 Thus saith the Lord, the God princes of Jerusalem, the eunuchs, of Israel; I made a covenant with and the priests, and all the people of your fathers in the day that I brought the land, which passed between the them forth out of the land of Egypt, parts of the calf;

out of the house of bondmen, saying, 20 I will even give them into the d Exod. 21.2. 14 At the end of a seven years let hand of their enemies, and into the

ye go every man his brother an He- hand of them that seek their life : ! Or, hath sold brew, which || hath been sold unto and their f dead bodies shall be for Chap. 7.83.

thee; and when he hath served thee meat unto the fowls of the heaven,
six years, thou shalt let him go free and to the beasts of the earth.
from thee: but your fathers heark- 21 And Zedekiah king of Judah
ened not unto me, neither inclined and his princes will I give into the
their ear.

| hand of their enemies, and into the + Heb. to day. 15 And ye were + now turned, and hand of them that seek their life, and

had done right in my sight, in pro- into the hand of the king of Babylon's
claiming liberty every man to his army, which are gone up from you.

neighbour; and ye had made a cove- 22 Behold, I will command, saith + Heb. where- nant before me in the house + which the LORD, and cause them to return is called." is called by my name :

to this city; and they shall fight
16 But ye turned and polluted my against it, and take it, and burn it
name, and caused every man his ser- with fire: and I will make the cities
vant, and every man his handmaid, of Judah a desolation without an in-
whom he had set at liberty at their habitant.
pleasure, to return, and brought them

CHAP. XXXV.
into subjection, to be unto you for i By the obedience of the Rechabites, 12 Je-
servants and for handmaids.

remiah condemneth the disobedience of the 14. At the end of seven years] The seventh year was As Zedekiah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, on the year of release, Deut. xv. 9; consequently servants finding themselves besieged, set at liberty their Hebrew were to continue in service but six years, and at the servants, and pretended they would observe the law of beginning of the seventh were to be let go free; see God; but afterwards, imagining they had nothing to ver. 12. For this reason some criticks render the fear, changed their minds, and made slaves again of phrase here, “within the term of seven years." And their brethren : thus sinners pretend to humble themthe words mean no more, as appears by a like form of selves, and seem disposed to repentance, while they are speech, Deut. xiv. 28, where it is said, “At the end of threatened and the danger is near; but as soon as their three years thou shalt bring forth all the tithe of thine fears are over, they break their promises, and return to increase the same year:" which is to be explained by their sins. Jeremiah's reproaches and threatenings of what is said chap. xxvi. 12, where every “third year" | the Jews for their impious and unjust proceedings shew, is called “the year of tithing.” So Christ is said to that a repentance and a reformation, which is but of “rise again after three days," Mark viii. 31; which is short duration, instead of pacifying God, only provokes elsewhere explained by His rising the “third day.” W. Him the more; and that those, who violate His coveLowth.

nant and their own promises, shall not escape the 17. - I proclaim a liberty for you, to the sword, punishments which their hypocrisy and infidelity de&c.] I give full liberty to the sword, and to the pesti serve. Ostervald. lence, and to the famine, to seize upon you. Bp. Hall.

18. — when they cut the calf in twain,] See the note 1 Chap. XXXV. All the intermediate prophecies from on Gen, xv. 10.

chap. xxvi. belong clearly to the reign of Zedekiah ; and

-into clof them thenemies, and into the

is called.

CHRIST

Before CHRIST about 607.

By the obedience of the Rechabites CHAP. XXXV. the Jews' disobedience is condemned.

Before. Jews. 18 God blesseth the Rechabites for shall drink no wine, neither ye, nors
about 607. their obedience.

your sons for ever:
THE word which came unto Je-l 7 Neither shall ye build house, nor

1 remiah from the Lord in the sow seed, nor plant vineyard, nor
days of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah have any : but all your days ye shall
king of Judah, saying,

dwell in tents; that ye may live
2 Go unto the house of the Recha- many days in the land where ye be
bites, and speak unto them, and bring strangers.
them into the house of the Lord, into 18 Thus have we obeyed the voice
one of the chambers, and give them of Jonadab the son of Rechab our
wine to drink.

father in all that he hath charged us,
3 Then I took Jaazaniah the son to drink no wine all our days, we, our
of Jeremiah, the son of Habaziniah, wives, our sons, nor our daughters;
and his brethren, and all his sons, and 9 Nor to build houses for us to
the whole house of the Rechabites; dwell in: neither have we vineyard,
4 And I brought them into the nor field, nor seed:

into the chamber non debut we have dwelt in tents
house of the LORD, into the chamber
of the sons of Hanan, the son of Igda- have obeyed, and done according to
liah, a man of God, which was by the all that Jonadab our father command-
chamber of the princes, which was ed us.
above the chamber of Maaseiah the 11 But it came to pass, when Ne-
son of Shallum, the keeper of the buchadrezzar king of Babylon came
+ door:

up into the land, that we said, Come, threshold, or,

5 And I set before the sons of the and let us go to Jerusalem for fear
house of the Rechabites pots full of of the army of the Chaldeans, and
wine, and cups, and I said unto them, for fear of the army of the Syrians :
Drink ye wine.

so we dwell at Jerusalem.
6 But they said, We will drink no 12 9 Then came the word of the
wine: for Jonadab the son of Rechab LORD unto Jeremiah, saying,
our father commanded us, saying, Ye 13 Thus saith the Lord of hosts,

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consequently are posterior to this chapter and the next, same person, of whom mention is made 2 Kings x. 15; which are dated in the reign of Jehoiakim, together with (see the note there. The institutions he left with his chap. xlv, which is closely connected with the latter of posterity bespeak a principal concern for the purity of these two chapters. The Rechabites appear to have re- their morals, which he might rightly suppose would be tired within the walls of Jerusalem, upon the hostile less liable to be corrupted, whilst they adhered to the approach of Nebuchadnezzar and his army, in the simplicity of their ancient usages, than if they adopted fourth year of Jehoiakim. Dr. Blayney.

the refinements of modern luxury. He therefore enVer. 2. Go unto the house of the Rechabites,-and joined them, not only to abstain from the use of wine, give them wine to drink.] Here God trieth the Rechab- but to live as the patriarchs did of old, and as many of ites, as He also tried Abraham, Gen. xxii. 1. There their countrymen, the Scenite Arabs, continue to do at appear to be two reasons why He made this trial of their this day, without any fixed habitations or possessions, obedience : the one was, for their own greater advantage far from the society of cities, in the open country, feedand improvement; the other was, that their fidelity ing their flocks, and maintaining themselves by the and firm adherence to the injunction of their ancestor produce of them. Dr. Blayney. might be rendered more conspicuous, and might excite 4. — into the house of the Lord, into the chamber of the Jews to emulate their virtue. God tempts us in Hanan,7 There were several chambers adjoining to the His justice, in order to prove the sincerity of our obe- temple for the use of the priests and Levites during the dience; and in His goodness, in order to promote our time of their ministration : and as repositories for laying own profit and the benefit of others. Wogan.

up the holy vestments and vessels, and whatever stores the house of the Rechabites,] The Rechabites, as were necessary for the daily sacrifices, and the other may be collected from ver. 7, were not of the children parts of the temple service. Compare chap. xxxvi. 10.; of Israel, but strangers of another race, who dwelt i Kings vi. 5; i Chron. ix. 27-30. W. Lowth. amongst them. From 1 Chron. Ü. 55, they appear to

a man of God,] This name appears to be always have been Kenites, a people originally settled in that used to denote a Prophet, one who had been employed part of Arabia Petrea, which was called the land of on a Divine commission. Dr. Blayney. Midian ; and most probably the descendants of Jethro, which was by the chamber of the princes,] Where who is called a Kenite, and said to have severed himself the Sanhedrim, or great council, used to assemble: from the rest of his countrymen, and to have dwelt see chap. xxvi. 10. The Sanhedrim always sat in some amongst the people of Israel. Compare Numb. x. great room adjoining the temple. Dr. Lightfoot. 29-32, with Judg. i. 16; iv. 11. At what time Rechab 11. - so we dwell at Jerusalem. 7 Upon the Chaldean lived, who gave his name to the family, is not certain, invasion we retired to Jerusalem, where, during the nor whether he was the immediate father, or more re- siege of the place, we are forced to continue. In such mote ancestor, of Jonadab; for the word “son” often a case they did not think themselves obliged to a strict denotes nothing more than a lineal descendant. But it observance of the injunctions of Jonadab; because all is most likely, that the Jonadab here spoken of was the human laws admit of an equitable construction, and

God blesseth the Rechabites

JEREMIAH.

for their obedience. Before the God of Israel; Go and tell the unto them, but they have not heard; Before about 607. men of Judah and the inhabitants of and I have called unto them, but they about 607.

Jerusalem, Will ye not receive in- have not answered.
struction to hearken to my words ?! 18 And Jeremiah said unto the
saith the LORD.

house of the Rechabites, Thus saith
14 The words of Jonadab the son the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel;
of Rechab, that he commanded his Because ye have obeyed the com-
sons not to drink wine, are perform- mandment of Jonadab your father,
ed; for unto this day they drink none, and kept all his precepts, and done
but obey their father's commandment: according unto all that he hath com-
notwithstanding I have spoken unto manded you :
you, rising early and speaking ; but 19 Therefore thus saith the LORD
ye hearkened not unto me.

of hosts, the God of Israel; + Jona- + Heb. There 15 I have sent also unto you all dab the son of Rechab shall not want man be cut of

shall not a my servants the prophets, rising up a man to stand before me for ever. a Chap. 18. early and sending them, saying, a Re11. & 25. 5. turn ye now every man from his evil

CHAP. XXXVI.
way, and amend your doings, and go
not after other gods to serve them, i Jeremiah causeth Baruch to write his pro-
and ye shall dwell in the land which phecy, 5 and publickly to read it. 11 The
I have given to you and to your fa-

princes, having intelligence thereof by Mi

chaiah, send Jehudi to fetch the roll, and thers : but ye have not inclined your read it. 19 They will Baruch to hide himear, nor hearkened unto me.

self and Jeremiah. 20 The king Jehoiakim, 16 Because the sons of Jonadab the being certified thereof, heareth part of it, son of Rechab have performed the

and burneth the roll. 27 Jeremiah decommandment of their father, which

nounceth his judgment. 32 Baruch writeth

a new copy.
he commanded them; but this people
hath not hearkened unto me:

ND it came to pass in the fourth about 607.
17 Therefore thus saith the LORD A year of Jehoiakim the son of
God of hosts, the God of Israel ; Josiah king of Judah, that this word
Behold, I will bring upon Judah and came unto Jeremiah from the Lord,
upon all the inhabitants of Jerusalem saying,
all the evil that I have pronounced 2 Take thee a roll of a book, and
against them : because I have spoken write therein all the words that I

from Jonadab the son of Rechab to stand, &c.

may be superseded in cases of necessity, or when the tivities, some of the family of the Rechabites shall remain observance of them is attended with such great incon- to attend upon My service, and enjoy the privileges of veniences, as the lawgiver himself, if he could have worshipping in My temple at Jerusalem. For to stand foreseen, would probably have made ground of ex- in the presence of a prince implies an attendance in ception. W. Lowth.

some degree upon his person and service, 1 Kings x. 8: 15. I have sent also unto you all my servants the pro- and therefore to “ stand before God” must denote at phets, &c.] God here explains why He had commis- least the privilege of treading His courts, and worshipsioned the Prophet to bring the Rechabites into the ping Him among the train of His chosen servants and temple, and commanded him to set wine before them, followers. Some branches of this family returned from and invite them to drink it; namely, that by their re- the captivity, as appears from 1 Chron. ii. 55. fusing to comply with the invitation, in obedience to The expression “for ever" is not always to be taken their father Jonadab, He might convince the Jews of in a strict sense; but often means only a long contheir disobedience to His commands, though those tinuance, and is used comparatively with respect to a commands were more obligatory than the commands of shorter duration. See the notes on chap. xxv. 9; xxxii. Jonadab. For, lst, Jonadab was but an earthly pa- 40. W. Lowth. rent, and so had no absolute universal sovereignty over Of so great price in the sight of God is the virtue of his children; but God was “the Lord of hosts, the filial duty and obedience, that it seldom fails of its reGod of Israel.” 2dly, Jonadab's commands were not ward even in this world. The law, which enjoined it, for the performance of any moral duty, but the doing had a promise of long life annexed thereto, Exod. xx. of a thing, which they might do or leave undone; God 12: and it is distinguished by the Apostle as “the first required of thern what was but their moral duty, and commandment with promise,” Eph. vi. 2. And by for which there was the highest reason. 3dly, Jonadab's this history of the Rechabites we may learn, that the commands had no promise annexed; God's precept had surest way to entail a blessing on our children, and to a promise annexed, yet they had not yielded Him that perpetuate our names and families in a numerous and obedience which the sons of Jonadab had yielded him. virtuous issue, is to reverence and obey our own parents. He was the Father, but where was His honour? Poole. | Wogan.

19. – Jonadab the son of Rechab shall not want a man to stand before me for ever.] When the main body of Chap. XXXVI. ver. 2.- a roll of a book,] Compare the Jewish nation are dispersed in their several cap- / Isai, viii, 1; Ezek. ii. 9; Zech. v, 1. The ancient man

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

use.

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Baruch writeth Jeremiah's prophecy, CHAP. XXXVI.

and publicly readeth it. Before, have spoken unto thee against Israel, , did according to all that Jeremiah Before about 607. and against Judah, and against all the prophet commanded him, reading about 607.

the nations, from the day I spake in the book the words of the Lord in a Chap. 25. 3. unto thee, from the days of a Josiah, the Lord's house. even unto this day.

9 And it came to pass in the fifth about 606. 3 It may be that the house of Judah year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah will hear all the evil which I purpose king of Judah, in the ninth month, to do unto them; that they may re that they proclaimed a fast before the turn every man from his evil way; Lord to all the people in Jerusalem, that I may forgive their iniquity and and to all the people that came from their sin.

the cities of Judah unto Jerusalem.
4 Then Jeremiah called Baruch the 10 Then read Baruch in the book
son of Neriah : and Baruch wrote the words of Jeremiah in the house
from the mouth of Jeremiah all the of the LORD, in the chamber of Ge-
words of the LORD, which he had mariah the son of Shaphan the scribe,
spoken unto him, upon a roll of a in the higher court, at the || \ entry ! Or, door:
book.

of the new gate of the Lord's house, 10.
5 And Jeremiah commanded Ba- in the ears of all the people.
ruch, saying, I am shut up; I cannot 11 9 When Michaiah the son of
go into the house of the LORD: Gemariah, the son of Shaphan, had

6 Therefore go thou, and read in heard out of the book all the words
the roll, which thou hast written from of the Lord,
my mouth, the words of the Lord in 12 Then he went down into the
the ears of the people in the Lord's king's house, into the scribe's cham-
house upon the fasting day: and also ber : and, lo, all the princes sat there,
thou shalt read them in the ears of even Elishama the scribe, and De-
all Judah that come out of their laiah the son of Shemaiah, and Elna-
cities.

than the son of Achbor, and Gema+ Heb. their 7 It may be + they will present riah the son of Shaphan, and Zedeshall fall. their supplication before the Lord, kiah the son of Hananiah, and all the

and will return every one from his princes.
evil way: for great is the anger and 13 Then Michaiah declared unto
the fury that the Lord hath pro- them all the words that he had heard,
nounced against this people.

when Baruch read the book in the
8 And Baruch the son of Neriah ears of the people.

+ Heb, their sapplication

ner of writing was upon long scrolls of parchment, nexion with the following context, under some such which were afterwards rolled upon sticks. W. Lowth. confinement or restraint, as precluded him from going

- against Israel, and against Judah,] Jeremiah' to the house of the Lord. This might have been in a prophesied against Israel as well as against Judah : see variety of ways, without being shut up in prison, a spechap. ü. 4; ii. 12, 14, &c.; ix. 26; xxiii. 13; xxxii.30, cies of persecution which does not appear to have be32. The kingdom of Israel indeed had been destroyed fallen him about this time. Dr. Blayney. by Shalmaneser before the time of Jeremiah: but yet 6. — in the ears of the people] The Prophets usually the Prophet was ordered to reprove their sins, both published their declarations in the hearing of the peoto manifest the justice of God in punishing them so ple; see chap. vii. 2; xi. 6; xvii. 20: and they were severely, and withal to warn the rest of the Jews by afterwards delivered in writing for common use. W. their example. Besides, there were some remains of Lowth. the ten tribes, who joined themselves to the tribe of upon the fasting day:] Rather, “ upon a fast Judah. W. Lowth.

day;" (see ver. 9;) a day which had been appointed to 3. It may be that the house of Judah will hear &c.] be observed as such by all the people, on account, it is See the like expression, ver. 7 ; chap. xxvi. 3; Ezek. supposed, of the city having been taken by NebuchadXII. 3; Amos v. 15; Zeph. ii. 3. In which places God nezzar the same day in the preceding year. Dr. is represented as speaking after the manner of men, Blayney. and using such methods, as in human probability may 10. — in the chamber &c.] Most probably from the be most likely to prevail : compare chap. viii. 6. These window or balcony of it, that looked into the higher and such like expressions do likewise import, that God's court, where the people were gathered together in foreknowledge of future events doth not put any force crowds below. Dr. Blayney. upon men's will, nor take away the liberty of human

in the higher court,] That part of the court of actions, as Origen hath acutely observed. W. Lowth. the people, which was in front of the inner court, was

5. - I am shut up ; I cannot go into the house of the most probably that which is here called “ the higher Lord : I must keep close, upon the command of the court.” Dr. Blayney. Lord, and not stir forth. See chap. xxxvii. 4. Bp. Hall. 12. all the princes sat there,] The chief officers It is not said, that he was shut up in prison, but barely of state, who were probably members also of the great that he was "shut up,” or confined; or, taken in con- ! Sanhedrim. See chap. xxvi. 10; xxxviii. 4. W. Lowth.

CHRIST

CHRIST

and came unto before time on the momentin and there

15 And they

The princes send for Baruch.

JEREMIAH.

The king burneth the roll. Before 14 Therefore all the princes sent shama the scribe's chamber. And Before about 606. Jehudi the son of Nethaniah, the son Jehudi read it in the ears of the king, about 606.

of Shelemiah, the son of Cushi, unto and in the ears of all the princes
Baruch, saying, Take in thine hand which stood beside the king.
the roll wherein thou hast read in the 22 Now the king sat in the winter-
ears of the people, and come. So house in the ninth month : and there
Baruch the son of Neriah took the was a fire on the hearth burning
roll in his hand, and came unto before him.
them.

23 And it came to pass, that when
15 And they said unto him, Sit Jehudi had read three or four leaves,
down now, and read it in our ears. | he cut it with the penknife, and cast
So Baruch read it in their ears. it into the fire that was on the hearth,

16 Now it came to pass, when they until all the roll was consumed in the
had heard all the words, they were fire that was on the hearth.
afraid both one and other, and said 24 Yet they were not afraid, nor
unto Baruch, We will surely tell the rent their garments, neither the king,
king of all these words.

nor any of his servants that heard all
17 And they asked Baruch, say- these words.
ing, Tell us now, How didst thou 25 Nevertheless Elnathan and De-
write all these words at his mouth? laiah and Gemariah had made inter-

18 Then Baruch answered them, cession to the king that he would not
He pronounced all these words unto burn the roll: but he would not hear
me with his mouth, and I wrote them them.
with ink in the book.

26 But the king commanded Jerah-
19 Then said the princes unto meel the son |1 of Hammelech, and 1 Or, of the
Baruch, Go, hide thee, thou and Seraiah the son of Azriel, and Shele- kin
Jeremiah; and let no man know where miah the son of Abdeel, to take Ba-
ye be.

| ruch the scribe and Jeremiah the pro-
20 I And they went in to the king phet: but the Lord hid them.
into the court, but they laid up the 27 | Then the word of the LORD about 605.
roll in the chamber of Elishama the came to Jeremiah, after that the king
scribe, and told all the words in the had burned the roll, and the words
ears of the king.

| which Baruch wrote at the mouth of
21 So the king sent Jehudi to fetch Jeremiah, saying,
the roll: and he took it out of Eli- 28 Take thee again another roll,

king.

19. Then said the princes unto Baruch, Go, hide thee, there was a fire on the hearth burning before him. thou and Jeremiah ;] They thought it their duty to ac- In many parts of the East it is usual to have great quaint the king with the matter, ver. 16; yet were brasiers of lighted coals for fires, the manner in which unwilling that Jeremiah and Baruch should feel the persons sit, not allowing them to be near a chimney. effects of his displeasure. W. Lowth.

This was probably the sort of fire burning before Je20. And they went in to the king into the court,] They hoiakim. Accordingly, in the Latin Vulgate, the word were before in the king's house, ver. 12; that is, in the which we render “ hearth,” is translated by one sig. exterior precincts of the palace, where were apartments nifying a little altar. Sir J. Chardin, Dr. Blayney. and offices fitted up for the principal officers of state, 23. — three or four leaves,] Their books were made and for the attendants of the court. But from what is in form of a roll, see ver. 2; and were not divided into here said it appears, that there was an interior range of leaves or pages as ours are. By “ leaves" we are probuilding for the king's personal residence, disposed, as bably to understand the columns, or several partitions, is the fashion of the great houses of the East at this into which the breadth of the parchment was divided. day, round an open court or quadrangle, and containing W. Lowth. Or, the different sections of those propheapartments appropriated for summer and winter use. cies, which being delivered at different times, and

having a relation to different subjects, have each a pro22. - in the winterhouse] There is a distinction made per beginning and ending of its own. Dr. Blayney. in the Prophets between winter and summer houses, - the penknife,] The implements for writing were here, and in Amos iii. 15. Probably this may be illus- | probably lying on the table before the king, ready for trated by the accounts given by Dr. Shaw of the coun- | the scribe or secretary's use, in case of theře being occatry seats and gardens about Algiers, whither the inha-sion for writing orders or despatches. Dr. Blayney. bitants of better fashion retire during the heat of the 26.the son of Hammelech,] Or, “ of the king," as summer. Harmer. Or, what the Prophets here say may | in the margin: it is the same expression as in 1 Kings be understood of the different apartments in the same xxii. 26. Perhaps he was not son of the reigning king, house. Dr. Russell. See the preceding note.

but one of the blood royal. Dr. Blayney. - in the ninth month :] Answering to the end of but the Lord hid them.] By the direction of ProNovember, and the beginning of December. See the vidence they were concealed in such a place where they notes on Exod. xii. 2; xiii. 4.

| were not discovered. W. Lowth.

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