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Salvation is only of God.
CHAP. LIX, LX. The covenant of the Redeemer. Before t it displeased him that there was no come to Zion, and unto them that Before about 698. judgment.
turn from transgression in Jacob, saith about 698. 16 | And he saw that there was no the LORD. eril ia his man, and wondered that there was | 21 As for me, this is my covenant i Chap. 63. 5. no intercessor : ftherefore his arm with them, saith the LORD ; My spi
brought salvation unto him ; and his rit that is upon thee, and my words
righteousness, it sustained him. which I have put in thy mouth, shall Eph. 6. 17; 17 & For he put on righteousness not depart out of thy mouth, nor out
as a breastplate, and an helmet of of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of
access of the Gentiles, 15 and the great
blessings after a short affliction.
A RISE, || shine ; for thy light is 1 Or, be
glory from the rising of the sun. 2 For, behold, the darkness shall i Rev. 12. 15. When the enemy shall come in i like cover the earth, and gross darkness
a flood, the Spirit of the LORD shall the people : but the LORD shall arise io fight. || lift up a standard against him. upon thee, and his glory shall be seen Rom. 1. 20 | And k the Redeemer shall upon thee.
16. And he saw that there was no man, and wondered such as repent of their sins. Salvation must commence that there was no intercessor : 1 See note on chap. lxiii. in this life : Jesus will be a Saviour to none hereafter, 5; compare chap. lxiv. 7. and Ezek. xxii. 30. W. but those whom He first saves from sin here: He is a Louth.
Redeemer to them only who turn from their transgresThe sins of men and even of God's own people, (as sions. With them, and them alone, He ratifies and they are described in the beginning of the chapter, and confirms His “covenant” of grace. To them only the there acknowledged and confessed by the penitent mem- Father gives of the “Spirit that is upon” His Son, the bers of the Church, ver. 9—15,) were grown to so Spirit of adoption and grace. Wogan. enormous a height, and so past all hope or human means of reformation, that nothing less than the very arm of Chap. LX. The subject of this chapter is the great God, even His own Son, was able to apply the remedy. increase and flourishing state of the Church of God by When “ He saw there was no man,” no mere man, ca- the conversion and accession of the heathen nations to pable or qualified to redeem his brother, or give to God it; which is set forth in such ample and exalted terms, a ransom for him ; when He saw there was “no inter-as plainly shew, that the full completion of this processor," not even among the angels, to mediate or un- phecy is reserved for future times. This subject is dertake for mankind, then He Himself took it upon Him displayed in the most splendid colours, under a great to execute the great design of saving man, and deliver- variety of images highly poetical, designed to give a ing him out of the hand of his enemies. Wogan, general idea of that perfect state of the Church, which
20. And the Redeemer shall come to Zion, &c.] This we are taught to expect in the latter days. Bp. Lowth. is expounded by St. Paul of that general salvation of It is agreeable to the custom of the times and countries the Jewish nation which he assures us shall come to in general, in which the Scriptures were written, and to pass in the latter times : see the passage referred to in the style and manner of Prophets in particular, to the margin; and compare Obad. ver. 17, 21. Ver. 21. abound with figurative schemes of speech : on such an is to be understood of Christ, the great Prophet and occasion as the subject of this chapter presents, we are Oracle of the Church, who came from heaven to declare least of all to wonder at the boldest metaphors and deunto us the whole counsel of God; and whom we are scriptions : where the benefits spoken of are of so exto hear and obey in all things. Compare chap. li. 16; alted a nature, as to make that pomp of expression the lxi. 1. W. Lowth.
effect of necessity, which would on other occasions pass and unto them that turn from transgression in for artificia). Other benefits may be magnified above Jacob, 1 Our translators have expressed the sense of their just proportions; but no words can come up to the present reading of the Hebrew text : that of St. the real dignity of these; and therefore the most magPaul, following the Septuagint, with which some other nificent descriptions, borrowed from objects familiar to versions agree, is, “and shall turn away ungodliness our senses, do not adorn or exalt, but only speak of srom Jacob,” Rom. xi. 26. Bp. Lowth.
them in the most respectful manner that our capacities The first coming of the great Redeemer was to Zion; admit. Dean Stanhope. His second coming will be to the world in general. He Ver. 1. Arise, shine ; for thy light is come,] Light is came first to His church, to the lost sheep of the house the usual emblem of happiness, and darkness of afflicof Israel, to His own people: but “His own received tion; Jerusalem is bid to arise, and give light to all Him not, because their deeds were evil.” None re- about her, to communicate to others part of the honour ceived Him then, but those “ that turned from trans- and lustre which she had received from God, the true gression in Jacob :" nor can any receive Him now, but Sun of Righteousness," Mal. iv. 2. W. Lowth.
CHRIST about 698.
a Rev. 21. 24.
the sea shall
of the Gentiles. . 3 And the a Gentiles shall come to the Holy One of Israel, because Before about 698. to thy light, and kings to the bright- he hath glorified thee. 24. ness of thy rising.
10 And the sons of strangers shall
11 Therefore thy gates e shall be e Rev. 21. 25. 5 Then thou shalt see, and flow open continually; they shall not be
together, and thine heart shall fear, shut day nor night; that men may ! Or, noises and be enlarged; because the || abund bring unto thee the || forces of the Or, wealth. be turned ance of the sea shall be converted unto Gentiles, and that their kings may be y Or, wealth. thee, the || forces of the Gentiles shall | brought. come unto thee.
12 For the nation and kingdom
and Ephah; all they from Sheba shall wasted.
cense; and they shall shew forth the come unto thee, the fir tree, the pine
tree, and the box together, to beau-
thee; and all they that despised thee
9 Surely the isles shall wait for thee, The city of the Lord, The
me, and the ships of Tarshish first, Zion of the Holy One of Israel.
silver and their gold with them, unto saken and hated, so that no man went
5. Then thou shalt see, and flow together, and thine the elect of God be better compared, or the Church, heart shall fear, and be enlarged;] Thy joy shall break than to the dove-cote? This is the force of the out upon thee like an overflowing river, and the sudden word translated “ window." The Holy Spirit fretransports of it shall produce an astonishment like that quently uses this emblem ; see Ps. lxviii, 13; Hos. xi. arising from fear; the effects of one passion are ascribed i. Vitringa. to another. W. Lowth.
9. Surely the isles shall wait for me, &c.] By “the - the abundance of the sea shall be converted unto isles” are meant the heathen nations : and their * waitthee,] Those foreign nations, which are severed from ing for” Christ expresses that readiness, with which thee by diverse seas. Bp. Hall.
they entertained the Gospel when first preached to 7. All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together them, as if they had been long in expectation of it. So unto thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister &c.] Christ is said to be “the desire of all nations,” Hag. ii. “ Kedar" and "Nebaioth” were sons of Ishmael settled 7. Wogan. in Arabia: “Ephah” was a son of Midian, Gen. xxv. 4. 13. The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, &c.] These people abounded in camels, and such beasts of This expression denotes that all the cedars and other burden, and their substance chiefly consisted in cattle. choice trees of Lebanon should contribute to the reW. Lowth. What is said of the animals' ministering building and beautifying of God's temple; which imand going up, Vitringa understands as implying, that plies in a spiritual sense, that every thing should tend they shall offer themselves voluntarily; which gives to adorn and render perfect the Church ; which is called a very elegant and poetical turn to the image : it the house and building of God, i Tim. üii. 15; 1 Cor. being a general notion that prevailed with sacrificers iii. 9. W. Lowth. among the heathen, that the victim's being brought
I will make the place of my feet glorious. The without reluctance to the altar was a good omen ; temple of Jerusalem was called the house of God, and and the contrary a bad one. Bp. Lowth
the place of His rest or residence. His visible symbo8. Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as the doves lical appearance, called by the Jews the Shechinah, was to their windows 7 A flock of birds resembles a dark in the most holy place, between the wings of the checloud. W. Lowth. The Prophet speaks of men's rubim above the ark. This was considered as the ready submission to the Gospel, and the great number throne of God; and the ark itself as His footstool : see of those that should come in upon the preaching | Ps. xcix. 5; i Chron. xxviii. 2. Bp. Lowth. of it. Abp. Tillotson. He alludes to the rapidity with 14. The sons also of them that afflicted thee shall come which doves return to their habitations ; considering | bending unto thee; &c.] See notes on chap. xlv. 14; also the purity and innocence of this bird, to what can | xlix. 23.
CHRIST about 698.
The church's blessings after affliction. CHAP. LX, LXI.
The office of Christ. eternal excellency, a joy of many thine everlasting light, and the days c Before about 698. generations.
of thy mourning shall be ended.
22 A little one shall become a
7 and blessings of the faithful.
hath anointed me to preach good tid& Rev.21.22. 19 % The sun shall be no more thy ings unto the meek; he hath sent me
light by day; neither for brightness to bind up the broken hearted, to
2 To proclaim the acceptable year
17. For brass I will bring gold, &c.] As it is said of cording to the promise here given, “I the Lord will Solomon's times, that gold and silver were so plentiful, hasten it in his time.” Bp. Newton. that there was no use of inferiour metals, 1 Kings x. 21, We see the truth of this prediction in the event. The 27; so, in pursuance of the same metaphor, the New Church, which was confined to a small spot, the land of Jerusalem is described, Rev. xxi. 18, as made of “pure Israel, is now become catholick, or universal, and in gold.” The Prophet adds here, that in those happy some measure hath “ filled the whole earth,” Dan. ii. days, that golden age, as we say commonly, the very 35, so that “a little one is become a thousand, and a officers of the publick revenues, and collectors of taxes, small one a strong nation.” But still this prophecy will (a sort of men generally blamed as guilty of exaction not receive its final completion till the coming of that and oppression, see Luke üii. 13,) shall be lovers of glorious kingdom, which we daily pray may come; when peace, and observers of justice. He goes on to describe the will of our heavenly Father shall be done upon earth, complete security from all sort of violence, &c.; and, as it is now in heaven. And O! let all who look for ver. 21, we read, “Thy people also shall be all righ these things, pray, that the Lord may “hasten it in His teous;" such characters can belong only to the New time;" and with “the Spirit and the bride say, Come; Jerusalem : (W. Lowth :) the description of which, Rev. and let him that heareth say, Come; and let him that is xxi. 23, &c. is entirely taken from this chapter of Isaiah. athirst, come. Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus, come Jos. Mede.
quickly," Rev. xxii. 17, 20. Wogan. 22. A little one shall become a thousand, and a small one a strong nation :] The evangelical Prophet is very Chap. LXI. ver. 1. The Spirit of the Lord God is upon particular throughout this chapter in describing the me; &c.] That these words are meant of Christ, He sudden and mighty increase of Christianity, its triumph- Himself declared; when, having read them in the synaant progress through all nations, and its prevalence i gogue at Nazareth, He said to those who heard them, over all the other religions of the world; and this won- “ This day is this Scripture fulfilled in your ears :" see derful enlargement of it he takes occasion here to Luke iv. 21. Bp. Beveridge. represent as so much the more admirable, on account - the Lord hath anointed me] See note on chap. of the small appearance it should make at first, and xlv. 1. the slender and unpromising beginnings with which it - to preach good tidings unto the meek:1 Or, “to should set out. Bp. Atterbury. It is well known, by the poor," as the word is rendered by the Septuagint, the instrumentality of how incompetent persons, a few whom the Evangelists follow. W. Lowth. See notes on fishermen, of no authority, address, or education, and chap. xi. 4 ; xxvi. 6. in how short a compass of time, this great revolution, This preaching to the poor was very different from the greatest that ever was in the religious world, was the way of the Jewish doctors and teachers; they would effected. In about forty years the Gospel was preached scarce instruct any one but for great reward; the poorer in almost every region of the world then known: this sort they had in great contempt: see John vii. 48, 49. speedy propagation of it could never have been effected | Abp. Tillotson. by persons so unequal to the task, bad not the same! - to proclaim liberty to the captives, &c.] The proDivine Spirit, who foretold it, assisted them in it, ac- claiming of liberty to them that are bound, and the year
The forwardness, and
blessings of the faithful. Before 3 To appoint unto them that mourn/ 8 For I the Lord love judgment, Before CHRIST about 698. in Zion, to give unto them beauty I hate robbery for burnt offering; and about 698.
for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, I will direct their work in truth, and
spring among the people: all that see b Chap. 58. 4 9 And they shall b build the old them shall acknowledge them, that
wastes, they shall raise up the former | they are the seed which the LORD
LORD, my soul shall be joyful in my
decketh as a 6 But ye shall be named the ornaments, and as a bride adorneth priest.
Priests of the Lord: men shall call herself with her jewels.
shall eat the riches of the Gentiles, her bud, and as the garden causeth
forth; so the Lord God will cause
the church in God's promises. 5 The office of acceptance with the Lord, is a manifest allusion to 7. For your shame ye shall have double ;] See note on the proclaiming of the year of jubilee, Lev. xxv. 9, &c.; chap. xl. 2. the year of general release; of debts and obligations; 8. For I the Lord love judgment, I hate robbery for burnt of bond men and women; of lands and possessions, offering ;] To the tenour of the covenant, promised at which had been sold from the families and tribes to the end of the verse, consisting of inward righteousness, which they belonged. Our Saviour, by applying this (see Jer. xxxi. 33,) God opposes the outward ceremonial text to Himself, a text so manifestly relating to the in service prescribed by the former covenant, which very stitution above mentioned, plainly declares the typical often had no inward devotion accompanying it. W. design of that institution. Bp. Lowth.
| Lowth. See note on chap. i. 11. God will not be pleased 3. — beauty for ashes, &c.] A description of the change with the offerings of such as get riches by unlawful of habit and appearance that should take place in pro- ways; see Deut. xxiii. 18. Yet how common is this sin portion to the change of circumstances. Whereas, whilst among Christians, who hope to sanctify their ill-gotten they were mourners, they used to put ashes on their wealth by dedicating a part of it to some pious uses ! heads; now they were to wear a crown or diadem; for But God will not be mocked. Bp. Wilson. the word rendered here “beauty," signifies an ornament 9. And their seed shall be known among the Gentiles, proper to the head, and is so translated, Ezek. xxiv. 17. &c.] They shall be acknowledged for God's ancient W. Lowth.
people, unto whom all the promises of the Gospel were - the garment of praise] Namely, the garment made, and principally belong : see Acts iii. 25; xiii. 46. wont to be used in times of thanksgiving to God. Dr. They shall be esteemed as the firstborn or elder brethren Wells.
in the Church. W. Lowth. 6. But ye shall be named the Priests of the Lord: | 10. I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, &c.] The Jewish &c.] If we suppose these words contain a peculiar pro- Church is here introduced as speaking, and returning mise to the Jews after their conversion, they import, her thanks to God for these great favours, that He hath that God will restore to them that honourable title of advanced her and her sons to such honour after their being a “ kingdom of priests,” formerly given to them, dispersion, and made her thereby glorious in the eyes of Exod. xix. 6: and some conceive the Jewish church to the world. W. Lowth. She who was formerly described he represented in the Revelation by the “four and twenty as sitting on the ground, and bewailing her condition, elders,” (alluding to the four and twenty courses of the now comes forward with a joyful and assured heart, priests,) “clothed in white raiment, (as priests,) and arrayed in all the splendour of the sanctuary. Vitringa. having on their heads crowns of gold," as advanced to Allusion is made, as is evident from the marginal rena regal dignity, Rev. iy. 4. But this privilege of being dering, to the dress of the priesthood; of which so great “priests to God” does in some degree belong to all was the magnificence, and so contrived and calculated Christians; see 1 Pet. ii. 5; especially when they shall were they, as Moses expresses it, "for glory and for come to be wholly free from the bondage of sin, and beauty," that nothing can be imagined more striking, continually employed in God's service, Rev. v. 10; xx. or to minds prepared, as those of the Jews were, to 6. W. Lowth. See note on chap. lxvi. 21.
unite with this uncommon splendour the idea of the
CHRIST about 698.
The office of ministers
in preaching the Gospel. Before of the ministers (unto which they are incited) | establish, and till he make Jerusalem Before. about 698. in preaching the gospel, 10 and preparing a praise in the earth. the people thereto.
18 The LORD hath sworn by his Tor Zion's sake will I not hold right hand, and by the arm of his I my peace, and for Jerusalem's strength, Surely I will no more give + Heb. If I
no. give, &c.
hast laboured :
way; gather out the stones; lift up a Hos. 1. 10. 4 a Thou shalt no more be termed a standard for the people.
Forsaken; neither shall thy land any | 11 Behold, the LORD hath pro
more be termed Desolate : but thou claimed into the end of the world, That is, My shalt be called || Hephzi-bah, and thy Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Be- c Zech. 9. 9.
land || Beulah: for the Lord delight- | hold, thy salvation cometh; behold, John 12. 15. Married. eth in thee, and thy land shall be his d reward is with him, and his d Chap. 40. married.
|| work before him. 5 | For as a young man marrieth 12 And they shall call them, The recompence.
a virgin, so shall thy sons marry thee: holy people, The redeemed of the + Heb. wilk and † as the bridegroom rejoiceth
over the bride, so shall thy God re- | Sought out, A city not forsaken.
over his enemies, 7 and what his mercy to| Or, ye that hold their peace day nor night: || ye
ward his church. 10 In his just wrath he LORD's re- that make mention of the Lord, keep remembereth his free mercy. 15 The church not silence,
in their prayer 17 and complaint, profess 7 And give him no frest, till he their faith.
1 Pet. 2. 10.
hy land camou claimed in the daughter of Ziobehold, Yolun
a stan Behold, the end of time
Matt. 21. 5.
delight is in her.
utmost sanctity, more awful, or more imposing ! Bp. 6. I have set watchmen &c. - ye that make mention of Louth.
the Lord, keep not silence,] The faithful, in particular
the Priests and Levites, are exhorted by the Prophet to Chap. LXII. ver. 1. For Zion's sake will I not hold beseech God with unremitting importunity to hasten my peace,] Some interpreters have thought that the Pro- the redemption of Zion. The image is taken from the phet does not speak here in his own person, as our temple service, in which there was appointed a constant argument has it; but that God is the speaker, and pro- watch, 1 Chron. ix. 33 : see Ps. cxxxiv. Bp. Lowth. The fesses His constant anxiety for His people ; or that the margin gives it here, “the Lord's remembrancers ;" it Messiah declares that He will never cease interceding alludes to the office of the Priests and Levites, and their with God, till the redemption of Israel be brought to daily prayers for the welfare of the Church. The Scrippass. Edit.
ture elsewhere speaks of God, after the manner of men, 2. — thou shalt be called by a new name,] To “be as one that may be overcome by importunity; see Luke called " signifies, in the sacred dialect, “ to be;" (see xi. 8, 9; xviii. 5—7. W. Lowth. See note on Gen. vi. 6. notes on chap. ix. 6 ;) and the “new name" here pro- 8. The Lord hath sworn by his right hand, &c.] What mised implies a new condition, a change for the better. assurance could be more strong or satisfactory? God, No particular name is pointed to; several appropriate as He cannot swear by any greater, swears by Himself, to the altered state of Jerusalem are to be met with in (Heb. vi. 13,) and His own Divine attributes : when this the prophecies : (see ver. 4, 12. of this chapter :) com- expression is used, some immutable decree of the Divine pare Rev. ii. 17; ii. 12. Vitringa.
counsel follows; it is done in condescension to man's 5. — so shall thy sons marry thee:1 The word trans- | | limited understanding, and as an assistance to the weaklated “thy sons,” has been wrongly pointed by the Ma- ness of his faith. Vitringa. soretes; and should rather be rendered "thy Restorer.” 9. But they that have gathered it shall eat it, and praise The passage, thus corrected, will stand, “As a young | the Lord ; &c.] The expressions here allude to the ordiman marrieth a virgin, so shall thy Restorer wed thee;" nances of the law, which required the people to spend which corresponds exactly with what follows, “As the their firstfruits, and other hallowed things, at the temple, bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, so shall thy God in grateful acknowledgment to God for His blessings. rejoice over thee.” Bp. Lowth.
|W. Lowth. Vol. II.