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hines of their handshall not labour for they hand made the Lord to him that is
the lamb shall Hemhat offereth and he that + buros datos.
on shall have offered cense, as if beh
of the new Jerusalem.
CHAP. LXV, LXVI. God will be served in humble sincerity. mine elect t shall long enjoy the work house that ye build unto me? and Before about 698. of their hands.
| where is the place of my rest ? about 698. į 23 They shall not labour in vain, 2 For all those things hath mine make them nor bring forth for trouble ; for they hand made, and all those things have or, shall wear are the seed of the blessed of the been, saith the LORD: but to this
Lord, and their offspring with them. man will I look, even to him that is
24 And it shall come to pass, that poor and of a contrite spirit, and e Ps. 32. 5. e before they call, I will answer; and trembleth at my word.
while they are yet speaking, I will / 3 He that killeth an ox is as if
he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a f Chap. 11.6, 25 The 'wolf and the lamb shall || lamb, as if he cut off a dog's neck; || Or, kid.
feed together, and the lion shall eat he that offereth an oblation, as if he
ways, and their soul delighteth in
their abominations. CHAP. LXVI.
4 I also will choose their || delu- || Or, devices.
sions, and will bring their fears upon 1 The glorious God will be served in humble 71
them ; b because when I called, none Prov. 1. 24. sincerity. 5 He comforteth the humble with the marvellous generation, 10 and with did answer; when I spake, they did Jer. 7. 13. the gracious benefits of the church. 15 not hear: but they did evil before God's severe judgments against the wicked. mine eyes, and chose that in which I 19 The Gentiles shall have an holy church, | delighted not.
. 24 and see the damnation of the wicked. a 1 Kings .
15 | Hear the word of the Lord,
I THUS saith the Lord, a The ye that tremble at his word; Your 2 Chron. 6.
. 1 heaven is my throne, and the brethren that hated you, that cast you *.& earth is my footstool: where is the out for my name's sake, said, Let c Chap. 5. 19.
chap. 65. 12.
It is commonly supposed that the oak, one of the most the Christian Church, wheresoever His faithful people long-lived of the trees, lasts about a thousand years; meet together in His name, He is there with them. Bp. the Prophet's idea, that the people should live to the Beveridge. age of the antediluvians, is therefore very justly ex A temple, in the Jewish notion, was God's habitation, pressed by the days of a tree. Bp. Lowth.
where He resided as a king. W. Lowth. See note on
chap. lx. 13. The Jews valued themselves much upon Chap. LXVI. A continuation of the subject of the their temple, and the pompous system of services perforegoing chapter, which the Prophet pursues with formed in it, which they thought of perpetual duration. more express declaration of the new economy, and of Bp. Lowth. God admonishes them not to rely on His the flourishing state of the Church under it. The in- temple's being among them; that the Most High dwelleth crease of the Church is to be sudden and astonishing. not in temples made with hands; that an humble and They that escape of the Jews, that is, that become truly pious man is a living temple to Him, rer. 2 ; (comconverts to the Christian faith, are to be employed in pare chap. lvii. 15;) and that without inward piety," he the Divine mission to the Gentiles, and are to act as that killeth an ox" for sacrifice “is as if he slew a man," priests in presenting the Gentiles as an offering to God. &c. Dr. Wells. Or ver. 3 may be translated more literSee Rom. xv. 16. And both, now collected into one ally, “He that killeth an ox (the words is as if having body, shall be witnesses of the final perdition of the ob- been supplied) killeth a man ; that sacrificeth a lamb, stinate and irreclaimable. These two chapters manifestly beheadeth a dog," &c.; and understood to express inrelate to the calling of the Gentiles, the establishment stances of extreme wickedness joined with hypocrisy; of the Christian dispensation, and the reprobation of the of the most flagitious crimes committed by those, who apostate Jews, and their destruction executed by the at the same time affected great strictness in the external Romans. Bp. Lowth.
services of religion. God upbraids the Jews with the Ver. 1. Thus saith the Lord, The heaven is my throne, same practices, Ezek. xxiii. 39; and the hypocrisy of &c.] It hath pleased the divine goodness to signify to the Pharisees is described as much the same, Matt. us by this, that He lives and reigns on high, infinitely xxiii. 14. Bp. Lowth. above all that we can think; and that the earth is at 3, 4.- they have chosen their own ways, &c.] God His foot to do what He will with it, and all that is on threatens the people, that, because they were abominit; so that the earth is full of His glory, and the heaven able in their lives, He would abandon them, and give of heavens is not able to contain it. Yet nevertheless, as them over to a spirit of delusion. God is said to choose God is said to dwell in heaven, because He there unvails | those things for us, which He permits us to fall into : Himself, and shines forth in all His glory, before the when men abandon themselves to wickedness and impure and holy creatures that dwell there, and are capa- piety, God withdraws His grace from them; and, by ble of beholding it; so is He said to dwell upon earth, His secret and just judgment, they are deprived of the in those places where He is graciously pleased to dis- faculty of discerning between truth and errour, between cover any of His Divine perfections in a more peculiar good and evil. See Rom. i. 28 ; 2 Thess. ii. 10–12. manner than elsewhere : thus were the tabernacle, and Abp. Tillotson. See notes on chap. vi. 10. afterwards the temple, called God's house; and now in 5. - said, Let the Lord be glorified :] Or, in derision
The marvellous growth of the church. ISAIAH. God's judgments against the wicked.
Before the Lord be glorified: but he shall / 13 As one whom his mother com- Before about 698. appear to your joy, and they shall be forteth, so will I comfort you; and ye about 698. ashamed.
shall be comforted in Jerusalem.
| hand of the Lord shall be known
15 For, behold, the LORD will come
9 Shall I bring to the birth, and and the slain of the LORD shall be
10 Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, and I behind one tree in the midst, eating 1 Or,one afier
gether, saith the LORD.
who who has man chin came, shrought/thand of 4
1. Or, begel.
delighted with the ||abundance of her and they shall come, and see my
like a flowing stream: then shall ye Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the a Chap. 49. suck, ye shall be a borne upon her bow, to Tubal, and Javan, to the
sides, and be dandled upon her knees. isles afar off, that have not heard my
called on God to do something extraordinary in your 15. For, behold, the Lord will come with fire, &c.] behalf. W. Lowth.
| See the introductory note on this chapter; and the note 7. Before she travailed, she brought forth ; &c.] In on chap. ii. 10. the prophetick language, the affliction which a people 17.-behind one tree] The last werd is supplied. suffers, or persecution, in labouring to bring forth a Some versions have the reading which is given in our new kingdom, is represented by the pain of a woman in margin: but many learned men have supposed, that by labour to bring forth a man-child. Sir. I. Newton. the Hebrew Achad (signifying one) may be meant the It is intimated here, that the increase of the Christian Syrian deity Achad or Adad, which they held to be the Church should be so sudden, as to be compared to a highest and greatest of the gods, the same with Jupiter woman's bringing forth before her pains came on her. and the Sun, and which name, says Macrobius, signifies Dr. Wells.
one : we trace this idol in the names of the Syrian kings, 12. – I will extend peace to her like a river,] Com- Ben-hadad, Hadad-ezer, &c.; according to this interpare chap. xlviii. 18. W. Lowth.
pretation we may render, “after the rites of Achad, in 14. — your bones shall flourish like an herb:] Ye shall the midst of those who eat swine's flesh," &c. Vitringa, be renewed, as if dry bones should recover their mois Bp. Lowth. Or, “behind (the chapel or shrine of ture; (compare Ecclus. xlvi. 12 ; xlix. 10.) In like man- Achad, or) the Sun, in the midst” (of the garden.) W. ner St. Paul calls the receiving of the Jews into the Lowth. Church,“ life from the dead,” Rom. xi. 15. The Jews
L e ating swine's flesh, and the abomination, and the from ancient times have used this text as a form over a mouse, 7 See notes on chap. lxv. 4. The heathens used person interred, at the same time throwing grass into some meats by way of purification, chiefly such as were the grave, to testify their belief in a resurrection. W. not used for common fond; such were several of those Lowth. See notes on chap. xxvi. 19. This passage, meats forbidden by the law, and called “abominable" as well as that in chap. xxvi, seems to be, if not a direct by Moses, Deut. xiv. 3 ; of this kind was probably "the assertion, at least an allusion, to a future resurrection mouse,” which is expressly prohibited, Lev. xi. 29. 1. of the dead; when the worshippers of the true God, in Lowth. all ages of the world, shall have their lot in the king- / 19. - unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, &c.] All dom pro:nised to the saints of the Most High. Dr. S. quarters of the globe. “Pul" does not occur any where Clarke.
else ; it is supposed to be a place in the extremity of
new moon to
The Gentiles shall have an holy church, CHAP. LXVI. and see the damnation of the wicked.
Before, fame, neither have seen my glory; | the new earth, which I will make, Before , about 698. and they shall declare my glory shall remain before me, saith the about 698. among the Gentiles.
Lord, so shall your seed and your 20 And they shall bring all your name remain. brethren for an offering unto the 23 And it shall come to pass, that LORD out of all nations upon horses, + from one new moon to another, and + Heb. from and in chariots, and in || litters, and from one sabbath to another, shall all his new moon, upon mules, and upon swift beasts, to flesh come to worship before me, saith buh" to his my holy mountain Jerusalem, saith the Lord. the Lord, as the children of Israel 24 And they shall go forth, and
bring an offering in a clean vessel look upon the carcases of the men e Exod. 19.6. into the house of the Lord.
that have transgressed against me: ch.6.1.6. 21 And I will also take of them for their 6 worm shall not die, neither & Mark 9. 4 Rev. 1.6. for e priests and for Levites, saith shall their fire be quenched; and the Lord.
they shall be an abhorring unto all 22 For as the new heavens and flesh.
f Chap. 65.
Egypt: the Prophet's object here is to designate the Mark referred to in the margin) to express the everlastmost remote parts. Vitringa.
ing punishment of the wicked in hell: as our Lord ex21. And I will also take of them for priests &c.] Such pressed the state of the blessed by sensible images, such was to be the privilege of the Gospel times! They were as Paradise, Abraham's bosom, &c. so He represents the not to be legal“ priests and Levites,” but “taken from place of torment under the image of Gehenna, and the all nations :" such as might be proper ministers of the punishment of the wicked, by the worm which there great High Priest, who was to come from the tribe of preyed on the carcases, and the fire which consumed the Judah, and be, not after the order of Aaron, but after the wretched victims : (see note on chap. xxx. 33 :) marking order of Melchizedek. Dr. Berriman.
however this difference strongly, that in the figurative 22. – the new heavens and the new earth, &c.] Very Gehenna, the instruments of punishment shall be everrationally then does the Apostle (Heb. xii. 28.) call the lasting, the suffering without end. Bp. Lowth. Christian dispensation “a kingdom which cannot be In these two concluding chapters we are made acmoved.” Dr. Berriman.
quainted with God's reasons for rejecting His ancient 23. —from one new moon to another, — shall all flesh' people the Jews, and for calling the Gentiles into the come to worship] The expression here is accommodated Church and kingdom of the Messiah. His reason for to the condition of the Church under the Old Testament; rejecting the Jews was their incorrigible wickedness : (see note on chap. xix. 19 ;) but we are to understand, His reason for calling the Gentiles was, not any merit that in the “new world” here treated of, not the Jews or worthiness in them, but His own free grace and only, (as was the case at the time of the delivery of the goodness towards them. Let these considerations improphecy,) but all nations should come before the Lord press upon our minds a profound sense of gratitude and to worship, in the frequent festivals of those blessed love for the mercy of God to us Gentiles, and an awful times. Jos. Mede. We are perhaps to understand the apprehension of His justice towards those who refuse words to speak of these saints as being perpetually em. His grace : or, as St. Paul expresses it, let us in this ployed in serving and praising Him: see Rev. iv. 8; vii. ' extraordinary dispensation towards the Jews and Gen15. W. Lowth.
tiles “behold the goodness and severity of God : on 24. – for their worm shall not die, neither shall their them which fell, severity ; but toward us, goodness, if fire be quenched ;] These words of the Prophet are ap- we continue in His goodness ; otherwise we also shall plied by our blessed Saviour (in the passage from St. be cut off.” Reading, Wogan.
The following are the Chapters from Isaiah appointed for Proper Lessons, or as Portions of Scripture for
Epistles, on Sundays and Holydays: Chap. I. ............. 1st Sunday in Advent,.....Morning. CHAP. XLIV. ... 1st Sunday after Epiphany, Morning. - II. ............ ditto, ........................... Evening.
XLVI. ... ditto, .............................., Evening. V.............. 2d Sunday in Advent, ....Morning. XLIX. ... Epiphany, ...................... Evening. VII. 10–15. Annunciation, ....... For the Epistle. L. 5–11. Tuesday before Easter, For the Epistle. VII.10—17. Nativity of Christ, ......... Evening. LI. ....... 2d Sunday after Epiphany, Morning. IX. 1-8. ... ditto, ..........................Morning. LIII....... ditto, ............................. Evening. XI. ........... Whitsunday, ................ Evening.
LIII. .....Good Friday, ................... Evening. XXIV. ...... 2d Sunday in Advent,...... Evening.
LV. ....... 3d Sunday after Epiphany, Morning. XXV. ....... 3d ditto, ...................... Morning.
............... Evening. XXVI. ...... ditto, ........................... Evening.
LVII. .... 4th Sunday after Epiphany, Morning. XXX. ....... 4th ditto, ......................Morning.
LVIII. ... ditto, ............ .................. Evening.
LIX....... 5th ditto, ......................... Morning. XXXVII. .. Ist Sunday after Christmas, Morning. LX. ....... Epiphany, .......................Morning. XXXVIII. . ditto,
............ Evening. LXIII. ... Monday before Easter, For the Epistle. XL. 1-11.. St. John Baptist, ... For the Epistle.
-- LXIV. ... 5th Sunday after Epiphany, Evening. XL!. ......... 2d Sunday after Christmas, Morning.
............ Morning. XLIII. ...... ditto. ...............................Evening.
LXVI. ... ditto, ..............................Evening.
THE BOOK OF THE
INTRODUCTION. THE Prophet Jeremiah was of the sacerdotal race, being, as he records himself, one of the priests that dwelt at
Anathoth in the land of Benjamin, a city appropriated out of that tribe to the use of the priests the sons of Aaron, (Josh. xxi. 18,) and situate, as we learn from St. Jerome, about three miles north of Jerusalem. Some have supposed his father to have been that Hilkiah the high priest, by whom the book of the law was found in the temple in the reign of Josiah ; but for this there is no better ground than his having borne the same name, which was no uncommon one among the Jews; whereas had he been in reality the high priest, he would doubtless have been mentioned by that distinguishing title, and not put upon a level with priests of an ordinary and inferiour class.
Jeremiah appears to have been very young when he was called to the exercise of the prophetical office; from
which he modestly endeavoured to excuse himself by pleading his youth and incapacity; but being overruled by the Divine authority, he set himself to discharge the duties of his function with unremitted diligence and fidelity during a period of at least forty-two years, reckoned from the thirteenth year of Josiah's reign. In the course of his ministry he met with great difficulties and opposition from his countrymen of all degrees; whose persecution and ill usage sometimes wrought so far upon his mind, as to draw from him expressions in the bitterness of his soul, which many have thought hard to reconcile with his religious principles ; but which, when duly weighed, may be found to demand our pity for his unmerited sufferings, rather than our censure for any want of piety and reverence towards God. He was in truth a man of unblemished piety and conscientious integrity ; a warm lover of his country, whose misery he pathetically deplores; and so affectionately attached to his countrymen, notwithstanding their injurious treatment of him, that he chose rather to abide with them, and undergo all hardships in their company, than separately to enjoy a state of ease and plenty, which the favour of the king of Babylon would have secured to him. At length, after the destruction of Jerusalem, being carried with the remnant of the Jews into Egypt, whither they had resolved to retire, though contrary to his advice, upon the murder of Gedaliah, whom the Chaldeans had left governour in Judea, he there continued warmly to remonstrate against their idolatrous practices, foretelling the consequences that would inevitably follow. But his freedom and zeal are said to have cost him his life ; for the Jews at Tahpanhes, as tradition goes, took such offence thereat, that they stoned him to death; which account of the manner of his end, though not absolutely certain, is at least very probable, considering the temper and disposition of the parties concerned. Their wickedness however did not long pass without its reward; for in a few years after, they were miserably destroyed by the Babylonian armies, which invaded Egypt according to the Prophet's prediction, chap. xliv. 27, 28.
The idolatrous apostasy, and other criminal enormities of the people of Judah, and the severe judgments which
God was prepared to inflict upon them, but not without a distant prospect of future restoration and deliverance, are the principal subject matters of the following prophecies; excepting only the 45th chapter, which relates personally to Baruch; and the six succeeding chapters, which respect the fortunes of some particular heathen nations. It is observable however, that though many of these prophecies have their particular dates annexed to them, and other dates may be tolerably well conjectured from certain internal marks and circumstances, there appears much disorder in the arrangement, not easy to be accounted for on any principle of regular design, but probably the result of some accident or other, which has disturbed the original order. The best arrangement of the chapters appears to be according to the list, which will be presently subjoined: the
different reigns, in which the prophecies were delivered, were most probably as follows. The twelve first chapters seem to contain all the prophecies delivered in the reign of the good king Josiah. During the short reign of Shallum, or Jehoahaz, his second son, who succeeded him, Jeremiah does not appear
to have had any revelation.
Jehoiakim, the eldest son of Josiah, succeeded. The prophecies of this reign are continued on from the 13th to
the 20th chapter inclusively; to which we must add the 22d, 230, 25th, 26th, 35th and 36th chapters, together with the 45th, 46th, 47th, and most probably the 48th, and as far as to verse 34 of the 49th chapter.
Jeconiah, the son of Jehoiakim, succeeded. We read of no prophecy that Jeremiah actually delivered in this
king's reign : but the fate of Jeconiah, his being carried into captivity, and continuing an exile till the time of his death, were foretold early in his father's reign, as may be particularly seen in the 22d chapter.
The last king of Judah was Zedekiah, the youngest son of Josiah. The prophecies delivered in his reign are
contained in the 21st and 24th chapters, the 27th to the 34th, and the 37th to the 39th inclusively, together with the six last verses of the 49th chapter, and the 50th and 51st chapters, concerning the fall of Babylon.
The time, and
the calling of Jeremiah. The siege of Jerusalem in the reign of Zedekiah, and the capture of the city, are circumstantially related
in the 52d chapter: and the particu lar account of the subsequent transactions is given in the 40th to the 44th inclusively.
The arrangement of the chapters, alluded to above, is here subjoined; 1—20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 35, 36, 45, 24, 29,
30, 31, 27, 28, 21, 34, 37, 32, 33, 38, 39 from the 15th to the 18th verse, 39 from the 1st to the 14th verse, 40, 41, 24, 43, 44, 46, and so on. Dr. Blayney.
The prophecies of Jeremiah, of which the circumstantial accomplishment is often specified in the Old and New
Testaments, are of a very distinguished and illustrious character. He foretold the fate of Zedekiah, chap. xxxiv. 2–5; (compare with 2 Chron. xxxvi. 19; 2 Kings xxv. 5; and Jer. lii. 11 ;) the Babylonish captivity, the precise time of its duration, and the return of the Jews. He described the destruction of Babylon, and the downfall of many nations, chap. xxv. 12, (see also chap. ix. 26; xxv. 19-25; xlii. 10–18; xlvi. and following chapters,) in predictions, of which the gradual and successive completion kept up the confidence of the Jews for the accomplishment of those prophecies, which he delivered relative to the Messiah and His period, chap. xxiii, 5, 6; xxx. 9; xxxi. 15; xxxii. 14–18; xxxiii. 9, 26. He foreshewed the miraculous conception of Christ, chap. xxxi. 22; the virtue of His atonement; the spiritual character of His covenant; and the inward efficacy of His laws, chap. xxxi. 31–36 ; xxxiii. 8. Jeremiah, contemplating those calamities which impended over his country, represented, in the most descriptive terms, and under the most expressive images, the destruction that the invading enemy should produce. He bewailed, in pathetick expostulation, the shameless adulteries which had provoked the Almighty, after long forbearance, to threaten Judah with inevitable punishment, at the time that false prophets deluded the nation with the promises of “assured peace," and when the people, in impious contempt of “the Lord's word,” defied its accomplishment. Jeremiah intermingles with his prophecies some historical relations relative to his own conduct, and to the completion of those predictions which he had delivered. The reputation of Jeremiah had spread among foreign nations, and his prophecies were deservedly celebrated in other countries. Many heathen writers have likewise undesignedly
borne testimony to the truth and accuracy of his prophetick and historical descriptions. Dr. Gray. As to the style of Jeremiah, this Prophet is by no means wanting either in elegance or sublimity, although,
generally speaking, inferiour to Isaiah in both. His thoughts indeed are somewhat less elevated, and he is commonly more large and diffuse in his sentences; but the reason of this may be, that he is mostly taken up with the gentler passions of grief and pity, for the expression of which he has a peculiar talent. This is most evident in “ the Lamentations," where those passions altogether predominate; but it is often visible also in his “Prophecies,” in the former part of the book more especially, which is principally poetical; the middle parts are chiefly historical; but the last part, consisting of six chapters, is entirely poetical, and contains several oracles distinctly marked, in which this Prophet falls very little short of the lofty style of Isaiah. But of the whole book of Jeremiah it is hardly the one half which I look upon as poetical. Bp. Lowth.
Before CHRIST about 629.
1 3 It came also in the days of Jehoia- .
kim the son of Josiah king of Judah, about 629. i The time, 3 and the calling of Jeremiah.). 11 His prophetical visions of an almond)
Wil unto the end of the eleventh year of rod and a seething pot. 15 His heavy Zedekiah the son of Josian king of message against Judah. 17 God encourageth Judah, unto the carrying away of him with his promise of assistance. Jerusalem captive in the fifth month. THE words of Jeremiah the son of 4 Then the word of the LORD came
1 Hilkiah, of the priests that were unto me, saying, in Anathoth in the land of Benjamin: 5 Before I a formed thee in the a Isai. 49. 1,
2 To whom the word of the Lord belly I knew thee; and before thou came in the days of Josiah the son of camest forth out of the womb I bsanc- b Gal. 1. 15, Amon king of Judah, in the thirteenth tified thee, and I + ordained thee a + Heb. gare. year of his reign.
prophet unto the nations.
Chap. I. ver. 1. The words of Jeremiah] This chapter 4. Then the word of the Lord came unto me, saying,] forms an entire section by itself. It contains the call of This seems to have been a visible appearance of the Jeremiah, and the commission given him by God, the Divine Majesty, made by the Son of God, or the second purport of which is explained by two symbolical images. Person of the blessed Trinity; see note on Isai. vi. 1 : God encourages him to proceed in the execution of it who appeared in a human shape, as a prelude to the by assuring him of protection and support. Dr. Blayney. incarnation, first to Adam, Gen. ii. 8; then to Abraham,
- Anathoth] See the Introduction for the situation Gen. xviii. 2; afterwards to Joshua, Josh. v. 13; as also of this place.
to Ezekiel, chap. i. 26; and to Daniel, chap. viii. 15, 18; 2, 3. — in the days of Josiah, - unto the end of the x. 6, 10. Of the same kind was this vision represented eleventh year of Zedekiah] See the chapters distributed to Jeremiah. Compare the ninth verse of this chapter according to the reigns of the several kings in the Intro- with the forementioned texts of Daniel. W. Lowth. duction to this book.
5. – I knew thee;] Some persons have been designed Jeremiah prophesied forty-one years and upwards, if for certain offices by a particular decree of God, from or we take in the prophecies he uttered in Egypt after the before their coming into the world. So was John the captivity,chap. xliii. xliv, which are not included between Baptist, Luke i. 15; and St. Paul, Gal. i. 15; and the the reigns of Josiah and Zedekiah. W. Lowth.
Prophet Jeremiah here in the text. This favour is ex