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Before CHRIST

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or, imagination,

1 Or,
threshed.
U Or.
threshed in
Madmenah.

+ Heb, the rock of ages.

God's victorious salvation.

ISAIAH. A song inciting to confidence in God, Before r away from off all the earth: for the T N that day shall this song be sung. about 712. LORD hath spoken it.

11 in the land of Judah ; We have about 712. 9 | And it shall be said in that day, a strong city ; salvation will God apLo, this is our God; we have waited point for walls and bulwarks. for him, and he will save us: this is 2 Open ye the gates, that the the Lord; we have waited for him, righteous nation which keepeth the we will be glad and rejoice in his sal- | | truth may enter in. vation.

3 Thou wilt keep him in t perfect + Hleb, peace,

peace.
10 For in this mountain shall the peace, whose || mind is stayed on thee : 11 Or, thought,
hand of the Lord rest, and Moab because he trusteth in thee.
shall be || trodden down under him, 4 Trust ye in the Lord for ever:
even as straw is || trodden down for for in the LORD JEHOVAH is
the dunghill.

If everlasting strength :
11 And he shall spread forth his 5 q For he bringeth down them
hands in the midst of them, as he that dwell on high ; the lofty city,
that swimmeth spreadeth forth his he layeth it low; he layeth it low,
hands to swim : and he shall bring even to the ground; he bringeth it
down their pride together with the even to the dust.
spoils of their hands.

6 The foot shall tread it down,
12 And the fortress of the high even the feet of the poor, and the
fort of thy walls shall he bring down, steps of the needy.
lay low, and bring to the ground, even 7 The way of the just is upright-
to the dust.

ness: thou, most upright, dost weigh
CHAP. XXVI.

the path of the just.

8 Yea, in the way of thy judg-
1 A song inciting to confidence in God, 5 for
his judgments, 12 and for his favour to his

ments, O Lord, have we waited for people. 20 An exhortation to wait on God. thee; the desire of our soul is to thy the power of death, because, by seducing man to sin, he bordering upon Judea, will be found to have a typical subjected him to that irretrievable dissolution. That but more important view to the heathen world in genedeath should be destroyed, and men restored to happi- ral. Dr. Berriman. ness, by the Messiah, is confessed by very eminent 11. And he shall spread forth his hands &c.] There Jewish writers, who therefore apply to Him in the most is great obscurity in this place : some understand God rigorous sense these words of Isaiah. Dean Stanhope. | as the agent, others Moab. Bp. Lowth. Some under

9. And it shall be said in that day, Lo, this is our God; stand the words of Moab doing all he can to save him&c.] This is the triumph of Christ's faithful servants, self, as swimmers do when in danger of drowning ; yet who have constantly maintained His honour and wors that “God should bring down his pride :” others intership in this present life, against all the opposition of pret the whole verse of God; that He should stretch wicked men and devils: when they shall see Him com- forth His hands and reach His enemies wherever they ing in the clouds with power and great glory, to receive might be. W. Lowth. them to Himself, it will transport them, as it justly may, | with an ecstasy of gladness, and they shall cry out before Chap. XXVI. ver. 1. - We have a strong city ;] In all the gazing spectators, This is our God, whom we have opposition to the city of the enemy which God had desdepended on for the salvation which He promised us. troyed, chap. xxv. 2; or to “the lofty city,” ver. 5. of Reading.

this chapter; under which similitude are represented 10. — Moab shall be trodden down &c.] Rather, those who pride themselves on worldly power and great“ Moab shall be threshed in his place, as the straw is ness, and are enemies of God's truth. The Church is the threshed under the wheels of the car ;" Bp. Lowth ; or city of God, Heb. xii. 22. Compare with this place also, by the feet of oxen. The original verb does not signify chap. lx. 18; Zech. ii. 5. Bp. Louth, W. Lowth. to“ be trodden down," but to “be threshed," as noted 2. Open ye the gates, that the righteous nation &c.] in the margin : and straw is too valuable in the East to The expression denotes the enlarging of the number of be“ trodden down for the dunghill.” Severe calamities believers, and the bringing into the Church daily of inflicted on nations and people are in Scripture often “such as should be saved.Compare chap. lx. 11; compared to the Oriental manner of threshing corn and Rev. xxi. 25. W. Lowth. straw ; see 2 Kings xiii. 7: Amos i. 3; Hab. iii. 12 : 3. Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is compare Isaiah xxi. 10; xli. 15; Dan. ii. 35. Park- stayed on thee :) Peace is then perfect, when we have it hurst.

with God, with our neighbour, and with ourselves. In this name are intended to be included all the neigh- This threefold peace of heaven, of charity, of conscience, bouring states who were enemies of the Jewish nation ; is the grace and gift of Christ ; none is “ perfect” and that is, in a spiritual sense, all people who should oppose complete but that which He bestows. Wogan. the kingdom of the Messiah. Vitringa. For as the 6. - the feet of the poor,] The planting of the GosGentile world, grafted into the Church and proselyted to pel was a remarkable triumph over the power and the the true religion, are comprehended in the name of “ Is- wisdom of men ; when “God chose the foolish things rael," so those that continue to reject and oppose it are of the world to confound the things which were wise; and reasonably couched under the title of “enemies of the weak things of the world to confound the things Israel ;” and what might in some respects have a literal which were mighty:" and under every advancement of relation to the state and circumstances of the nations | Christ's kingdom, the poor and the humble, those that

about 712.

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for his judgments, and

CHAP. XXVI.

for his favour to his people. Beforer name, and to the remembrance of | O Lord, thou hast increased the Before

| nation : thou art glorified: thou hadst about 712.
9 With my soul have I desired removed it far unto all the ends of the
thee in the night; yea, with my spirit earth.
within me will I seek thee early : for 16 Lord, in trouble have they
when thy judgments are in the earth, visited thee, they poured out a
the inhabitants of the world will learn + prayer when thy chastening was + Heb. secret
righteousness.

upon them.
10 Let favour be shewed to the '17 Like as a woman with child,
wicked, yet will he not learn righ- that draweth near the time of her de-
teousness : in the land of uprightness livery, is in pain, and crieth out in
will he deal unjustly, and will not her pangs; so have we been in thy
behold the majesty of the Lord. sight, O LORD.

Il LORD, when thy hand is lifted 18 We have been with child, we
up, they will not see: but they shall have been in pain, we have as it

see, and be ashamed for their envy were brought forth wind; we have 1 Or, towards || at the people; yea, the fire of thine not wrought any deliverance in the enemies shall devour them.

earth; neither have the inhabitants of 12 I Lord, thou wilt ordain peace the world fallen.

for us : for thou also hast wrought all 19 Thy dead men shall live, toge1 Or, for us. Our works || in us.

ther with my dead body shall they
13 O Lord our God, other lords arise. Awake and sing, ye that dwell
beside thee have had dominion over in dust: for thy dew is as the dew of
us: but by thee only will we make herbs, and the earth shall cast out the
mention of thy name.

dead.
14 They are dead, they shall not 20 Come, my people, enter thou
live; they are deceased, they shall not into thy chambers, and shut thy doors
rise : therefore hast thou visited and about thee: hide thyself as it were
destroyed them, and made all their for a little moment, until the indig-
memory to perish.

nation be overpast.
15 Thou hast increased the nation, 21 For, behold, the Lord a com- a Mic. 1. 3.

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have despised the world and been despised by it, are to utterly destroyed, should never be restored to their have a particular share in the glory and success of it. former power and glory. It should appear, from the W. Lowth.

Prophet's using this metaphor, that the doctrine of the 9. — when thy judgments are in the earth, the inhabitants resurrection of the dead was at that time a popular and of the world will learn righteousness.] God does not common doctrine. Bp. Lowth. The restoration of the punish for the sake of punishment merely ; even Jews, whether after the Babylonish captivity, or after His severities are the effects of goodness, and always their dispersions in following times, is represented as directed to the advantage of those who feel them, or at a rising again from the dead by Ezekiel, chap. xxxvii; least of others, “that they may hear, and fear, and do and this place of Isaiah may in its primary sense mean no more wickedness." The great comprehensive lesson no more: but this was undoubtedly one of those texts which He intends to teach by every judgment is, an upon which the ancient Jews grounded their belief of awful regard to Himself as the moral governour of the the resurrection, the hope of which was founded on world, and the practice of religion. Abp. Secker. “ the law and the Prophets," as St. Paul tells them,

11.-yea, the fire of thine enemies &c] Yea, that fire Acts xxiv. 14. W. Lowth. The ancient Jews underof Thy wrath, which Thou reservest for Thine enemies, stood this passage so: the Prophet speaks of the figushall devour them. Bp. Hall.

rative and typical resurrection of the Jewish state and 13. other lords beside thee have had dominion over church, but the phraseology is taken from the resurrecus : &c.] We, who had not the grace to submit our- tion of the last day, and to it is our attention intended selves wholly to Thy governance, have been justly given to be directed. Vitringa. over to the tyranny of wicked rulers, who have exacted - thy dew is as the dew of herbs,] The force of sinful obedience from us : but we will stick close unto the comparison seems to be, As the hidden dew of Thee alone, and through Thy gracious aid will hold firm herbs revives them, so shall Thine, O Lord, (compare to Thy truth, and yield to no other religion but that Hos. xiv. 5,) the power of Thy word and blessing, Thy which Thou hast prescribed us. Bp. Hall.

vivifying Spirit, call to life Thy dead bodies ; that is, 19. Thy dead men shall live, &c] Rather, “Thy dead those of Thy faithful servants. Vitringa. shall live; my deceased, they shall rise.” Bp. Lowth. 20. Come, my people, enter thou into thy chambers,

The dissolution of a body politick is in figurative lan- &c.] The Prophet appears here in the person of God, guage signified by death, and the revival of a dissolved to confirm the hopes and expectations contained in the dominion by the resurrection of the dead. Sir I. Newton. preceding hymn of the faithful, by an exhortation to

The deliverance of the people of God from a state of patience, and promise of support and deliverance from depression is here thus expressed, with manifest oppo-all the judgments and persecutions, which might in sition to what is said above (ver. 14.) of the tyrants aftertimes befall the people of God, or Church of Christ; under whom they had groaned, that they should be to terminate with those terrible but short calamities,

Before CHRIST

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The care of God over his vineyard. ISAIAH. His chastisements differ from judgments.

Before or eth out of his place to punish the in- ' 6 He shall cause them that come Before about 712. habitants of the earth for their ini- of Jacob to take root: Israel shall about 712.

quity : the earth also shall disclose blossom and bud, and fill the face of my + Hleb, bloods. her + blood, and shall no more cover the world with fruit. her slain.

7 Hath he smitten him, f as he + Heb. CHAP. XXVII.

smote those that smote him? or is he the stroke of 1 The care of God over his vineyard. 7 His slain according to the slaughter of ***

chastisements differ from judgments. 12 | them that are slain by him?
The church of Jews and Gentiles.

8 In measure, ll when it shooteth! Or, then TN that day the LORD with his forth, thou wilt debate with it: || he il forth.

I sore and great and strong sword stayeth his rough wind in the day of remoreth it." !! Or, crossing shall punish leviathan the || piercing the east wind.

serpent, even leviathan that crooked 9 By this therefore shall the ini-
serpent; and he shall slay the dragon quity of Jacob be purged; and this is
that is in the sea.

all the fruit to take away his sin ;
2 In that day sing ye unto her, A when he maketh all the stones of the
vineyard of red wine.

altar as chalkstones that are beaten 3 I the Lord do keep it; I will in sunder, the groves and || images ! Or, sun water it every moment: lest any hurt shall not stand up. it, I will keep it night and day. I 10 Yet the defenced city shall be

4 Fury is not in me: who would desolate, and the habitation forsaken,

set the briers and thorns against me and left like a wilderness: there shall || Or, march in battle? I would ll go through them, the calf feed, and there shall he lie

I would burn them together. | down, and consume the branches

5 Or let him take hold of my thereof.
strength, that he may make peace 11. When the boughs thereof are
with me; and he shall make peace | withered, they shall be broken off:
with me.

the women come, and set them on

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which shall be in the days of Antichrist emphatically sentence in execution, as in the case of Amalek, Exod. so called. Vitringa, Dr. Wells.

xvii. 14; Numb. xxiv. 20. “The east wind,” ver. 8, 21. the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity :] may allude to the “shooting forth” of the branches, See note on chap. xi. 4.

being a dry blasting wind; it elsewhere signifies cala

mities of war and wasting judgments. W. Lowth. Chap. XXVII. ver. 1. - leviathan the piercing ser- The moderation and lenity, with which the severity of pent, even leviathan that crooked serpent ;7 These seem God's judgments has been tempered, are set forth, and to be distinct animals; the former probably the croco- then the end and design of them, to recover the Jews dile, the other the common serpent or dragon: to them from idolatry. Bp. Lowth. is joined the sea-monster or whale. These are used 9. when he maketh all the stones of the altar as allegorically for great potentates, enemies and persecu- chalkstones that are beaten in sunder,] This shall be tors of the people of God; instruments and types of done, says the Prophet, to the abolishing of the very Satan, so often called the “serpent” in Scripture; this memory of idolatrous worship; see note on chap. ii. 18. first verse seems connected with the two last of the So Moses ground the golden calf to powder, Exod. preceding chapter. Bp. Lowth, W. Lowth.

xxxii. 20; and Asa stamped his mother's idol to pieces, 2. -- Ă vineyard of red wine.] The Church is con- | 2 Chron. xv. 16. W. Lowth. stantly compared to a vineyard ; see chap. v. 1, and the 10. Yet the defenced city shall be desolate, &c.] The passages there referred to in the margin. W. Lowth. Prophet mixes threatenings with the promises, as is Red wine is more esteemed in the East than white. usual elsewhere; and tells the Jews, that, before these See note at Prov. xxiii. 31. Harmer.

happy days came, great calamities should befall them. 4, 5. Fury is not in me : &c.] God declares, that | W. Lowth. there is no anger with Him against His Church ; which - there shall the calf feed, &c.] See note on chap. He had termed (ver. 2.) “a vineyard of red (that is, / vï. 25. the most precious) wine;" and for which He testifies 11. When the boughs thereof are withered, This (ver. 3.) His constant care and anxiety; that the proper refers still to the vineyard. The scarcity of fuel, espeobjects of His anger are the thorns and briers, which cially wood, in most parts of the East, is so great, that grow under the vine ; that if, in the culture of His they supply it with every thing capable of burning; vine, these should fall in His way, they should be burnt roots, parings of fruit, withered stalks of herbs and up and destroyed. By these are represented sinners flowers; see Matt. vi. 28–30. Vine twigs are particuand hypocrites, unprofitable wood, (see note on chap. larly mentioned, as used for dressing their food, by ix. 18,) who are thus threatened, unless by a timely and D’Arvieux. See Ezek. xv. 3, 4; John xv. 6. The true repentance they should make their peace with God, dressing and pruning of their vines afforded a good ver. 5. Vitringa.

supply of the last sort of fuel: but the Prophet says 7. Hath he smitten him, as he smote those that smote here, that the vines themselves of the beloved vineyard himo7 “Him" means Israel. God never makes an shall be blasted, withered, and broken ; and the women uiter destruction of His people; (see chap. i. 9 ;) where shall come and gather them up, and carry them off for as He threatens His enemies with it, and often puts the firing. Bp. Lowth.

Before CHRIST

CHRIST

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Ephraim threatened for CHAP. XXVII, XXVIII.

pride and drunkenness. Before fire: for it is a people of no under- of hail and a destroying storm, as a about 712. standing : therefore he that made flood of mighty waters overflowing, about 725.

them will not have mercy on them, shall cast down to the earth with the
and he that formed them will shew hand.
them no favour.

3 The crown of pride, the drunk-
12 1 And it shall come to pass in ards of Ephraim, shall be trodden
that day, that the Lord shall beat off | under feet:

+ Heb. with from the channel of the river unto 4 And the glorious beauty, which the stream of Egypt, and ye shall be is on the head of the fat valley, shall gathered one by one, ( ye children be a fading flower, and as the hasty of Israel.

fruit before the summer; which when
13 And it shall come to pass in he that looketh upon it seeth, while
that day, that the great trumpet shall it is yet in his hand he teateth it +Heb.
be blown, and they shall come which | up.
were ready to perish in the land of 5 9 In that day shall the Lord of
Assyria, and the outcasts in the land hosts be for a crown of glory, and for
of Egypt, and shall worship the LORD a diadem of beauty, unto the residue
in the holy mount at Jerusalem. of his people,

6 And for a spirit of judgment to
CHAP. XXVIII. him that sitteth in judgment, and for
1 The prophet threateneth Ephraim for their strength to them that turn the battle
pride and drunkenness. 5 The residue shall to the gate.
be advanced in the kingdom of Christ. ?! 7 But they also have erred
He rebuketh their error. 9 Their untoward-
ness to learn, 14 and their security. 16hrough wine, and through strong

16 through wine, and through strong
Christ the sure foundation is promised. 18 drink are out of the way; the priest
Their security shall be tried." 23 They are and the prophet have erred through
incited to the consideration of God's dis- strong drink, they are swallowed up
creet providence..

of wine, they are out of the way
W O E to the crown of pride, to through strong drink; they err in

y the drunkards of Ephraim, vision, they stumble in judgment.
whose glorious beauty is a fading 8 For all tables are full of vomit
flower, which are on the head of the and filthiness, so that there is no place
fat valleys of them that are f over-clean.
come with wine !

9 9 Whom shall he teach know-
2 Behold, the Lord hath a mighty ledge? and whom shall he make to
and strong one, which as a tempest | understand † doctrine ? them that are hearing?"

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- a people of no understanding :) These calamities and make an utter destruction of that kingdom. Comare owing to their own wilful blindness. Compare pare chap. xxix. 6; xxx. 30. W. Lowth. chap. i. 3; vi. 10; Deut. xxxii. 28. W. Lowth.

4. which when he that looketh upon it seeth, &c.] 12. - the stream of Egypt,] See the note on Gen. This image in the strongest manner expresses the great xv. 18.

ease with which the Assyrians should take the city and - ye shall be gathered? We have much the same the whole kingdom, and the avidity with which they scene here as in the latter part of chap. xi. and else should seize the rich prey without resistance. Bp. where not unfrequently in the Prophets : see note on Lowth. chap. xi. 11. Assyria and Egypt are mentioned in the 5. — unto the residue of his people,] To ver. 5, the next verse, as principal countries from whence the dis- prophecy has related to the Israelites, and their appersions should return; they are usually joined, as chief proaching destruction; here it turns to the two tribes oppressors of Israel. W. Lowth.

of Judah and Benjamin, who were to continue a king

dom after the final captivity of the Israelites. It begins Chap. XXVIII. ver. 1. Woe to the crown of pride, to with a favourable prognostication of their affairs under the drunkards of Ephraim, 7 Sebaste, the ancient Sa- Hezekiah, but soon changes to reproofs and threatenmaria, is situated on a long mount of an oval figure, ings for their intemperance, disobedience, and profanesurrounded with a rich valley, and a circle of other ness. Bp. Lowth. hills beyond it: it is probable that this suggested the 6. that turn the battle to the gate.] That pursue idea of a chaplet or wreath of flowers worn upon their the enemy to the gates of their own cities. See i Sam. heads on occasions of festivity ; expressed by the proud | xvii, 52; 2 Sam. xi. 23. W. Lowth, Bp. Lowth. crown and fading flower of drunkards. That this cus- 9. Whom shall he teach knowledge ? &c.] The scoffers, tom of wearing chaplets in their feasts prevailed among mentioned ver. 14, seem to be introduced here as utterthe Jews, as well as among the Greeks and Romans, ing their sententious speeches. What, say they, doth appears from Wisd. ii. 7, 8. Maundrell, Bp. Lowth. He treat us as little children, perpetually inculcating

2. Behold, the Lord hath a mighty and strong one, &c.] the same elementary lessons, the mere rudiments of Under these resemblances the Prophet represents Shal- knowledge, precept upon precept, &c. ? Ver. 11, God maneser, who should carry away the ten tribes captive, may be supposed by His Prophet to retort upon them

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The Jews' untowardness to learn.

ISAIAH

Christ is promised. Before weaned from the milk, and drawn from, tion: he that believeth shall not make Before about 725. the breasts.

haste.
10 For precept || must be upon 17 Judgment also will I lay to the
precept, precept upon precept; line line, and righteousness to the plum-
upon line, line upon line; here a lit- met: and the hail shall sweep away
tle, and there a little :

the refuge of lies, and the waters
11 For with + a stammering lips shall overflow the hiding place.
☺ and another tongue || will he speak 18 | And your covenant with
to this people.

death shall be disannulled, and your
12 To whom he said, This is the agreement with hell shall not stand ;
rest wherewith ye may cause the when the overflowing scourge shall
weary to rest; and this is the refresh- pass through, then ye shall be † trod- † Heb. a
ing: yet they would not hear. den down by it.

13 But the word of the LORD was 19 From the time that it goeth unto them precept upon precept, pre- forth it shall take you : for morning cept upon precept; line upon line, by morning shall it pass over, by day line upon line; here a little, and there and by night: and it shall be a vexaa little; that they might go, and fall tion only I to understand the report. Or, when he backward, and be broken, and snared, 20 For the bed is shorter than that you to underand taken.

a man can stretch himself on it: and doctrine. 14 | Wherefore hear the word of the covering narrower than that he the Lord, ye scornful men, that can wrap himself in it. rule this people which is in Jerusa- 21 For the Lord shall rise up as lem.

in mount o Perazim, he shall be wroth (2 Sam. 5.20. 15 Because ye have said, We have as in the valley of a Gibeon, that he ‘11.". made a covenant with death, and with may do his work, his strange work; 12. hell are we at agreement; when the and bring to pass his act, his strange ? Sam. 5. 25. overflowing scourge shall pass through, act. it shall not come unto us: for we have 22 Now therefore be ye not mockers, made lies our refuge, and under false- lest your bands be made strong : for hood have we hid ourselves:

I have heard from the Lord God of 2. 16 ( Therefore thus saith the Lord hosts a consumption, even determined Acts 4. 11. God, Behold, I lay in Zion for a upon the whole earth.

”? foundation ba stone, a tried stone, a 23 I Give ye ear, and hear my &10. 11.. precious corner stone, a sure founda- | voice; hearken, and hear my speech.

stand

1 Chron. 14.

d Josh 10. 10,

16.

b Ps. 118. 22. Matt. 21. 42.

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their own contemptuous mockery, turning it to a sense 17. Judgment also will I lay to the line, &c.] The different from what they intended. Yes, says He, it Prophet carries on the metaphor of building, and tells shall be in fact as you say; ye shall be taught by a the scorners, that God would square His actions by strange tongue and stammering lip; ye shall be carried the severest rules of justice. W. Lowth. into a strange country, where the language shall be un | 20. For the bed is shorter and the covering narrower intelligible to you, and ye shall be obliged to learn like &c.] Two proverbial expressions, importing that all children: My dealing with you shall be according to worldly comforts are insufficient to cure the disorders your words. The sense of ver. 12. is obvious, that God they are applied to, and human devices too short to had warned the Jews by His Prophets that their safety secure us against the hand of Providence, whenever that and security depended wholly on their trust in God; designs to punish. W. Lowth. but they rejected the gracious warning with contempt 21. For the Lord shall rise up as in mount Perazim,] and mockery. Bp. Lowth.

The destruction of the Philistines there is, in the pas15. — We have made a covenant with death, &c.] Tosages referred to in the margin, compared to a “breach be in covenant with, is a kind of proverbial expression of waters," much the same comparison as is here used, to denote perfect security from evil and mischief of any ver. 19. The extraordinary manifestations of God's sort. See Job v. 23. W. Lowth.

power there and at Gibeon were for the deliverance of 16. - Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a | His people ; but now God will act contrary to His usual tried stone, &c.] The Church being wholly built upon proceedings of grace and mercy. W. Lowth. Christ, and all our hopes of salvation depending upon 23. Give ye ear, and hear my voice ;] The foregoing Him, He is often spoken of in Holy Writ under the discourse, consisting of severe reproofs and threatenings name and notion of a rock or stone: see the passages to the Jews for their vices, and profane contempt of referred to in the margin. Bp. Beveridge.

God's warnings by His messengers, the Prophet con- he that believeth shall not make haste.] He that cludes with an explanation and defence of God's method believeth God's promises, will patiently depend upon of dealing with His people in a parable; in which He God; and not, out of distrust of His mercy, betake employs a variety of images, taken from the science of himself to any unlawful means of securing himself, as agriculture. As the husbandman uses various methods many did,' ver. 15. The Septuagint read, “shall not in preparing his land, and adapting it to the several be ashamed.” W. Lowth.

kinds of seed to be sworn, with a due observation of

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