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Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST

The utter desolation
ISAIAH.

of Babylon. . 20 It shall never be inhabited, houses, and dragons in their pleasant cu about 712. neither shall it be dwelt in from ge- palaces : and her time is near to come, about 712.

neration to generation: neither shall and her days shall not be prolonged.
the Arabian pitch tent there; neither
shall the shepherds make their fold

CHAP. XIV.
there.
+ Heb. Ziim. 21 But twild beasts of the desert 1 God's merciful restoration of Israel. 4
+ Heb. shall lie there; and their houses shall

Their triumphant insultation over Babel.

24 God's purpose against Assyria. 29 be full of + doleful creatures; and

Palestina is threatened. . 11 + owls shall dwell there, and satyrs daughters of shall dance there.

POR the LORD will have mercy on + Heb. lim. 22 And the wild beasts of the IT Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, || Or, palaces. islands shall cry in their || desolate and set them in their own land : and

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founded this city. It was Nebuchadnezzar however that serpents, scorpions, and all sorts of venomous and unmade it one of the wonders of the world ; he enlarged clean creatures, agreeably to ver. 22. W. Lowth, Bps. and beautified it to such a degree, that he may in a man- | Lowth and Newton. ner be said to have built it, as he boasts, Dan. iv. 30. 20.-neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there ; neiDean Prideaux, Bp. Newton. It was, according to the ther shall the shepherds make their fold there.] This is a lowest account given of it by ancient historians, a regu- proper representation of complete and entire desolation : lar square forty-five miles in compass, inclosed by a wall for it is common in the East for shepherds to make use two hundred feet high, and fifty broad, in which there of remaining ruins to shelter their flocks in : and it imwere one hundred gates of brass. Its principal ornaments plies a great degree of solitude, when it is said, that the were, the temple of Belus, in the middle of which was a place where great cities stood should be turned into pastower of eight stories of building, upon a base of a quar- turage, chap. xvii. 2 ; xxvii. 10 ; but it is predicted that ter of a mile square ; a most magnificent palace ; and the ruins of Babylon shall be fit for wild creatures only the famous hanging gardens, which were an artificial to resort to ! Harmer, W. Lowth. mountain raised upon arches, and planted with trees of It is uncertain what creatures are meant by some the largest as well as the most beautiful sorts. The old | Hebrew words in the following verses ; particularly palace was four miles in compass; the new, built by what the word signifies which our English renders satyrs. Nebuchadnezzar, was four times as large. Two canals It originally means goats; in which shape evil spirits were made by Nebuchadnezzar a hundred miles were supposed to appear; on which account our interabove the city: one on the eastern side of the Eu. preters sometimes render it devils : see note at Levit. phrates called Naharmalcha, or the royal river, by which xvii. 7; 2 Chron. xi. 15; but here and chap. xxxiv. the Euphrates was let into the Tigris; the other on the 14, it is rendered satyrs. Desolate and forlorn places western side called Pallacopas, or Naharaga, (the river were supposed to be inhabited by evil spirits. Compare of the pool.) by which the redundant waters of the Eu- | Baruch iv. 35 ; Rev. xviii. 2. W. Lowth. phrates were carried into a vast lake forty miles square, contrived not only to lessen the inundation, but for al Chap. XIV. ver. 1. For the Lord will have mercy on reservoir, with sluices, to water the barren country on the Jacob, and will yet choose Israel,] However He may Arabian side. There were also prodigious banks of brick seem to desert them. Judah, whose deliverance from and bitumen carried a long way on each side of the river, captivity was the immediate consequence of the revoluto keep it within its channel. Bp. Lowth, Dean Prideaux. tion foretold in the last chapter, is sometimes called Is

20-22. It shall never be inhabited, &c.] Babylon rael ; see Ezek. xii. 16; Mal. i. 1 ; ii. 11 : but the never recovered its ancient splendour after it was taken name of Jacob and of Israel, used apparently with by Cyrus, but, upon the removal of the seat of empire design in this place, each of which names includes the from thence by the Persians, by degrees decayed till it twelve tribes, and the other circumstances mentioned in was at last reduced to an utter solitude. Berosus in Jo this and the next verse, which did not in any complete sephus says, that Cyrus ordered the outer walls to be sense accompany the return from the captivity of Babypulled down ; the Persian kings ever regarded Baby-lon, seem to intimate that this whole prophecy extends lon with a jealous eye ; Darius Hystaspes, upon a re its views beyond that event. Bp. Lowth. And, genevolt, greatly depopulated the place, lowered the walls, rally, whenever the Prophets speak of the blessings to and demolished the gates ; Xerxes destroyed the tem- follow upon the return from the captivity, it is to be ples ; the building of Seleucia on the Tigris exhausted understood, that the beginnings of their promises are to Babylon by its neighbourhood, as well as by the imme- take place in that temporary restoration of the Jewish diate loss of inhabitants taken away by Seleucus to state ; but that their full and final completion is to be people his new city; a king of the Parthians soon after looked for only in the days of the Messiah. This is the carried away into slavery a great number, and destroyed key to open the meaning of all oracles on this subject ; the most beautiful parts of the city. In more modern this the true light to guide us to the interpretation of the times, St. Jerome (who lived in the fourth century) men- prophetick word. Vitringa. tions Babylon as nothing more than a chase for wild | The deliverance of Judah from captivity, which is beasts to feed and breed there for the king of Persia's here set forth, without being much enlarged upon, or hunting, exactly agreeing with ver. 21. ; and later tra- greatly amplified, introduces, with the greatest ease vellers, who have endeavoured to find the remains of and the utmost propriety, the triumphant song on the Babylon, give but very unsatisfactory accounts, some overthrow of the Babylonian monarchy, ver. 4—28. taking what ruins they saw to be those of Nebuchad- | Bp. Lowth. This passage (ver. 4-28.) contains a nezzar's palace, or the tower of Babel ; others suppos- greater assemblage of sublime ideas, of bold and daring ing them the remains of some more modern building. figures, than is perhaps any where else to be met with. The place thereabouts is represented as overrun with Dr. Blair,

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST about 712.

kad taken

grave.

God's merciful restoration of Israel. CHAP. XIV. Their triumphant insultation over Babel. c Before the strangers shall be joined with that ruled the nations in anger, is Before about 712. them, and they shall cleave to the persecuted, and none hindereth. house of Jacob.

7 The whole earth is at rest, and 2 And the people shall take them, is quiet: they break forth into singing. and bring them to their place : and 8 Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee, the house of Israel shall possess them and the cedars of Lebanon, saying, in the land of the Lord for servants Since thou art laid down, no feller is

and handmaids : and they shall take come up against us. + Heb. that them captives, † whose captives they 9 || Hell from beneath is moved for y Or, The them captives. were; and they shall rule over their thee to meet thee at thy coming: ita oppressors.

stirreth up the dead for thee, even all 3 And it shall come to pass in the the foll chief ones of the earth; it ^ Heb. day that the LORD shall give thee hath raised up from their thrones all || Or, great rest from thy sorrow, and from thy the kings of the nations. fear, and from the hard bondage 10 All they shall speak and say wherein thou wast made to serve unto thee, Art thou also become weak

4 9 That thou shalt take up this as we? art thou become like unto us? | Or, taunling || proverb against the king of Baby- 11 Thy pomp is brought down to

lon, and say, How hath the oppressor the grave, and the noise of thy viols :
ceased! the || golden city ceased! the worm is spread under thee, and

5 The Lord hath broken the staff the worms cover thee.
of the wicked, and the sceptre of the 12 How art thou fallen from heaven,
rulers.

TO Lucifer, son of the morning ! how || Or, 0 day + Heb. a 6 He who smote the people in art thou cut down to the ground, "4

out wrath with ta continual stroke, he which didst weaken the nations !

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1 OT, eractress of gold.

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- strangers shall be joined with them, &c.] It is the regions of the dead are laid open, and hades is reprobable that many strangers might become proselytes presented as rousing up the shades of the departed to the Jewish religion during the captivity. W. Lowth. monarchs; they rise from their thrones to meet the

History indeed bears testimony to a partial com- king of Babylon at his coming, and insult him on his pletion of even the most literal sense of this prophecy, being reduced to the same estate of impotence and disas the Jews brought back with them from Babylon solution with themselves. This is one of the boldest some thousands of slaves; and afterwards, for a time, figures that ever was attempted in poetry, and is exeunder the prosperous government of the Asmonean cuted with astonishing brevity and perspicuity, and princes, held their neighbours and ancient enemies in with that peculiar force, which in a great subject natusubjection : but we must look farther to the spiritual rally results from both. This image of the state of the completion : this and similar descriptions do import the dead is taken from the Eastern custom of burying, conversion of whole nations and all nations to the true those at least of higher rank, in large sepulchral vaults religion; and consequently could not be completed in hewn in the rock. Maundrell mentions remains of the proselyting only of a few particular persons, but sepulchres of this kind at Jerusalem, said to be the must intend a general reduction of all people to the sepulchres of the kings of Judah. Travellers tell us of same obedience. See notes on chap. xlv. 14; xlix. 23. similar monuments in Persia; mentioned by Diodorus Vitringa, Dr. Berriman.

Siculus as sepulchres of the kings of Persia.' We must 4. shalt take up this proverb] The word thus form to ourselves an idea of an immense subterraneous translated signifies not only a proverbial speech, but an vault, a vast gloomy cavern, all round the sides of acute and excellent saying, drawn up with art, and which there are cells to receive the dead bodies ; here adorned with rhetorical figures. W. Lowth. See Bp. the deceased monarchs lie, in a distinguished sort of Lowth's note on Job xxvii. 1; and Abp. Newcome's on state, each on his couch with his arms beside him, and Numb. xxin. 7.

| his sword at his head; see Ezek. xxxii. 27 ; on which - and say, How hath the oppressor ceased ! &c.] A place Chardin remarks, that this is the custom in chorus of Jews is here introduced, expressing their Mingrelia. These illustrious shades rise at once from surprise and astonishment at the sudden downfal of their couches, as from their thrones, and advance to Babylon, and the great reverse of fortune that had the entrance of the cavern, to meet the king of Babylon, befallen the tyrant, who, like his predecessors, had and to receive him with insults on his fall. Bp. Lowth. oppressed his own, and harassed the neighbouring 12. How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer,] kingdoms. These oppressed kingdoms, or their rulers, Princes and rulers are figuratively expressed by the host are represented under the image of the fir trees and of heaven; and the king of Babylon, who outshone cedars of Libanus, frequently used to express any thing others, is here represented by the morning star: see in the political or religious world that is supereminently notes on chap. xiii. 13. The expression likewise alludes great and majestick : the whole earth shouteth for joy; to the fall of Satan, prince of the apostate angels, Luke the cedars of Libanus utter a severe taunt over the x. 18. W. Lowth. fallen tyrant, and boast their security now he is no l The Jews now resume the speech : they address the more. Bp. Lowth.

king of Babylon, as the morning star fallen from 9. Hell from beneath is moved for thee &c.] See notes heaven, as the first in splendour and dignity in the poon Gen. xxxvii. 35; and Job xxvi. 5, 6. T'he scene is litical world fallen from his high state : they introduce here changed, and a new set of persons is introduced : 1 him as uttering the most extravagant vaunts of his

Before CHRIST

Before CHRIST about 712.

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Matt. 23. 35,

Israel's insultation over Babylon. ISAIAH. God's purpose against Assyria.

Before 13 For thou hast said in thine heart, | down to the stones of the pit; as a Before about 712. I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt carcase trodden under feet.

my throne above the stars of God: I 20 Thou shalt not be joined with
will sit also upon the mount of the them in burial, because thou hast
congregation, in the sides of the destroyed thy land, and slain thy peo-
north:

ple: a the seed of evildoers shall never a Job 18. 19.
14 I will ascend above the heights be renowned.
of the clouds; I will be like the most | 21 Prepare slaughter for his chil- & 109. 13.
High.

dren for the iniquity of their fathers; b Exod. 20.5.
15 Yet thou shalt be brought down that they do not rise, nor possess the
to hell, to the sides of the pit. land, nor fill the face of the world with

16 They that see thee shall nar- cities.
rowly look upon thee, and consider 22 For I will rise up against them,
thee, saying, Is this the man that made saith the Lord of hosts, and cut off
the earth to tremble, that did shake from Babylon the name, and remnant,
kingdoms;

and son, and nephew, saith the Lord.
17 That made the world as a wil- 23 I will also make it a possession

derness, and destroyed the cities for the bittern, and pools of water: ! Or, did not thereof; that || opened not the house and I will sweep it with the besom of let his prisoners loose of his prisoners ?

destruction, saith the Lord of hosts. 18 All the kings of the nations, 24 The LORD of hosts hath even all of them, lie in glory, every sworn, saying, Surely as I have one in his own house.

thought, so shall it come to pass; and 19 But thou art cast out of thy as I have purposed, so shall it stand : grave like an abominable branch, and 25 That I will break the Assyrian as the raiment of those that are slain, in my land, and upon my mountains thrust through with a sword, that go tread him under foot: then shall his

homeward.

power and ambitious designs in his former glory : these ing of such clothes did contract uncleanness by the law, are strongly contrasted in the close with his present low Numb. xix. 16. W. Lowth. and abject condition. Bp. Lowth.

21. that they do not rise,] The Persian monarchs 13. — I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, took care to prevent Babylon's recovering its former in the sides of the north:] This is mount Zion, or rather greatness: the Jews were first brought to Babylon to mount Moriah on the north side of it, on which the people and strengthen it; and the weakening and distemple was built. It might better be rendered “mount peopling of it might be one reason for their being sent of the convention;" so called, not because the people back. Bp. Lowth, Dean Prideaux. assembled there to perform their religious ceremonies, 22. For I will rise up against them, saith the Lord of but because God there manifested Himself, as He had hosts, &c.] To complete the whole, God is here inbefore appointed to meet the people in the tabernacle, troduced, declaring the fate of Babylon, the utter extirExod. xxix. 43. This perhaps only literally explains pation of the royal family, and the total desolation of what was figuratively expressed in the former part of the city; the deliverance of His people, and the dethe verse ; "heaven' and the “stars of God” standing, struction of their enemies ; confirming the irreversible according to the Eastern manner, for the sanctuary and decree by the awful sanction of His oath. Bp. Louth. God's ministers. Vitringa.

- nephew,] The same Hebrew word is translated, 16. They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, Gen. xxi. 23, " son's son,” and so it should be here. and consider thee, Certain persons are introduced It may mean Evil-merodach, (Nebuchadnezzar the great here, who light upon the corpse of the king of Babylon, king of Babylon's son,) and Belshazzar. See Jer. cast out, and lying naked on the bare ground, covered xxvii. 6, 7. Dean Prideaur, W. Lowth. with wounds, and so disfigured, that it is some time 23. I will also make it a possession for the bittern, and before they know him. They accost him with the pools of water :) Cyrus took the city of Babylon, by severest taunts, and bitterly reproach him with his am- diverting the waters of the Euphrates, which ran through bition and cruelty, which have deservedly brought on the midst of it, and entering the place at night by the him this ignominious treatment, so different from that channel. It was two furlongs wide; but he had made it which those of his rank usually meet with, and so full fordable by means of the lake, (see note on chap. xiii. of disgrace to his posterity. Bp. Lowth.

19,) and trenches which he had prepared. The river

sepulchre. So the grave is called the “long home,” banks, and no care taken afterwards to repair the as our translation well expresses it, Eccles. xii. 5. W. breach, all the country was overflowed and drowned, Lowth.

and ultimately a whole province lost. Alexander, who 19. like an abominable branch,] Fit for nothing intended to have made Babylon the seat of his embut to rot on the ground. W. Lowth. Or, we may un- pire, set about remedying the mischief; but difficulties derstand him compared to the tree on which a male- arising, he soon after dying, and the work being never factor had been hanged. The Jews held this an object more thought of, that country has remained bog and of abomination, and covered it with earth, together marsh ever since. Bp. Lowth, Dean Prideaux. with the malefactor. Bp. Lowth.

25. – I will break the Assyrian in my land, and upon - the raiment of those that are slain,] The touch- I my mountains treud him under foot :] The Assyrians

CHRIST

CHRIST

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Job 9. 12.

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Dan. 4.32.

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shall be a cause in the highlight to silen

30 And the repent

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Palestina is threatened.

CHAP. XIV, XV. The lamentable state of Moab. Before yoke depart from off them, and his 31 Howl, O gate; cry, Ocity; Before about 712. burden depart from off their shoulders. thou, whole Palestina, art dissolved: 726.

26 This is the purpose that is pur- for there shall come from the north a posed upon the whole earth: and this smoke, and || none shall be alone in | 0r, he shall

not be alone. is the hand that is stretched out upon his || appointed times. all the nations.

32 What shall one then answer the assemblie 27 For the Lord of hosts hath messengers of the nation? That a the d Ps. 87.1, 5.

& 102. 16. e 2 Chron. 20. c purposed, and who shall disannul LORD hath founded Zion, and the Job 9. 12. it? and his hand is stretched out, and poor of his people shall || trust in it. Or, betake Prov. 21.30. who shall turn it back? 28 In the year that king Ahaz died

CHAP. XV.
was this burden.
29 9 Rejoice not thou, whole Pa-

The lamentable state of Moab.
lestina, because the rod of him that THE burden of Moab. Because about 726.
smote thee is broken: for out of the I in the night Ar of Moab is laid

serpent's root shall come forth a waste, and || brought to silence; be- || Or, cut of. 1 Or, adder. Il cockatrice, and his fruit shall be a cause in the night Kir of Moab is laid

waste, and brought to silence; 30 And the firstborn of the poor 2 He is gone to Bajith, and to shall feed, and the needy shall lie Dibon, the high places, to weep: down in safety: and I will kill thy Moab shall howl over Nebo, and over root with famine, and he shall slay Medeba: a on all their heads shall be a Jer. 48. 37, thy remnant.

baldness, and every beard cut off. Ezek. 7. 18. and Babylonians are mentioned as the same people by - a fiery flying serpent.] See notes on chap. xxx. prophane authors; and see 2 Kings xxiii. 29; 2 Chron. 6; Numb. xxi. 6. xxxiii. 11. But the circumstance of this judgment 30.- the firstborn of the poor shall feed, &c.] That is, being to be executed on God's mountains, is of import- the poorest. This speaks of the plenty and security that ance; it may mean the destruction of Sennacherib's should ensue under the government of Hezekiah. Dr. army near Jerusalem; but probably has still a farther | Wells. view to some remarkable enemies of God's church; see 31.- there shall come from the north a smoke,] Smoke notes on chap. xi. 14. Bp. Lowth, W. Lowth.

and fire are emblems of God's wrath, and of great cala27. For the Lord of hosts &c.] I believe it may with mities. See Gen. xv. 17; Ps. xviii. 8. W. Lowth. truth be affirmed, that there is no poem of its kind, 32. What shall one then answer the messengers of the extant in any language, in which the subject is so well nation?7 Namely, that sends to congratulate the Jews laid out, and so happily conducted, with such a richness upon their victories ? that the Lord is their protector. of invention, with such variety of images, persons, and Bp. Wilson. See 2 Chron. xxxii. 23. The Septuagint distinct actions, with such rapidity and ease of trans- and Chaldee give the plural, “nations." Bp. Lowth. ition, in so small a compass, as in this ode of Isaiah. For beauty of disposition, strength of colouring, great- Chap. XV. This and the following chapter, taken ness of sentiment, brevity, perspicuity, and force of together, make one entire prophecy. The time of the expression, it stands among all the monuments of an- delivery of it, and consequently of the completion, which tiquity unrivalled. Bp. Lowth.

was to be in three years from that time, is uncertain. 28. This verse our translators refer to the former But the most probable account is, that it was delivered part of the chapter: many commentators suppose it to soon after the foregoing, in the first year of Hezekiah, belong to the burden against Philistia that follows. and accomplished in his fourth year, when Shalmaneser

invaded the kingdom of Israel : he might probably march 29. — whole Palestina, 7 All the tribes or clans of the through Moab, and, to secure every thing behind him, Philistines, who had five lords or heads over them. See possess himself of the whole country by taking their Josh. xiii. 3; 1 Sam. vi. 4, 16. W. Lowth.

principal strong places, Ar and Kirhares, or Kirhareseth, - the rod of him that smote thee is broken :) Orchap. xvi. 7. Bp. Lowth, Abp. Usher. rather, The rod that smote thee is broken. It would be Jeremiah has happily introduced much of this promost natural and obvious to suppose Ahaz meant here, phecy of Isaiah into his own larger prophecy against the whose death seems to have given rise to the rejoicing of same people, chap. xlviii. Bp. Lowth. the Philistines. But as we learn from 2 Chron. xxviii. Ver. 1. - Because in the night Ar of Moab is laid 18, that during his reign the Philistines rather gained waste, and brought to silence; because &c.] We should ground upon the Jews, than were smitten by them, we rather translate, may conclude that Uzziah, who had warred successfully against the Philistines, is meant by the “rod that smote them,” and “the serpent," from whom should

Bp. Lowth. spring the “ fiery flying serpent." This last must mean 2. He is gone to Bajith, and to Dibon, ] “He" is used Hezekiah, who was great grandson to Uzziah, and is for the people of Moab. “Bajith” and “Dibon” are thus described as a more terrible enemy than he had l in the Chaldee and Syriack versions made into the name been. See 2 Kings xviii. 8. Vitringa, Bp. Lowth. Heze- of one place; Beth-Dibon : Beth may signify the house kiah not only regained all the cities of Judah which the or temple of an idol. Bp. Lowth, W. Lowth. Philistines had seized during the time when Pekah and! - on all their heads shall be baldness, &c.] Tokens Rezin distressed the land, but also dispossessed them of of great mourning; see chap. xxii. 12; Jer. vii. 29; almost all their own country, Dean Prideaux,

| Ezra ix. 3. W. Lowth.

Editor.

“* Because in the night Aris destroyed, Moab is undone !"
"Because in the night Kir is destroyed, Moab is nndone!"

CHRIST

CHRIST

descending

or, coming down with weeping.

borders

The lamentable state of Moab.

ISAIAH.

She is exhorted to obedience, Before 3 In their streets they shall gird! 9 For the waters of Dimon shall Before about 726. themselves with sackcloth : on the be full of blood : for I will bring about 726.

tops of their houses, and in their + more upon Dimon, lions upon himmetr Heb... streets, every one shall howl, tweep-that escapeth of Moab, and upon the additions. into weeping: ing abundantly.

remnant of the land.
4 And Heshbon shall cry, and

CHAP. XVI.
Elealeh: their voice shall be heard

1 Moab is exhorted to yield obedience to
even unto Jahaz: therefore the armed Christ's kingdom. 6 Moab is threatened
soldiers of Moab shall cry out; his for her pride. 9 The prophet bewaileth
life shall be grievous unto him. her. 12 The judgment of Moab.

5 My heart shall cry out for Moab; I QEND ye the lamb to the ruler of ! Or, to the lhis fugitives shall flee unto Zoar, an the land from 11 + Sela to the ! or, Petra.

| Heb. a rock. thereof, eren heifer of three years old : for by wilderness, unto the mount of the an hour as the mounting up of Luhith with daughter of Zion. b Jer. 48.5, weeping shall they go it up; for in 2 For it shall be, that, as a wander

the way of Horonaim they shall raise ing bird || cast out of the nest, so the Or, a nest up a cry of + destruction.

daughters of Moab shall be at the for
6 For the waters of Nimrim shall fords of Arnon.
be + desolate: for the hay is withered 3 + Take counsel, execute judg- Heb. Bring.
away, the grass faileth, there is no ment; make thy shadow as the night
green thing

in the midst of the noonday; hide
7 Therefore the abundance they
have gotten, and that which they have wandereth.

Jaid up, shall they carry away to the 4 Let mine outcasts dwell with 11 Or, valley || brook of the willows.

thee, Moab; be thou a covert to them 8 For the cry is gone round about from the face of the spoiler : for the the borders of Moab; the howling + extortioner is at an end, the spoiler Heb. thereof unto Eglaim, and the howling ceaseth, + the oppressors are consum- + Heb. the thereof unto Beer-elim.

ed out of the land.

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+ Heb. breaking.

I destruction.

+ Heb. desolations,

of the Arabians.

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treaders down.

3. — on the tops of their houses,] See the note on his enemy should meet a lion to destroy him ; see Jer. Deut. xxii. 8. All Pagans sacrifice on high places and xlviii. 44; Amos v. 19. W. Lowth. The additional calaterraces. Sir J. Chardin. In the temple of Belus, the mities threatened here to fall upon Moab may perhaps uppermost story of all was the most sacred, and where relate to that which Nebuchadnezzar was to bring upon the chiefest devotions were performed. Dean Prideaux. them, of which Jeremiah prophesies. Vitringa.

fugitives shall cry unto Zoar as an heifer,” &c. The Chap. XVI. ver. 1. Send ye the lamb &c.] The Moabparticle as is frequently understood ; see chap. xxi. 8. ites were subdued by David, and became his tributaries, W. Lowth,

2 Sam. viii. 2, the king of Moab is said to send 100,000 - an heifer of three years old :] The meaning seems lambs, 2 Kings iii. 4. To something of this kind the to be, that the cry of Moab should be continued on from Prophet may allude here, and exhort the Moabites to city to city, till the whole country resounded as with renew to the heir of David's family an acknowledgment the lowing of a young cow, that runs from place to which probably had been discontinued. “Sela to the place in search of her calf, that has been taken from wilderness" should rather be translated, Sela in the wil. her. An image singularly expressive. Dr. Blayney. derness. See 2 Kings xiv. 7. W. Lowth.

6. the waters of Nimrim] This place was famous It is a custom of the East for the poor people to for good pasture, and meadows well-watered. See Numb. make presents of lambs and sheep to their lords, as an xxxii. 3, 36. W. Lowth.

offering or tribute. Sir J. Chardin. - for the hay is withered away,] Rather, “the 2. the daughters of Moab shall be at the fords of herbage;" for in those countries they make no hay; Arnon.] Endeavouring to seek their lodging in foreign and, if they did, it appears from inspection that hay parts. Bp. Hall. could hardly be the meaning of the original word, either 3.- make thy shadow as the night &c.] The Prophet here or in Prov. xxvii. 25. Parkhurst.

speaks by way of advice to the Moabites, to shew kind7.- carry away to the brook of the willows.] That is, ness to their brethren the Jews, as in reason and justice to Babylon : see Ps. cxxxvii. 2. Dean Prideaux, Bp. they ought, in the time of their distress : adding howLowth. Or, we may read, as the margin gives it, “to ever, that there should be no great occasion for their

carry the booty they took, it being the direct way from | Dr. Wells. Moab to Assyria. W. Lowth.

4.- for the extortioner is at an end, &c.] This applies 9. — waters of Dimon shall be full of blood :) St. Je- perhaps to the Israelites, who in Ahaz's time invaded rome tells us, that Dimon is the same with Dibon, ver. 2. Judah, 2 Chron. xxviii. 5, 6. With those former times Vitringa.

of distress is contrasted the security and flourishing - for I will bring more &c.] I will bring more and state of the kingdom under Hezekiah, who should govern more calamities; and they that fly to escape the present with an equal mixture of justice and mercy, and therein evils shall fall into worse; as if a man that fled from prefigure the Messiah, Bp. Lowth, W. Lowth,

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