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Israel is comforted
CHAP. X, XI.
with promise of deliverance. Before 24 9 Therefore thus saith the Lord 30 + Lift up thy voice, () daughter Before about 713. God of hosts, ( my people that of Gallim: cause it to be heard unto about 713.
dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Laish, () poor Anathoth.
Assyrian: he shall smite thee with a 31 Madmenah is removed; the in- shrill with
the indignation shall cease, and mine that day: he shall shake his hand
against the mount of the daughter of
stir up a scourge for him according to 33 Behold, the Lord, the LORD h Judg. 7. 25. the slaughter of h Midian at the rock of hosts, shall lop the bough with
of Oreb: and as his rod was upon the terror : and the high ones of stature
shall be humbled.
taken away from off thy shoulder, Lebanon shall fall || by a mighty one. | Or,
| CH AP. XI.
storation of Israel, and vocation of the
Gentiles. 29 They are gone over the passage: they have taken up their lodg AND there shall come forth a rod ing at Geba; Ramah is afraid ; Gi A out of the stem of a Jesse, and a a Acts 13.23. beah of Saul is fled.
Branch shall grow out of his roots :
received then its ultimate completion, and its fullest in- he might have a prospect of mount Zion; and thus tent was then answered, when the bulk of the Jewish literally shake his hand against it; and stand in a threatnation was rejected, after their rejection of their true ening posture, as just ready to assault it. Bp. Lowth, Messiah, and given up to the just judgment of God, W. Lowth. exhibited in the desolation which the Romans brought upon them; with the preservation of the chosen and Chap. XI. The Prophet had described, in the last holy few, who had embraced the Gospel of Christ. chapter, the destruction of the Assyrian army under the Vitringa.
image of a mighty forest, consisting of flourishing trees 24, 26. – after the manner of Egypt.] As Sennacherib growing thick together, and of a great height; of Lebainvested Jerusalem upon his return from his Egyptian non itself, crowned with lofty cedars, but cut down, and expedition, and imitated Pharaoh and the Egyptians in laid level with the ground, by the ax, wielded by the threatening the people of God, so does God promise hand of some powerful and illustrious agent: in oppohere to act over again the part He had formerly taken, sition to this image he represents the great Person, who and to overthrow Sennacherib in as signal a manner as makes the subject of this chapter, as a slender twig, He had done Pharaoh and his host in the Red sea. So shooting out from the trunk of an old tree cut down, both the attack and the deliverance are to be “ in the lopped to the very root, and decayed; which tender way," or, "after the manner, of Egypt.” Bp. Lowth, plant, so weak in appearance, should nevertheless be
The twenty-sixth verse may be thus paraphrased : come fruitful and prosper. This contrast shews a conThe Assyrian is My rod to thee; but I will have a nection between this and the foregoing chapter. Here scourge for him, that shall plague him : as the Midian- we have a remarkable instance of that method so comites were destroyed by Gideon at the rock of Oreb; mon with the Prophets, and particularly with Isaiah, of (see Judg. vii. 25;) and as I plagued the Egyptians, taking occasion, from the mention of some great temwhom I overthrew and destroyed at the Red sea. Bp.poral deliverance, to launch out into the display of the Hall.
spiritual deliverance of God's people by the Messiah. 27.- because of the anointing. 7 For the sake of God's Thus in the latter part of Isaiah's prophecies, the subchosen people, who are called “ His anointed,” Ps. cv. Iject of the great redemption, and of the glories of Mes
emphatically so called, who was to descend from the by the deliverance from the captivity of Babylon, and tribe of Judah. Dr. Wells, W. Lowth. See note on chap. is all along connected and intermixed with it. Bp. xlv. 1.
Lowth. 28. He is come to Aiath, &c.] Here follows a descrip-1 Ver. 1. — of Jesse,] By mentioning Jesse, who was tion of the march of Sennacherib's army, and of the not a king but a private person, Isaiah seems to hint at terrour and confusion spreading through the several the obscure and weak condition in which Christ should places in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, from Ai appear; His birth too was fixed to be, not at Zion, northward to Nob westward of it; expressed with great which was the place and seat of government in Judah, brevity, but finely diversified. Bp. Lowth.
| but at Bethlehem, a town where the family of David 32. As yet shall he remain at Nob] Hence probably lived while they were private persons. Dean Allix.
Before CHRIST about 713.
Before CHRIST about 713.
The peaceable kingdom of the Branch ISAIAH.
out of the root of Jesse. Before 2 And the spirit of the Lord shallthe lamb, and the leopard shall lie Before about 713. rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom down with the kid; and the calf and about 713.
and understanding, the spirit of coun- the young lion and the fatling toge-
and of the fear of the LORD; | them.
understanding in the fear of the LORD: feed; their young ones shall lie down
4 But with righteousness shall he on the hole of the asp, and the weaned || Or, argue. judge the poor, and || reprove with child shall put his hand on the cock- | Or, adder's.
equity for the meek of the earth : andatrice' den.
of his mouth, and with the breath of in all my holy mountain: for the
5 And righteousness shall be the of the LORD, as the waters cover the
10 And in that day there shall c Chap. 65. ac Th
6 - The wolf also shall dwell with be a root of Jesse, which shall stand
e olan ah.
2. And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him,]l change wrought upon the world, as there would be, if That is, as man He shall be endued with the gifts and the natures of the creatures here mentioned were so graces of the Holy Spirit, without measure, and at all changed, as the figures represent them. Dr. T. Burnett, times. Dr. Wells. The characters here given to the Men's former antipathies shall cease: and they who Spirit which was to rest on the Messiah, are the same had used to be the most fierce and ravenous shall yield which we find in the Old Testament applied to the Pro- to the gentle discipline of Christ, and put on the humphets. Dean Allix. He being the Great Prophet, fore- ble spirit of His followers. The persecutions of the told Deut. xviii. 15, is described as more plentifully heathen world were broken off, when the princes of the endued with these gifts than any other ever was, chap. earth gave in their names to Christ, and laid those scepxlii. 1 ; lxi. 1 ; Ps. xlv. 7; John ü. 34 ; Acts x. 38. W. tres at his feet, which had been formerly held out with Lowth.
rage and virulence against Him: and if some parts of 3. - of quick understanding in the fear of the Lord : 7 | the Church have since been overrun by barbarous crews In things pertaining unto holiness, He shall lay hold of of Saracens and other infidels, and if the world be not all opportunities of promoting true piety, and advancing yet brought to the peaceable temper here foretold, or God's honour : this exactly answers Christ's character the Church yet at unity with itself, we must remember of Himself, John iv. 34. W. Lowth.
that divisions and the temporary success of Christ's - he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, nei enemies have been foretold, as well as His final conther reprove after the hearing of his ears :] He shall quest and complete tranquillity, and, being confirmed not judge after the appearance, but shall judge righ- by what we see accomplished, look the more steadfastly teous judgment; as our Saviour speaks, John vii. 24. to the accomplishment of those prophecies which are W. Lowth.
still to be fulfilled. Dr. Berriman. 4. - reprove with equity for the meek of the earth :11 Profane writers describe the renewal of the golden To afford protection to the poor and humble, is the age, as it is called, much in the same metaphorical lanconstant character of Christ's kingdom ; (chap. xxix.guage as is here used by the Prophet : wild beasts grow 19; lxi. 1; Ps. lxxii. 2, 12 ;) to them the blessings of tame, serpents and poisonous herbs become harmless; the Gospel are peculiarly promised, Matt. v. 3; James all is peace and harmony, plenty and happiness : but ii. 5. W. Lowth.
the most elegant of the ancient poets fall very short of - he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, 7 | that beauty, and elegance, and variety of imagery, with The “ earth" here signifies the ungodly, called by St. which Isaiah has set forth the same ideas. Here the John, chap. vii. 7 ; xvii. 9, the “world;" who make the wolf and the leopard not only forbear to destroy the greatest part of it, and have the greatest share in it: lamb and the kid, but even take their abode and lie the “rod of His mouth" signifies the “word of God," down together with them. The calf, and the young containing threats and judgınents against sinners, which | lion, and the fatling, not only come together, but are is said to be “sharper than any two edged sword,” | led quietly in the same band, and that by a little child. Heb. iv. 12; and as such is described, Rev. i. 16, as The heifer and the she-bear not only feed together, but proceeding “out of the mouth of Christ." St. Paul, in even lodge their young ones, for whom they used to be the passage given in the margin, applies this particu- most jealously fearful, in the same place. All the serlarly to the destruction of Antichrist. See also Rev. pent kind is so perfectly harmless, that the sucking xix, 21. W. Lowth.
infant, and the newly weaned child, puts his hand on 5. — righteousness shall be the girdle &c.] The mean the basilisk's den, and plays upon the hole of the aspick. ing is, that a zeal for justice and truth shall make Him The lion not only abstains from preying on the weaker active and strong in executing the great work which animals, but becomes tame and domestick, and feeds He shall undertake. Bp. Lowth. See note on chap. v. on straw like the ox. These are all beautiful circum27.
stances, not one of which has been touched upon by 6–8. The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, &c.] the ancient poets. Bp. Lowth. The expressions here used are plainly designed to shew, 10. - a root of Jesse, 7 Christ is here called the in a figurative way, that there should be as great a “ Root” of Jesse, as being the real ground or founda
The restoration of Israel,
and calling of the Gentiles. Before for an ensign of the people; to its depart, and the adversaries of Judah Before about 713. shall the a Gentiles seek: and his rest shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not about 713. 15 shall be + glorious.
envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex 11 And it shall come to pass in that Ephraim. day, that the LORD shall set his hand | '14 But they shall fly upon the again the second time to recover the shoulders of the Philistines toward remnant of his people, which shall be the west; they shall spoil + them of 1 Heb. the left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, the east together: t they shall lay the east. and from Pathros, and from Cush, their hand upon Edom and Moab; and from Elam, and from Shinar, and + and the children of Ammon shall shall be the from Hamath, and from the islands obey them. of the sea.
L 15 And the LORD shall utterly children of 12 And he shall set up an ensign destroy the tongue of the Egyptian Ammon their for the nations, and shall assemble sea; and with his mighty wind shall the outcasts of Israel, and gather he shake his hand over the river, and
together the dispersed of Judah from shall smite it in the seven streams, + Heb. wings. the four + corners of the earth. and make men go over + dryshod. Heb. in
13 The envy also of Ephraim shall 16 And there shall be an highway ****
+ Heb. Edom and Moab shall be the laying on of their hand. # Heb. the
tion of all the favours bestowed upon the family, the condition of Christianity in aftertimes in Europe. Viultimate end and aim to which they were referred: the tringa. “ Branch growing out of the root," ver. 1, because The fact is notorious, that the Gospel, from the beactually descended from that royal line: which may ginning to the present times, hath made the greatest explain the two-fold character He gives of Himself, progress in Europe, and in those parts of Asia which Rev. xxii. 16. Dr. Berriman.
| were first peopled by the posterity of Japhet. Among - which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to the uncivilized descendants of Ham, and the degenerate it shall the Gentiles seek :) This alludes to the Jewish sons of Shem, it hath not been so generally spread, or custom of repairing to the temple at festivals ; see Deut. hath not so deeply taken root. Bp. Horsley. xii. 5, and the note on chap. ii. 3. W. Louth. It may 13. — the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off :) The be remarked here, that when the descent of the Messiah Hebrew might be rendered, the “enmity” of Judah : was limited to the tribe of Judah, it was still foretold and what follows, “ Judah shall not vex Ephraim," that to Him should the “gathering of the people (or seems to require that it should. Abp. Secker. nations) be," Gen. xlix. 10; and now, where it is yet 14. But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philismore precisely limited to the house of David, His king-tines &c.] The people mentioned in this verse were all dom is represented to be universal. Dr. Berriman. of them borderers upon the territory of the Jews, and
- his rest shall be glorious.] This is most com- took all occasions of shewing their spite and ill-will monly understood of His Church, where, as between against them: on which account, in the prophetick the cherubim heretofore, God has His resting-place. dialect they are often used in a general sense for the Bp. Wilson.
enemies of God's truth and people. Compare chap. What rernains of this chapter foretells those glorious xxv. 10; xxxiv. 5, 6; Joel ii. 19; Amos ix, 12. W. times of the Church, which shall be ushered in by the Lowth. restoration of the Jewish nation; when they shall em- It is the style and genius of the prophetical books, to brace the Gospel, and return from the several dispersions set whole countries, and kingdoms, and societies of where they are scattered. This remarkable scene of men, to signify, not those places, and persons, and Providence is plainly foretold by most of the Prophets powers only, but others also who should be in afterof the Old Testament, and by St. Paul, Rom. xi. 25, ages like them, in the same sins and circumstances. 26; 2 Cor. iii. 16. W. Lowth.
| Dean Stanhope. · 11.- the Lord shall set his hand again the second 15. — the Lord shall utterly destroy the tongue of the time &c.] These words imply, that this shall be as Egyptian sea ;] the word “ tongue," when applied to great a deliverance as that out of Egypt: compare Ps. the sea, signifies a bay, and is so translated, Josh, xv. lxviii. 22; Mic. vii. 15. W. Lowth.
2, and xviii. 19. W. Lowth. Most interpreters apply - from Pathros, &c.] Pathros is a country in the expression here to that bay of the Red Sea, over Egypt, Jer. xliv. 1; Ezek. xxix. 14. Elam, Persia; which the Israelites passed. Vitringa. Shinar, Babylon, Gen, xi. 2. W. Lowth.
Perhaps “the tongue of the Egyptian sea” may mean | Respecting Cush, see notes on chap. xviii. 1 ; Numb. that part of the land of Egypt which was enclosed xii. 1. Hamath, note on chap. x. 9. Elam, note on among the mouths of the Nile; the Nile being underchap. xxi. 2.
| stood to be the Egyptian sea. This has at times been islands of the sea.] By this expression are to described under the semblance of a pear, and an heart, be understood, in the Scripture style, not only islanders and also a tongue; all these objects having some anaproperly so called, but all who dwelt on the seacoast, logy in their shape. Bryant. primarily, perhaps, those on the shores of the Mediter- | — with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand over ranean; all distant nations, which may best appear the river, &c.] This plainly alludes to the passage of from chap. xlix. 1; Jer. xxxi. 10; all to the west of the Red Sea, and refers to the particular circumstance Canaan. These last were the isles of the Gentiles, to mentioned Exod. xiv. 21. Bp. Lowth. Whether we be peopled by the posterity of Japhet, Gen. x. 5; under understand the river here of the Nile, famous for its this title of islands they are mentioned in all passages, seven mouths, or the Euphrates, (see note on chap. vii. where the extension of the Gospel to the Gentiles is 20,) and suppose allusion made to Cyrus draining that prophesied of, with a view, no doubt, to the flourishing river when he took Babylon, chap. xliv. 27; Jer. 1. 38;
+ Heb. inhabitress,
came up out of thin the day that has / bitant of Zion: los
A thanksgiving of the faithful.
ISAIAH. God mustereth the armies of his wrath. Before for the remnant of his people, which 6 Cry out and shout, thou tinha- Before about 713. shall be left, from Assyria; e like as bitant of Zion: for great is the Holy about 713. it was to Israel in the day that he One of Israel in the midst of thee.
1 God mustereth the armies of his wrath. 6
Medes. 19 The desolation of Babylon. AND in that day thou shalt say, THE burden of Babylon, which about 712. A O LORD, I will praise thee : | 1 Isaiah the son of Amoz did see. though thou wast angry with me, thine 2 Lift ye up a banner upon the anger is turned away, and thou com high mountain, exalt the voice unto fortedst me.
them, shake the hand, that they may 2 Behold, God is my salvation; I go into the gates of the nobles.
will trust, and not be afraid : for the 3 I have commanded my sanctified a Exod. 15. 2. LORD JEHOVAH is my a strength ones, I have also called my mighty
and my song; he also is become my ones for mine anger, even them that
rejoice in my highness.
4 And in that day shall ye say, a tumultuous noise of the kingdoms“ bi Chron. 16. b Praise the LORD, || call upon his of nations gathered together : the Ps. 105. 1. name, declare his doings among the Lord of hosts mustereth the host of Proclaim his people, make mention that his name the battle. is exalted.
5 They come from a far country, 5 Sing unto the Lord; for he from the end of heaven, even the hath done excellent things: this is Lord, and the weapons of his indigknown in all the earth.
nation, to destroy the whole land.
2. Pof trust, and not is my salvatio
Ps. 118. 14.
the sense is the same, and imports the removing of all ver. 17. of this chapter, as principal agents in the overimpediments that might hinder the return of God's throw of the Babylonian monarchy, by which the Jews people. See Rev. xvi. 12. W. Lowth.
were released from that captivity, were at this time an
inconsiderable people, having been in a state of anarchy Chap. XII. This chapter is an hymn of praise, ever since the fall of the great Assyrian empire, of which proper to be used in the triumphant state of the they had made a part ; and did not become a kingChurch, described in the foregoing chapter. Of the dom till about the seventeenth year of Hezekiah. Bp. same use are chapters xxv, xxvi, and several of the Lowth. Psalms. W. Lowth.
The former part of this prophecy is one of the most Ver. 3. Therefore with joy shall ye draw water out of beautiful examples that can be given of elegance of comthe wells of salvation,] That is, from God's inexhaus- position, variety of imagery, and sublimity of sentiment tible bounty, which is the fountain of all blessings in and diction, in the prophetick style: and the latter part Jesus Christ : see Psal. xxxvi. 9; Jer. ii. 13. Bp. Wil- consists of an ode of singular excellence. Bp. Lowth. son, W. Lowth.
Our margin sets the date of this prophecy a little later On the last day of the feast of tabernacles, the Jews than the reign of Abaz, namely, about the fifteenth year fetched water in a golden pitcher from the fountain of of Hezekiah. Siloah ; brought it through the watergate into the tem- ' Ver. 1. The burden of Babylon,] A prophecy threatenple, and poured it, mixed with wine, on the sacrifice as ing ruin or some severe punishment. Bp. Wilson. it lay upon the altar, with great rejoicing. This custom The word in the original is of more general import is not ordained in the law of Moses; and seems to have and signification: it sometimes signifies a prophecy of been taken up in allusion to this passage of Isaiah. good as well as evil. Bps. Newton and Chandler. Our Saviour applied the ceremony, and the intention 2, 3. Lift ye up a banner &c.] The prophecy opens of it, to Himself, and to the effusion of the Holy Ghost, with the command of God to gather the forces which promised, and to be given, by Him, John vii. 37, 39. He had destined to His service against Babylon : upon Bp. Lowth.
which the Prophet immediately hears the tumultuous
noise of the different nations crowding together to the Chap. XIII. This chapter and the next (striking off standard ; he sees them advancing prepared to execute a few of the last verses of it, which belong to a different the Divine wrath, ver. 4, 5; and proceeds to describe subject) contain one entire prophecy, foretelling the the dreadful consequences of this visitation, and the condestruction of Babylon by the Medes and Persians; sternation which will seize those that are objects of it. delivered probably in the reign of Ahaz, about 200 | Bp. Lowth. years before the completion of it. The captivity itself 2. — into the gates of the nobles,] To enlist under of the Jews at Babylon (which the Prophet does not their several commanders. W. Lowth. expressly foretell, but supposes, in the spirit of pro- 3. I have commanded my sanctified ones,] This sigphecy, as what was actually effected) did not fully take nifies those whom God had set apart for His purpose. place till about 130 years after the delivery of this pro- So He calls Cyrus His anointed, chap. xlv. 1, and New phecy; and the Medes, who are expressly mentioned, I buchadnezzar His servant, Jer, xxy. 9. W. Lowth.
an al his
of the flames.
to destroy Babylon. 6 | Howl ye; for the day of the 13 Therefore I will shake the Before about 712. Lord is at hand; it shall come as a heavens, and the earth shall remove about 712.
destruction from the Almighty. out of her place, in the wrath of the Or, fal? 7 Therefore shall all hands || be Lord of hosts, and in the day of his
faint, and every mau's heart shall fierce anger.
| 14 And it shall be as the chased
travaileth : they shall + be amazed his own land. + Heb. every † one at another; their faces shall be 15 Every one that is found shall neighbour. as † flames.
| be thrust through; and every one + Heb, faces 9 Behold, the day of the Lord that is joined unto them shall fall by
cometh, cruel both with wrath and the sword.
their houses shall be spoiled, and their
constellations thereof shall not give 17 Behold, I will stir up the Medes
1 18 Their bows also shall dash the
kingdoms, the beauty of the Chal-
Luke 21.25. shine.
Luke 21. 25.
Jer, 50. 40.
8 — their faces shall be as flames.] Black and ghastly, - of Ophir.] See notes on 1 Kings ix. 28. like smoke and flames. See Joel ii. 6; Nahum ii. 10. / 13.— I will shake the heavens, and the earth shall remove Bp. Wilson, W. Lowth.
&c.] The figurative language of the Prophets is taken 10. For the stars of heaven and the constellations from the analogy between the world natural, and an thereof shall not give their light :] When the Hebrew empire or kingdom considered as a world politick. poets represent the destruction and overthrow of king. The heavens and the things therein signify thrones and doms, the stars are obscure, the moon withdraws her dignities, and those who enjoy them; the earth with the light, the sun shines no more; the earth quakes, the things thereon, the inferiour people. Great earthquakes, heavens tremble ; and all things seem tending to their and the shaking of heaven and earth, are put for the original chaos. See Joel ü. 10; iii. 15, 16; Amos viii. | shaking of kingdoms, so as to distract and overthrow 9; Matt. xxiv. 29. Bp. Lowth.
them. Sir I. Newton, All these high expressions are the peculiar and even | 17. — which shall not regard silver ;] That is, shall natural language of the Eastern nations; no more, even not be induced by large offers of ransom to spare. It at this day, would be understood to be meant by them, is remarkable that Xenophon makes Cyrus open a speech than that Babylon should be utterly destroyed, the goal to his army with praising them for a similar disregard vernment ruined, and the people severely treated. Bp. of riches : “ Ye Medes, and others who now hear me, I Wilson.
well know that you have not accompanied me in this 11. And I will punish the world] The Prophet sud- expedition with a view of acquiring wealth.” Bp. Lowth. denly transfers the speech from himself to God, and sets / 18. Their bows also] The Persians were celebrated forth, under a variety of the most striking images, the for their archery, chap. xxii. 6; Jerem. xlix. 35. (see dreadful destruction of the inhabitants of Babylon which note on chap. xxi. 2.) Profane writers mention the magwill follow, ver, 11-16; and the everlasting desolation, Initude of their bows. Probably their neighbours and to which that great city is doomed, ver. 17-22. See allies the Medes too dealt much in the same sort of arms. chap. xxi. 10, and notes there. “The world” here sig- | Bp. Lowth. nifies the Babylonish empire, as it does the Roman em ! The Medes is a general name for both nations, and so pire, or Judea, in Luke ii. 1 ; Acts xi. 28. Bp. Lowth. I used and applied by Greek historians, as well as sacred
12. I will make a man more precious than fine gold; writers. Bp. Newton. Such shall be the destruction of men fit to bear arms : 19. – Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the see the like calamity described, chap. iv. 1. Or the words | Chaldees' excellency,] After Nineveh was destroyed, may import, that the Medes should spare no man's life. | Babylon became the queen of the East. Semiramus is though he could purchase it with gold ; see ver. 17. I said by some, and Belus, who is probably the same as W. Lowth,
| Nimrod, (see note on Gen. x. 9,) by others, to have Vol. II.