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Papias conversed with the disciples of the apostles about the beginning of the second century. He speaks of the gospels of Matthew and Mark as extant, and written by them *

Justin Martyr, A. D. 150. mentions the gospels as universally received and read in the congregations in his time. He must have conversed with Christians who were old men, and from them have learned that the gospels were extant when they were young. O ATÓSono. (says he) év tois yevouérois un' avtûv arournuoreu naoiv, å narátai Eva Syénia, śws wrapédwrar---And again, Tá anoponuortúgald tur 'Aposóaw orayırwoxeTa. Apol. 1. And his citations from the four gospels, from the epistles of St Paul, and from the Revelation, shew to a demonstration that he had them as we now have them, in the main.

In the interval between A. D. 70. and Justin, are the authors called apostolical, as Clemens, Hermas, Barnabas, Ignatius. These authors make use of some of the gospels and epistles, and allude to them ; which makes them highly valuable, and serviceable to the Christian cause. We cannot suppose that they had the inclination, we may positively affirm that they had not the capacity to forge them. Their own writings prove it.. .

Barnabas, in his Epistle, makes use of Matthew, Luke, John, and the Epistle to the Romans,

Clemens, in his first Epistle, makes mention of St Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians, and takes passages from Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts, Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Ephesians, 1 and 2


For yet a little while, and he that shall come, will come,” b'c. Hek: X. 36.

* Euseb. Eccl. Hist. iii. 39. sub finem.

of Peter, 1 Timothy, 1 and 3 of John, Revelations, and particularly from the Epistle to the Hebrews. He also speaks of the martyrdom of Peter and Paul.

In his second Epistle, if it be bis, there are passages from Matthew, Luke, 1 Corinthians, and Hebrews.

Hermas says, i. 2. Juravit Dominus per Filium suum : Qui denegarerit filium f serf ipsi denegaturi sunt illum

from Matth. x. 33. : 1. 6. Cum ergo venerit tribulation, propter divitias suas & negotiationes, abnegant Dominum--from Matt. xiii. 21.

I. 9. Videte ergo vos qui gloriamini in divitiis, ne forte irgemiscant ü qui egent, & gemitus eorum ascendąt ad Dominum from James.v. 4.

Ib. Qui amatis primos consessus; from Matt. xxiii. 6. Melius erat illis non nasci. from Matt. xxvi. 24.

II. Mand. v. Spiritus sanctus, qui in te est, angustiabitur ; from Ephes. iv. 30. • Si resistis Diabolo, fugiet a te; from James iv. 7.

II. Mand. vi. Donor De Tor Kúpor Tòr durcé ueror Wo ai xai amoticar from James iv. 12.

Such references should have been marked in the editions of the apostolical fathers. • In the apostolical constitutions also, and in the recognitions and the homilies of Pseudo-Clemens there are many passages taken from the New Testament; but as these books are not so ancient as they pretend to be, I pass them by for the present, and shall pay my respects to them in another place. '

The numerous and large citations from the LXX, and the New Testament, in the Constitutions, are however so far useful, that they help to shew how those places stood in the copies of the fourth century, and perhaps somewhat earlier.


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Ignatius, who in his old age, sụffered under Trajan about A. D. 107. and who was contemporary with the apostles, in his genuine epistles alludes to the gospels of Matthewe, of Luke, and of John; Paul's first Epistle to the Corinthians, those to the Colossians, Galatians, Philippians, and Ephesians, the first Epistle of Peter, &c.

Besides the places which are referred to in the margin of the Patres. Apostolici, I have observed several, upon a cursory perusal, to which, I am sensible, more might be added.

Ignatius ad Ephes. urunlah övles off. from Ephes, v. 1,
Ib. év asual. O č. perhaps from Acts xx. 28.
Ib. τε υπέρ ημών εαυτόν ανενελκόνιος Θεώ προσφοραν και θυσίαν.
from Ephes. v. 2. .

Ib. ii. órci une vpwr, from Philem. 20.
Ib. iv. péan örlas to yö auty, from Ephes, v. 30.

Ib. v. ci ost fvos ry deutéfy a poreuxń todavTN io xur' exet. pere haps from James v. 16. or Mat. xviii, 19, 20.

lb. ix.-nétor rað IIalposes cixadouniy from Ephes. ii. 20.

Ib. xiii. témos dè cyánn. from 1 Tim. i. 5.

Ib, xiv. @ueiró ésiowąr når dirol, naršrla un eroul nanir tò debdo xeiy, tav o réfw pom. from Mat. v, 19. vii. 21.

Ib. XV. oder narodvet Tor Kúpoor perhaps from Heb. iv. 12, 19. or Revel. ii. 23. or from other places.

Ib. xvii. tou apzorlog Tô ai@ros 7878. from John xiv. 30, and Ephes. ii. 2.

Ib. un aixuanalíon vuãs. from Rom. vii. 23.
Ib. xix. pusúpra--Ws šv éparspáln—from 1 Tim. iii.


Ib. xx. fra äplov xawles. from I Cor. x. 17.

Ib. xxi. coxalos üv Tür ÉxÊi wis@. from 1 Cor. xv. 9, pr Mat. xx, 26, 27.

Ib, xii. Ignatius takes notice of St Paul's epistle to the Ephesians, and of his martyrdom; and as he was writing to the same church, he often alludes, as you see, to the apostle's letter. Ad Magnes. 1. αγάπης, ής έδέν σροκέκριται. from 1 Cor. xiii. 13.

Ib. iii.-νεωτερικών τάξιν.-perhaps from 1 Τim. iv. 19.
Ib. V. εις τον ίδιον τόπον. from Acts i. 25.
Ib. 7 διον χαρακτήρα. perhaps from Rev. xiii. 17.

Ib. vii.--cis vós, uíd érnis-from Ephes. iv. 3, 4, 5, 6. Ib. viii. Η κατά νόμον ζωμεν, ομολογεμεν χάριν μη ειληφέναι. from Gal. v. 4. .

Ib. Χ. υπέρθεσθε την κακήν ζύμην την ταλαιωθεισαν. from 1 Cor. v. 7.

Ib. xiii. κατευοδωθήτε. ευοδεσθαι, a verb used in the New Testament.

Ad Trall. vii. μη φυσικμένοις. a word often used by St Paul.

Ib. viii. μηδείς [τι] καθα τα πλησία εχέτω. from Mat. ν. 23.

1b. Χ. -ώσσερ τινές-λέγεσι-εγώ τι δεδεμαι ; τι εύχομαι θηριομαχήσαι ; &c. froιn 1 Cor. XV. 15, 32.

Ib. xi. εκ εισίν φυλiα Πατρός. from Mat. xv. 13.
Ib. xii. ίνα μή αδόκιμος ευρεθώ. from 1 Cor. ix. 27.

Ad Roman. ii.-το σπονδισβηναι Θεώ. from 2 Tin. iv. 6. Ib. iii. τα και φαινομενα πρόσκαιρα τα δε μη βλεπόμενα αιώνια.. from 2 Cor. iv. 18.

Ib. vi. tí wpracta &c. from Mat. xvi. 26. But perhaps this is an interpolation. It is not in the old version.

Ib. vii. ο έμός έρως έσαύρωται-δωρ δε ζαν, η λαλεν εν εμοί--from Gal. vi. 14. John iv. 14. Ib. ix. έκτρωμα. from 1 Cor. Χν. 8. Ad Philadelph. vi.-τι εβαρησα τινα-from 2 Cor. xii.



Ib. ix. autòs ar súpa, from John x. 7.
Ib. x. auto YeYoukyous. from 1 Cor. xi. 20. .
Ad Smyrn. iii. ourépayer sj OUVérjev. from Acts x. 41.
Ib. iv.-u odpadéx80.901—from John Epist. ii. 10.

Ib. X. Ta deomo MB- Én do xúvbnle, read énoxúrönle. from 2 Tim. i. 16.

Ib, dè vuãs ÉTANO Xur@ngerou Xpisós. from Mark viii. 3: pr Luke ix. 26.

The Epistle to Polyearp, which is the last, is also inferior to the rest : there is some reason to suspect that it is not genuine.

Ad Philadelph.v.- for puyar Euclyenów, w odpxeInox je toīs drosómous wis opeo@ulepiwerxandios. Confugiens ad Evangelium tanquam ad carnem Jesu, et ad Apostolos ter lut ad Ecclesicc Presbyterium, fc.

Quce verba videntur de evangeliis et apostolicis scriptis intelligenda ; ita ut hoc velit Ignatius, cognoscendce divince voluntatis causa, se confugere ad evangelia, quibus crederet non secus ac si Christus ipse in carne, hoc est, in eo statu quo fuit in terris, conspicuus et etiamnum apud homines viveus, eos sermones, qui in evangeliis leguntur, ore suo proferret ; tum etiam ad scriptą Apostolorum, quos habebat quasi totius Christianæ ecclesiæ presbyterium, sub Christo omnium Episcopo, quod cætus Christianos omnes, quid credendum sit, doceret. Unde quanti fierent libri sacri Novi Testamenti, hisce temporibus, salis liquet. Addit : Sed et Prophetas amamus, quia ipsi nunciarunt, quæ pertinent ad evangelium, id sperarunt, atque expectarunt. Quæ respiciunt Vetus Testamentum, prout scriptum exstat, nam aliunde Prophetae Ignatio innotescere non potuerant. Nec leviter prætermittendum, ab eo, primo quidem loco Novi Testamenti scripta, per quce Christiani sumus, memorari, quasi perfugium suum ; secundo vero Veteris Libros, quia ex iis Novum confirmari potest. Clericus, Hist. Eccl. p. 567,

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