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itself to me, which may perhaps deserve notice : Ire. næus, writing against heretics, observes that they never had miraculous gifts amongst them, and thereby might be distinguished from the disciples of Christ. Then he proceeds to speak of the miracles performed by the latter, mixing those which had been wrought by the apostles and their immediate successors with those which, in his opinion, and according to common report, still continued in the church. When he speaks of resurrections he says, the soul returned, the dead were ruised, and remained our wuir, with us, † that is, with us Christians ; but he fixes not the time when they were recalled to life, and were to be seen. It is not evident therefore, even upon his own account of it, that the dead were raised, or remained alive at the time he wrote. It is remarkable that when he speaks of casting out devils, healing the sick, and other miracles, he uses the present tense, ÉTITERÖIY, éraurssit, jūrtoi, fc. but when he mentions resurrections, he has the caution always to use the aorist, ézéspeler, έχαρίσθη, ηγέρθησαν, παρέμειναν.

Irenæus says, that the dead were raised and remained alive for some years: Quadratus, who wrote his apology about fifty years before him, speaks thus ; Të δε Σωτήρος ημών τα έργα αει σαρών» αληθή και ήν οι θεραπευθείες οι ανασάντες εκ νεκρων οι εκ ώφθησαν μόνον θεραπευόμενοι, και ανησάμενοι, αλλά και αει παρόντες δε επιδημούλος μόνος του Σωτήρος, αλλά και απαλλαγέντος, ησαν επί χρόνον έκανόν. ώσε και εις τους και μητέpous xpórous tirès aútūr a píxorle. Servatoris autem nostri o

pera

• Nür dici potest, de re quæ ætate nostra facta est, idemque valet ac sò sceo' speãs, quod Eusebius usurpare solet de rebus multo ante gestis. Ut cum dicit de Porphyrio philosopho ó xccdo spcūs varonesvos Justinus de Antinoo ita loquitur, så vũy gevojárs, qui nostra ætate yixit. Valesius ad Euseb. iv. 8.

pera semper conspicua erant, quippe quce vera essent : i scilicet qui morbis liberati, aut qui ex morte ad vitam rem tocati fuerant. Qui quidem non solum dum sanabantur, aut dum ad vitam revocabantur, conspecti sunt ab omnibus, sed secuto deinceps tempore. Nec solum quamdiu in terris moratus est Servator noster, verum etiam post ejus discessum diu superstites fuerunt : adeo ut nonnulli eorum etiam ad nostra usque tempora pervenerint. Apud Euseb. iv. 3. Both of them use the same word ικανός. χρόνου ικανών, says Quadratus και ικανοίς έτεσι, says Ireneus. Did Irenæus copy Quadratus * ?

Ireneus

* Τοσίτον δε αποδέκσι τε νεκρόν εγείραι, καθώς ο Κύριος ήγειρε και οι Απόστολοι δια προσευχής και εν τη αδελφότητι πολλάκις, δια το αναγκαίον της κατά τόπον εκκλησίας τάσης αίτησαμένης μεθα νηςείας και λίανείας σολλής, επέσρεψε το πνεύμα το τετελευτηκότος, και έχαρίσθη ο άνθρωπος ταϊς τυχαίς των αγίων.-ει δε και τον Κύριον φανα. σιωδως τα τοιαυτα σεποιηκέναι φήσεσιν, επί τα προφήτικα ανάγοντες αυτες, εξ αυτων επιδείξομεν σάλα ότως περί αυτο και προειρήσθαι και γεγονέναι βεβαίως, και αυτόν μόνον είναι τον υον τε Θεο. διο και εν τω εκείνα ονόματι οι αληθώς αυτε μαθηται, παρ' αυτο λαβόντες την χάριν, επιτελεσιν επ' ευεργεσία τη των λοιπών ανθρώπων, καθώς είς έκατος αυτών την δωρεαν ελληφε σαρ' αυτε. οι μεν και δαίμονας ελαύνεσε βεβαίως και αληθώς" ώςε σολλάκις και πισεύειν αυτες εκείνες καθαρισι θένας από των πονηρων πνευμάτων, και είναι εν τη εκκλησία οι δε και σρόγνωσιν έχεσι των μελλόντων, και οπτασίας και βάσεις τροφή ικας: άλλοι δέ τες κάμνονας δια της των χειρών επιθέσεως ιωναι, και υγιείς αποκαθισασιν. ήδη δε καθως έφαμεν και νεκροί ηγέρθησαν, και παρέμειναν συν ημίν ικανούς έτεσι. και τί γαρ και εκ έσιν αριθμών ειπείν των χαρισμάτων, ών καλα σαντος το κόσμο και εκκλησία παρα Θες λασσα, εν το ονόμαζι Ιησε Χρισε τα σαυρωθέντος επί Ποντίκ Πιλάτε, έκάσης ημέρας επ' ευεργεσία τη των εθνών επιτελεϊ, μήτε εξαπατώτα τινας, μήτε εξαργυριζομένη, ως και δωρεαν είλεφε σαρα Θες, δωρεάν και διακοΡεϊ.--καθώς και πολλών ακέσμεν αδελφών εν τη εκκλησία τροφή?ικα χαρίσματα εχόντων. και σαντοδαπαϊς λαλάγγων δια το σχεύματος γλώσσαις και τα κρύφια των ανθρώπων είς φανερόν αγώνων επί το συμφέ ρονι. και τα μυστήρια το Θιε εκδιηγε μέγων. Tantum abest, ut mortuu72 Irenæus says that evil spirits were cast out of pagans, so as to return no more, and that they who were thus cured often embraced Christianity. Tertullian ad Scap. iv. and Origen in Reg. affirm the same.

Irenæus says not as some have imagined, that all Christians could work miracles ; he only says, o dirbös autê malilæi, they who are true disciples of Christ, which is not the same as wertes, and only means that

none excitent per orationem, quemadmodum Dominus et Apostoli fecerunt. Sed et sæpenumero inter fratres, tota simul unius loci Ecclesia ob aliquam necessitatem id flagitante cum jejuniis multis et orationibus, reversa est in corpus anima de functi, et Sanctorum precibus, hominis vita donata est.- Quod si simulatione quadam ac præstigiis hæc Dominum fecisse dicturi sunt, ad prophetarum oracula eos deducentes, ex illis demonstrabimus cuncta de ipso ita prædicta et gesta esse certissime, eumque solum esse Filium Dei. Unde etiam in ejus nomine, quotquot veri sunt ejus discipuli, accepta ab eo gratia ad salutem atque utilitatem reliquorum omnium ea faciunt, prout unusquisque ipsorum ab eo munus acceperit. Alii enim Damonas expellunt certis sime ac verissime ; adeo ut qui ejusmodi malis spiritibus liberati sunt, sæpe fideni amplectantur, et in Ecclesia permaneant. Alii præscientiam futurorum et visiones sortiti sunt, et propheticas prædictiones. Alii infirmos per impositionem manuum curant, ac pristinæ sanitati restituunt. Sed et mortui aliquoties, ut supra diximus, excitati sunt, et pluribus deinceps annis nobiscum remanserunt. Quid plura? non potest numerus iniri donorum, quæ per universum orbem Ecclesia a Deo accipiens, in nomine ejus qui sub Pontio Pilato crucifixus est Fosu Christi, quotidie ad opitulationem gentium operatur ; nec fallens quenquam, nec pecuniam corradens. Ut enim gratis accepit a Dco, sic etiam gratis ministrat.---Sicuti multos ex fratribus audimus in Ecclesia, qui propbetiæ dona consecuti sunt, et omni linguarum genere per Spiritum loquuntur, et ad bominu in wilitates, occulia in lucem proferunt, atque arcana Dei wysteria caponunt. Irenæus ii. 57. p. 166. Ed. Massuet ; or Euseb. v. 7a

none except true Christians had such powers. These learned men seem to have been misled by the translation of Valesius. Aiò xoà év éxtir óvójale oi danbôs aŭza uces 6x?qi o'zg'autó 18567€ç tho xäporunde etiam in ejus nomine, quotquot veri sunt ejus discipuli, accepta ab eo gratiaSo Valesius, who had no reason to put in quotquot. It should be, Unde etiam in illius nomine, veri ejus discipuli,&c.

The general sense of the passage produced here from Irenæus is this ; Heretics never had any miraculous powers, much less the power of raising the dead : yet this our Lord and his apostles have done, this the brethren have often by their united prayers obtained from God : the dead have been raised, and have continued with us for some years. The true disciples of Christ receive various gifts, and daily impart them as freely as they have received them; some foretel future events, others heal the sick, others expel evil spirits, &c.

I suspect that if Irenæus had been called upon to explain himself as to these gifts, and to prove his assertions, he would have said that the ejecting of dæmons, and the healing the sick were still performed upon certain occasions ; but that the speaking of languages, the disclosing the secrets of mens hearts, and the raising of the dead had been performed by apostles and apostolical men; and that he had mentioned all these miracles without discrimination of time, as gifts conferred on the faithful, and never on heretics.

In speaking of these miracles he alludes to the New Testament, and talks in the apostolical style : Kabas tic ** 1505 av Tôr Tiv dwpear trampe wap' art. from 1 Pet. iv. 10. 124505 xatws frobe zaproua -Again ; Míte 27 albu« tirds, púte ižagyupasquérn. from 2 Cor. xii. 16.-ów w opas fra@or. Mή τινα ως απέταλκα σρίς υμας, δι' αν τα έπλεονέκτησα υμας ; Α

gain ; 'ns 75'8wpear errnpe wapoè off, Supear ij Exaxove. from Matt. x. 8. Sapsan erozbett swpear fóre. Again ; tå xpúpiz tis parezör azoriw. from 1 Cor. xiv. 25. ġ OÜtw ta uputsä Tis καρδίας αυτού φανερα γίνεται,

After Irenæus, there is hardly any mention made of the gift of tongues in ecclesiastical history. One who hath written the life of Pachomius, a monk of the fourth century, says amongst other things equally marvellous and equally credible, that this saint had received a power to speak all sorts of languages. See Bollandus; or Tillemont H. E. vii. p. 224.

As to the ejection of dæmons, mentioned by Ire: næus; and other fathers, every one knows how often even the wise and the wary have been deceived in the affair of sorcery; witchcraft, and dæmoniacal opera. tions. The proofs must be very clear and the case easily distinguishable from bodily disorders, or from imposture, before a man should give a full assent to the testimony either of ancient or of modern Christians. The speaking of new languages, as we observa ed before, hath been supposed one of the marks of a possession. Hoc prodigii Dæmon imitatione prosecutus est, si creditur Hieronymo in vita Hilarionis : Videres de ore barbaro, et qui Francam tantum et Latinam noverat, Syra ad purum verba' resonare. Simile prodigium narratur a Gregorio Magno: Ammonius mihi jam in monasterio positus narravit, quod in ea mortalitate quæ Patrici * Narsi temporibus, hanc urbem vehementur affixit, in domo prædicti Valeriani puer armentarius fuit, præcipuæ simplicitatis, et humilitatis. Cum vero ejusdem advocati domus eadem clade vastaretur, idem puer percussus est, et ad mortem usque

deductus,

12

* I suppose it should be Patricii Narsetis or Narsis.

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