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Beipooles, ws Námenes per poi duten@va. qui Ecclesiam Dei desastant, sicut parvie vulpes vineam. vi. 18.

Ignatius, Epist. Interpol. ad Philad. iii. ēsu amwang, chopevs duna@ros Xpiss. est vulpes corruptrix vinece Christi.

Cantic. ii. 15. lido ate n'air XwTexas urspr's áparisorlove Quterras. Take us the little foxes that spoil the vines.

So, according to the Constitutions, and the interpolated Ignatius, the heretics are the little foxes who spoil the vineyards. I blame not the allusion ; it is pretty enough, and better than the remark of a commentator whom I will not name, who, explaining 1 Kings x. 22. Once in three years came the nuvy of Tarshish, bringing gold and silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks, says, that by the apes we are to understand heretics *. He bears somewhat hard upon the poor ape, who is an occasional conformist, and an imitator of his betters. What would they say to this allusion who reject Solomon's Song, and yet receive the Constitutions, and the larger Epistles of Ignatius ?

But it would not be fair to conceal a passage in Theocritus, i. 48.

-αμφί δέ μιν δυ' αλώπιχες" α μέν αν όρχως
Φοίλη σινομένα τα τρώξιμον.
-quem circum duce vulpes : altera per ordines vi-

Incedit, lædens maturas uvas.
And v. 112.

Μισέω τας δασυκέρκος αλώπεκας, αι τα Μίκωνος
Alti poilwrai ta wobec wipe paybor?.


He might as well have said, since he would allegorize, that the opes are informers and back-biters, for the bite of an ape is reckoned dangerous, and so is the bite of a sycophant. 45. 4. Cuxopárls is men. tioned as incurable by Aristophanes, Plui. 886.

Odi densicaudes vulpes, quæe vitis Miconis

Semper frequentantes, resperi ex illis uvas comedunt. For here also are foxes spoiling the vineyards; and who knows but somebody may take it into his head to say, that the Constitutions and Ignatius borrowed the hint from the poet?

This interpolated Ignatius cites the Canticles as a sacred book, Ad Ephes. xvii. Müpor yżs, pnoir, exterwièr Övohá oxu bace T8 To rednedes vyesa noon ot, tinxvoor os, éníta tis osteny poupar or Spaepimedan Unguentum enim, inquit, effusum est nomen tuum : propterea adolescentulæ dilexerunt te, trarerunt te, post te in odorem unguentorum tuorum curre mus. From Cant. i. 3, 4.

It seems to appear from the Constitutions, that the curing of dæmoniacs was a work of time, and that the attempt did not always succeed ; for the congregation is made to consist of the clergy, the catechu. mens, the energumens, or dæmoniacs, the owlezberot, or those who were preparing to receive baptism, the penitents, and the faithful; there is a form of prayer for the energumens, that God would deliver them, viii, 7. and it is said, that a dæmoniac may be instructed in the faith, but shall not be received to Christian communion before he be cleansed, unless he be in danger of dying, viii. 32. In a prayer for all mankind, tliere is a petition for the dæmoniacs_urip Tür χειμαζομένων υπό τε αλλόθρία-όπως καθαρίσης έκ της ενεργείας το oornpå pro iis qui ab Adversario jactuntur ut eos mundes a vexatione Mali. viii. 12. 'Edy Tis dací pora f xn, xanpexès un yoría Iw, drnce undè tois w150īs ouverxeolw. xalapeo deis dè, w zoo@exéo Iw, a šav in CS105, yuréoJw. Si quis Dæmonem habeut, ne fiat Clericus, sed nec una cum fidelibus oret : cum autem purgatus fuerit, recipiatur, et, si dignus extiterit, Clericus fiut. Canon Ixx.

Is it not probable that the ancient Christians accounted mad, and melancholy, and epileptic people to be possessed, at least for the most part? which would greatly increase the number of dæmoniacs. The Jews seem to have received some additional notions concerning evil spirits and their operations from the Chaldeans, and, after their return from the captivity, to have ascribed many diseases and disorders to these invisible agents, besides those which were not to be accounted for by natural causes ; and in this the ancient Christians followed them.

Lightfoot says, Judæis usitatissimum erat morbos quosdam graviores, eos prcesertim, quibus distortum erat corpus, vel mens turbata et agitata phrenesi, malis spiritibus attribuere. Hor. Hebr. Hence those swarms of energumens and exorcists mentioned in ecclesiastical history.

The Constitutions perhaps command, but most certainly permit infant-baptism. Βαπτίζελε δε υμών και τα νήTia, xai éxpéçéle avrà iv wordeia xj ve Anoią Oiš. but baptize eden (or also ) your infants, and bring them up in the nurture and admonition of God; which shews, that infantbaptism was practised when this book was written. There is no eluding this testimony ; it signifies nothing to say, that rutor is a word which may be extended beyond infancy, to thirteen or fifteen years : for, first, Christian education and instruction are mentioned as subsequent to baptism ; secondly, in general precepts the obvious and usual signification of the words is to be supposed the intention of the lawgiver; thirdly, it is plain to the last degree, that the word rý 105, or vazir, will not exclude infants of a day old,

Ut contra si quis sentiat, nihil sentiat; VOL. I.

fourthly, 169

REMARKS ON fourthly, the sentence is partly borrowed from Ephes. νι. 4.-με ταραγγίζετε τα τέκνα υμών, αλλ' έκθρέφετε αυτα εν σαιdeze vyberg Kupós, but, instead of témya, vaata is used, as denoting a more tender age. In the prayer for the faithful, a petition is offered np for Christian infants

-τη ντίον της κλησίας μνημονεύσωμεν, όπως ο Κύριος, τελειώσας αυτα εν το φε, αυτη ες μέτρον ηλικίας αγα/. Infantium Ecdeve reundemur, uti Dominus eos in timore sui reddat perfectos, et ad wemaran utatis perducat. viii. 10. Te rea , itinutes ad inataram cetatem perduc, viii. 13. Will any man be so unreasonable as to contend, that ita here does not include babes, and that infants, be. for they could walk and speak, were excluded from the benedit and intention of these prayers ?

Thus infant-baptisin may be proved by the Constitutions; but at the same time the silence of the Scriptures upon this subject, compared with the clear declarations of tire Constitutions, shews that these were drawn up after the apostolical age, vi. 15.

It is ixrvable, however, that vui, 32, where directions are given wlo shall be admitted to baptisch, no mention is made of infants.

The Constitutions make the validity of baptism to
depend upon a certain forin of invocation, and they
seem to make it depend also upon the piety of the
priest, which is a hard case.

In the ceremonial of baptism, when the person is
anointed, there is a form of prayer to be used; for,
say they, econo e 2253 TOY&isk you Tapa' ss tv-
Gebos ispices Tumit Ta, 65 287 m2 uz"26xíve ė Barlizoperos,
is 'Iudaici, gasztikai piva rà sta si scopz105,tir júzor zic
tuxñs. Nagin Supedque eorur talis quepian ino-
catió? D Sacerde whibeatur, qui baptizatur in aquam
tantum rogat, xi Juckri, et corporis tantum sordes,

stitutions age, vi. wiere di

stions of the the apostoji. 32.

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ibon autem anime deponit. Where Cotelerius says, L.o. quitur de baptismate ordinario adultorum, quod nisi sedia lo ac rite juxta totam cerimoniam tradatur a pio sacerdole, et suscipiatur a pio catechumeno, aniince sordes non depellit, nec suum obtinet effectum.

In the middle of the third century, great disputes arose concerning rebaptizing those who had been baptized by heretics. The Constitutions and Canons determine, that the baptism administered by heretics is invalid and null, vi. 15. which was the doctrine of Cyprian. In this controversy, no appeal was made to the Constitutions, vii. 44.

The Constitutions represent adultery as a rime which was punished with death ; ETiadenpòr aéywrtaya τον είναι, απατηθείς υπό το Πονηρά κακοποιήση, και έλε/χθεις καζακpelin Sarerw ws porxos, ñ poveus, xwpíšto je át’ auts—Si quis se fratrem esse dicens, Diaboli fraude maleficium commiserit, convictusque ad mortem dumnatus fuerit, tanquam adulter, aut homicida, digredimini ab illo. v. 2.

Constantine made a law to punish adultery with death ; and before his time it had not been a capital crime, in that sense, in the Roman empire. The Lex Julia de Adulterüs coercendis is discussed in Digest. L. xlviii. Tit. 5. but we are not clearly informed thero what was the punishment. It seems to have been relegatio, a kind of banishment. See Tacitus Ann.ii. 50. and the notes of Vertranius, and Lipsius; Ann. iv. 42. and the Excursus of Lipsius, and Novell. cxxxiv. 10. and a Treatise of Gerard Noodt, called Diocletianus et Maximianus, sive de transactione et pactione criminum. In some cases, however, the father and the husband had a right to kill the guilty person, surprised in the crime. 1 2

I men.

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