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tion of the human being consists in the books, and to correct and supply their deexercise, growth, and energy of the high- ficiences, and thus would be doing exactly er principles and powers of his soul. A what he will be called to do almost every bird may be shot upward to the skies by day in his future life. a foreign force, but it raises in the true Besides these books, there should be in sense of the word only when it spreads its every school room a full and authentic own wings, and soars by its own living standard Dictionary of the English Lanpower. So a man may be thrust upwards guage, and the scholars and teachers in a conspicuous place by outward acci- should make daily and hourly use of it.dents, but he rises only so far as he exerts This is as necessary as a black board and himself
, and expands his best faculties, chalk. It should be used to explain the and he ascends up by a free effort to a meanings of the words, to settle disputed noble region of thought and action.” questions of orthography and pronunci.
ation, and to stimulate enquiry and to seBOOKS OF REFERENCE IN SCHOOLS. cure and encourage accuracy in all things.
-Robert Allyn. If this is not thought advisable, there ought at least to be some good reference
A TRADITION OF books put into every one of our school. Nimrod one day commanded his three
THE ARABs.—King rooms. Every one knows how meager, for instance, are our common school geogra- to be placed before them by his slaves,
sons to enter his presence, and he caused phies. They contain the elements of that
three sealed urns. One of the urns was very useful science to be sure, but noth; of gold, the second of amber, and the ing more than the barest elements. And last of clay. The King desired his eldest When scholars have gone through with them they can be expected to know very appeared to contain the greatest prize.
son to choose among them that which little of the surface of the earth and its The eldest chose the vase of gold, on productions, its towns and its inhabitants, which was written “Empire.” He opened To remedy these deficiencies, every school it and found it full of blood. The second room ought to have a large and
chose the amber vase, on which was Atlas, or a set of well prepared maps and charts-such as are in use among men of found it filled with the ashes of men who
written "Glory:”. He opened it and business, and a well digested and arrang: had been famous on the earth.
The ed Gazetteer. No money could be better used than a small sum expended to pro- clay. He opened it and found it empty;
third took the remaining vase—that of cure for every district school an Encyclo- but in the bottom of it the potter had pedia, and a Dictionary of Arts and Sci- written one of the names of God.
For these would show something "Which of the cases weighs the most?" of the extent of the world of knowledge demanded the King of his court. The to which the school is designed to intro
ambitious replied, the vase of gold; the duce the pupil, as well as the mode of
conquerors, the vase of amber; the sages consulting original sources of information; and would form his mind to habits of dil- answered and said, "The empty vase, beigent investigation, and to habits of inde- cause a single letter in the nanie of God, pendent and self-reliant thought. And weighs more than the entire globe.” the grand object of all education, both in the school room and out of it, is to ele A Good Teacher will make a better vate and confirm in strong, intelligent and school under the most unpromising cirenterprising truth and goodness, the soul cumstances, than an inferior teacher could of every person in the community. These make in the same situation. But a halfwould not be used for the ordinary pur. competent school master will do as well, poses of recitation, but for reference in if not better, where everything has been the reading lessons, in the arithmetical previously arranged, so as to produce a problems, and in the general exercises of propitious combination for success, than a the school. The scholar would then learn first rate one could do, in the same school how to use these things to verify the as- if all was disorganized and operating in sertions and statements of his school hostility to his own plans and purposes.
is indifferent, and arousing it when it is
dormant, that we may hope to realize any SCHOOL SUPERVISION. rational ideal of a system of public in
struction. While educational truths the ANY of our best educators believe
most important, are in theory recognized, that some radical change in our school in practice they are ignored. Our Comsupervision is necessary. Town Superin
mon School system fails of attaining the tendents doubtless discharge duty as faith
objects for which it was designed, not on fully as other officers. Some are deserv. account of any fault of the system, but ing of more than mere praise, for untiring through ignorance on the part of those devotion to the cause of education. They whose duty it is to apply it to the wants have done and are doing a noble work, of society. New life should be infused but the nature of their duties is such, the into it, a new interest developed, and it is number in the State is so great, and the
only by some more direct and thorough inducement to properly perform duty is
supervision that these results can be seso small, that an efficient, direct super-cured. At present little attention is bevision, under existing circumstances, is
stowed upon our Public Schools. Time an impossibility. Besides, to do all that
and money are both squandered, for we the position demands, requires time that few can give, ability that few possess and pay the one for the privilege of allowing
our children to waste the other. The litsacrifices that few will be found willing tle public interest that is exhibited is not to make. Instead of the office of Town Superin- tional school, called a college-composed
unfrequently confined to some denominatendent, we could suggest the office of
of a score of boys, called students, while Judicial District Superintendent. The
the public schools—the real bulwarks of advantages of such a change we think
our safety as a nation, and of our happiwould be neither few nor small. 1. By employing a competent person
ness as a people with the thousands
attending them, are almost entirely overto superintend the educational affairs of a
looked. District large enough to require all his time and ability, it would be economy to
3. The supervision would be much pay him liberally for his services. Few more thorough than at present. New men are willing to use time and first rate plans of teaching would be introduced, detalent for the public good, without hope fects could be pointed out, and teachers, of honor or emolument. More than suffi- of all classes encouraged and instructed. cient to pay a liberal salary to a compe
Direct and efficient supervision is as netent School Supervisor, is misappropria- cessary to the success of educational affairs ted in every county annually, on account as in any other department of human ef. of ignorance of school house architecture;
fort. The principles that underlie merand this is but one of the many ways in cartile or agricultural prosperity are eswhich the public funds are wasted. sential to educational prosperity. There
2. From the labors of a man fitted for must be a feeling of accountability on the such a post, we might expect, as a result, part of teachers, a deeper interest on the a more enlightened public sentiment. It part of parents, and incentives to diligence is only by enlightening public opinion and industry on the part of pupils. To sewhen it is ignorant, interesting it when it cure these under existing arrangements,
WISCONSIN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.
experience has proved to be impossible. the power that now decides in regard
4. The number of those attending school to the qualifications that a teacher would be greatly increased. We are not should possess must be, by local influen. educating the rising generation to the ex- ces, exerted with little reference to the tent, nor in the manner that will insure public good, it is not surprising that those us against fearful social evils. It is not poorly qualified compose the larger numby legislation, or by lectures, or through ber. We know of no relation an incomthe press that society can be reformed.- petent person can sustain to community, These may be barriers to the progress of from which so much of eril must result, rice, but they do not destroy it. We as that of teacher. Better, far better, need an education that shall eradicate it, lock the doors of the school-room, than and plant virtue in the soil in which it is have it occupied by one unfitted to disnow flourishing Education, and edu- charge the duties he has assumed. The cation alone, can reform, and reformation schools can only be made better by semust commence with the young. As curing better teachers--and this, under well expect the leopard to change his the present provision for examination, is spots, as that those who have learned a practical impossibility. Under such a to do evil will learn to do well. Those change as we suggest, the District Superreformers who would inaugurate a new intendents could determine the standard era, immediately, who would overthrow of qualification necessary—and grant cersociety and re-construct it out of the same tificates of different classes, thus offering materials, are guided by impulse rather an inducement to make effort to excel.than wisdom. Society, so far as it can This system has been adopted in other be affected by reforms, is an out-growth; countries, and introduced into some plaand it depends for its character on what ces in our own, and the result shows the it expresses. It is, then, with the young wisdom of the course. that the true reformer will labor. Any
Such are a few of the advantages to be means that will secure a more general at- gained by the change. Others will readtendance upon schools, without which ily suggest themselves, which want of nothing can be accomplished, should be space forbids us to mention. We feel that used. In the State of New York during there is a practical failure on the part of twenty-nine years, previous to the estab- our system of Public Instruction to fully lishing of the office of County Superin- meet those demands which it must meet, tendent, the average increase of attend- if it does not disappoint the hopes that ance upon the schools was 20,500, but the the patriot and the christian have hung number increased to 45,000 under the new upon it. system of supervision. Such a fact fur
PUNCTUALITY. nishes food for thought.
5. A higher standard of qualification Nothing need be said in regard to the for teachers would be secured. Hun- importance of punctuality, but it is dedreds are at present occupying the posi- sirable to know the best means of securtions that teachers should occupy, who ing it. not only are not qualified, but who are 1st. Have a good clock in the school doing what must be undone, before the room, and a good watch in your pocket. true education of those under their Let them be carefully compared and regcharge can commence. Controlled, asulated. Scholars must have confidence
in the clock, and to inspire this it must be 8th, Let all requirements appear rea a good one.
sonable to the scholars. To appear so 2nd. Ten minutes before the opening they need only be so. Let them be of school, ring the bell. Let every schol- based on principle rather than whim.-ar be in his place at or before seven min- Show them that punctuality is essential utes previous to the time for commencing to success, and that tardiness is always inthe regular school duties, both before and dicative of indecision, indolence and disafter noon. Then spend seven minutes
honesty. or less in some general exercise.
After having used your utmost efforts, 3d. Allow no scholar, after school has
to eradicate tardiness, which, with its commenced, to enter the room until you
big brother, irregularity, is the source of go to the door and invite him in. Note
numberless minor evils, you will still find absentees, and, if possible, send notice immediately to parents of the absence of
a few incorrigible pupils. These should their children, asking cause, &c. If on he reported to the School Board, and by account of distance it is inconvenient to
them deprived, for a time, of the privisend word at the time, attend to the mat- lege of attending school, and if they are ter after dismission. Let all notes sent past reformation, duty to the school be neatly and grammatically written, and would require their expulsion. courteously worded. 4th. Never be tardy yourself. The
We would suggest to teachers the teacher who is once tardy, whether acci- propriety of having the school room supdentally or intentionally, has lost power plied with newspapers. The habit ofobwith his pupils. We know teachers in serving what is going on around us, is this state who have not been tardy during
not more valuable than that of knowing the last eight years—not one second.
what events are transpiring in different 5th. Always be in the school room at parts of the world. A half hour spent least half an hour in the morning and one
every Friday afternoon in calling attenquarter of an hour in the afternoon, be- tion of scholars to the prominent events fore the time for commencing school. — of the week, would be a most profitable
exercise. A taste for reading would thus Welcome your pupils as they enter the
be formed. Scholars would become inschool room and make it pleasant for them to come in season.
telligent, and we know teachers that
would be materially benefitted by prepar6th. Be precise in all you do. Fix the
ing themselves for such an occasion. time for the recitation of each class, and then do not deviate one minute from the not familiar with the world's history of
No person is qualified to teach who is programme, except for the best of reasons. to-day, as well as its history of two
7th. Endeavor to create a public opin- thousand years ago. The newspaper, we ion in school against tardiness in every repeat, should be found in every schoolshape. Unless this is done expect fail- room and should be read in every school. ure. Without a good public opinion, no If the teacher does not take at least half efforts of the teacher can accomplish a dozen papers—which we would by all much good. This may be formed by means recommend he should do let him precept and example, and example is induce his pupils to borrow them, and quite as potent as precept.
the result will be a better school,
State Vornal School, Teachers' Institutes, and
an Educational Journal. We learn from the Wisconsin Mirror, that a
Town Superintendent of Oregon, Wis., new School House, 26 by 36, is to be finished writes as followsby the middle of May, in Newport, Columbia
“We have been trying for the last eight county. It is to be finished and furnished in
years to get a little interest in our school sys. good style. The citizens raised one hun- tem by voting money and encouraging good dred dollars, a few days ago, to pay for a bell
teachers. for it.
I am heartily glad to meet your Journal, as Now friends be careful in selecting your it preaches the doctrines that I have endeateacher; the first school you have will deter- vored to inculcate. I have refused more eermine, to some extent, your educational charac. tificates this spring than for five years before. ter for years to come. Be sure you find a good the time has come when teachers must qualify." teacher, one who will labor to give your school a position of influence in the State.
The Racine High School has been fu nished
with single desks. This is an improvement By the way, next to a good school, we know of nothing more essential to the prosperity of that we hope to see introduced into all new
school houses, when practicable. a place like Newport, than such a neatly printed, racy, good-natured and well conduct The citizens of Kenosha are about to enlarge ed newspaper as the Wisconsin Mirror, We their school accommodations. A new building wish both “institutions” extensive patronage. will probably be erected immediately.
At the last meeting of the Ohio S. T. A. an The Racine schools commenced the summer effort was made to obtain pledges from teacb- session on the 5th inst. The term will be ten ers and others, for the payment of 1 1-2 per weeks in length. cent on their salaries, for the purpose of in The people of Madison havo adopted meascreasing the efficiency of the Association, to ures to secure the erection of a new School be paid in advance in two semi-annual equal House in each Ward of the City. payments. The amount thus raised was about
The citizens of Appleton are about to erect $550. Our Ohio friends seem determined to
a new School House. keep the position they have so honorably won. We rejoice, with an exceeding joy," in their A New School IIouse is to be erected at Kelprosperity.
logg's Corners. C. W. DAMON, Town Superintendent of Wau CHANGE IN THE EDUCATIONAL LAW OF YET watosa, has issued a circular, inviting the teach-YORK.-On the 3d of June next, nine hundred ers of the town to meet on the 17th inst., fur Town Sup'ts of Common Schools are to be rethe purpose of forming a Teachers' Associa- stored to private life--their office being aboltion. The object is certainly such as will com- ishod. The Board of Supervisors of each mend itself to every teacher.
county, under an act passed by the Legislature
last winter, hold a meeting on that day, to elect The Albany Evening Journal says
a School Commissioner for each Assembly dis“No red sarago from the Florida evergiades trict
, except in those cities where special proto the Oregon shore, would kill a robin in the vision exists. These Commissioners are to spring of the year. This is a vice of the black- have a salary of $500 from the United States guards and the cockneys of civilization. Shame Deposit Fund, and their duties are to examine on them!" Exactly 60.
schools and applicants for teachers. By the THE Teachers of Missouri are to meet in same act of the Legislature the educational tax Convention on the 21st, 220 and 23d of the is fixed at three quarters of a mill on the dolpresent month. The objects to be brought be- lar instead of the present tax of $800,000 and fore them are the organization of a State the Town Supervisors are to receive and dis. Teachers Association, the establishment of a burse the public money.- New York Tribune.