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partments of our intellectual and moral life's realities. We are daily taught the being. The very essence of exactness, it folly of depending upon outward surwill admit of no swerving from the path roundings for happiness. Even human of right. It guards against all loose hab- affection, that priceless boon may become its of thought and their invariable conse- a medium of disquiet or of positive torquent looseness of morals. It will allow ture. Death may sever the ties which no false reasoning, no specious sophistry, bind us to those we love, or coldness and no tampering with facts, no idle specula- estrangement may separate hearts that tions, no running after whims and sense- lived but in the light of each other's smile, less theories. It leads to deep and car- making life a weariness until the burdennest thought, to an intelligent investiga- ed soul shall long for the rest and quiet tion of all that may be presented, to see of the grave. if it will stand the test of sound reason How dark the cloud of despondency and sober truth. It developes just these which will enwrap the mind that, unculpowers, which make the reliable man

tivated and undeveloped, finds nothing good reason, sound judgment, accurate within itself to rely upon when its depenmemory, and a bridled farcy. The moral dence upon the outward fails. character too takes its shape to a very

But, when trained and disciplined by great extent from the intellect. Let not culture and a large experience-when the a written Arithmetic be placed in the exuberance of fancy is chastened and hands of the pupil till he is able to com- subdued by contact with the actualprehend fully the nature of the examples when the ephemeral visions and childish he is attempting to solve. Should his expectations of life's springtime are supertime in school not prove sufficient for seded by the more confident (because both, he is better prepared to pursue his better founded) and more glorious (beeducation in after life with a good thor

cause farther reaching) hopes of a well ough knowledge of Mental Arithmetic, developed manhood, then it is that the than if, without it, his brain be crammed mind like a never-failing fountain sends with all the rules of the numberless Arith- forth streams which gladden with perenmetics of our land. He has a slate and nial verdure the otherwise desert tracks pencil in his head, that he can use at any of the soul's pilgrimage. time and in any place. He has thought, a solid foundation on which to build.

Then let fortune frown and friendship Mathematics should occupy a portion of

fail, and the world go hy on the other the time during all school days. Alge- side : connected with all that is great and bra, Geometry, &c., may be pursued to glorious in the past, all that is hopeful in great advantage in school, when time per

the future, the man is elevated above the mits, in after years.

storms of the present, into a serene and Platteville, Wis.

pure atmosphere where the dawing light of a never ending day shall shed upon

him glimpses of the beauty and glory of CULTIVATE YOUR MIND.

those regions beyond the boundaries of This is a world of change. The hopes time and sense. Reader if you would unand anticipations of youth are seldom re- derstand and enjoy this, cultivate your alized in manhood. The visions of fancy mind, and do so with reference to its imfade away when we come to experience mortality.

J. L. P.

A. J. C.

THEORETICALLY AND PRACTICALLY CONSIDERED

NUMBER TWO.

COMMON SCIIOOLS. consider the true object of education,

which I conceive to be the proper culti

vation and development of all the facul.

ties and powers of the individual with Passing from the consideration of the reference to the relations he sustains to right or duty of the State to provide in- himself

, to his fellovomen and to God. struction for the children of the people,

Let the reader examine this definition, we come next to regard the means to be carefully analyzing the principles containemployed. How shall the child be ed- ed in it, and he will have a guage with ucated, his faculties and powers develop- which to measure the deficiencies and ered and strengthened in accordance with rors of every system of instruction. the laws of mind and the relations he Some teachers neglect to develop one bears to society ?

part of the child's nature, some another, Education does not consist in merely but the most fatal defect consists in not developing the intellect. Many have developing the faculties of the child with joined the crusade against ignorance and reference to actual existing relations. echoed the cry of popular education who Leaving this point for the present, let have no just idea or sense of the impor- us consider the kind of organization or tance of moral instruction or heart train- system required by our definition ef eding. Their idea of education is confined ucation. As we possess a physical, an to the acquisition of scientific principles, intellectual

, a moral and a social nature, philosophical deductions and abstract his- our system of education should be fitted torical truths.

to develope us in all these respects. “Star-eyed science," is the deity they Economical considerations undoubtedworship, and they have no patience with ly influenced the first founders of the those who insist upon the necessity of re- common school system. The inability ligious instruction.

of parents to provide suitable instructors On the other hand there are those who for their children at home, rendered it regard the religious element as the most necessary that they should unite their important component in individual char- means and efforts ; hence, the schoolacter and who have no faith in and will house and the congregating of the children give no support to any system of educa- therein. In many European countries tion which does not embrace some definite the children of the higher classes (females form of religious belief as a basis or fund- especially) receive the greater part of amental part of its teachings. Again, a their education at home under the guidgreat many regard the education of their ance of a tutor or governess, and I have children simply as the performance of a met with many parents who would purpersonal duty, growing out of the relation sue the same plan here, were it not for of parent, and they are governed by fash- the expense attending it. ion and custom as to the amount and This is a great mistake. If there were kind of instruction they furnish, the same enough of competent instructors and each as they are, with regard to food and rai- parent abundantly able to provide a teachment.

er for his children, it would yet be far betThe error of each of these classes of ter to educate them with others in the individuals will be discovered, when we common school room.

A. J. C.

NUMBER ONE.

This would be true if education consist But it is chiefly on account of its effect ed only in intellectual development.--- upon the moral and social nature of chil. There are few children who “lore learn- dren that we regard their education in ing for learning's sake," so as not to need masses essential to the perfection of a systhe stimulus which the excitement and tem of instruction—which points we will emulation of the school-room furnish.- consider in our next number. The contact of mind with mind, the desire to excel, and the pleasure arising TIIE GUARDIANS OF OUR PUBLIC from the faithful performance of a task,

SCHOOLS. are powerful incentives to intellectual exertion. An over-crowded class is objectionable; but few teachers like to conduct a recitation when less than half a dozen Town Superintendents, School and pupils are engaged on the lesson. Again, District Boards, are, by law, made the the active sports engaged in by school- guardians of the Public Schools of the

State. To them are intrusted the educachildren, are well calculated to develop the physical powers. The playground is

tional interests of the youth. The trust

is an important one, excelling, by far, as necessary an accompaniment to a schco! room as a black board. There should be any mere monetary consideration howseparate grounds for each sex, planted ever large; in as much as mind is more with shade and ornamental trees, and fur- precious and durable than gold and silver. nished with all necessary appliances to

It is to be presumed that the people, promote cheerful and healthy exercise.— whose children are to receive their eduAmerican females are too much like hot- cation under the direction of these officers,

will select men to fill these responsible house plants, they do not take enough

stations, who have qualifications for them. out-door exercise. They are mewed up in the house day

In doing this, they would only use the after day, often engaged in unhealthy sed- same discrimination which they are acentary employments, and when they do customed to use in securing minor interventure into the streets, they cover their ests which they intrust to others.heads with a parasol to exclude the sun, Wishing to construct a dwelling, they do their faces with a thick vail to exclude the not seek a plan of it at the hands of a

tradesman or of a professional man, but fresh air, preferring dyspepsia and consumption to a hightened complexion and

of a mechanic; of one whose skill in such full chest.

matters has been properly cultivated and It is useless to attempt to reform the

thoroughly tested. To such a one, in

whom is laid the foundation of responsimothers, but we may do something with the daughters. Let the play-ground be bility in such matters, is confided the supplied with swings, jumping ropes, dence here will not be misplaced.

construction of the edifice; and confi.

Also trundling hoops, balls and the like, and the exercise obtained during the walk to

they do not go to the lawyer for medical and from school, and at the daily recess,

advice, nor to the physician with a suit

at law. and intermission, will produce effects of has qualifications in the direction of the

That individual is sought who incalculable importance to the mental and physical well being of generations yet un

interest involved. And why not apply the born.

same rule when men are to be selected to

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whom shall be confided the education of shine through its gauzy texture and gar.
our children? Indeed, this is supposed nish cach thread with the mellow tints of
to be the case, and men allow to their virtue. Mind is every thing, and schools
sagacity its legitimate exercise here, as are its nurseries.
they do touching other interests which School officers, then, are not to be mere
they feel under obligation to protect and cyphers in their stations; nor bare clerks
enhance.

to see that dollars and cents are properly It is expected that this Journal will be counted, and that debts and credits balread by every City and Town Superin- ance. Dollars and cents are only as the tendent of Schools in the State, and by

oil in the machinery that aids to keep the the members of every Board of Educa- wheels and levers in easy motion ; but tion. And to them. I wish to address they are no part of the machinery itself

, myself in this communication; and be- nor do they enter, at all, into the abidcause much, very much, is depending ing results. It is well to have them, upon the manner and faithfulness in and and to use them discreetly, as the means with which they discharge their duties.

to an end; but let no school officer sup

pose that the centre and circumference of Our school laws contemplate that every his work lie there. officer, elected under its provisions, will wisely and efficiently fill his station un

The limits of this article forbid that I der them. In a young and growing state should call attention to more than one like ours, where foundations are being subject. But this is by no means an unlaid, and where seeds are being planted important one. They should give carefor future growth, there can be no sine- ful attention to school house arrangecures. As said Lord Nelson, when about ments, for these will exert a very decided to descend with his feet upon the French influence upon the pupils that will assemsquadron in the Bay of Aboukir, “Eng- ble there for a century or more to come. land expects every man to do his du- And first, where shall the site of the ty,” so now, Wisconsin demands that building be? This is a question that may her pioneer citizens shall be faithful be asked, with solicitude, cren a hundred to their trusts. What are our rail roads times or more in our state the present seaand harbors, mines of wealth and extend- son. For, many old districts will build ed fields waving in the yellow harvest, new school houses, and new districts will when compared with the jewels that be organized and buildings must be erectgather around our family fires, and are

ed in them, and these all must be located nurtured into men and women under the somewhere. See to it that the location is fostering hand of Education? This earth, a healthy one. Do not place your school from mountain top to lowest vale, was house either in or besiile a stagnant pool made for mind, and without mind to act of water, because it happens to be the upon it and through it, it is but a worth- geographical centre of the district; nor less ball in God's universe. Bones and upon the north-east side of a mill-pond, sinews even, without a motive power to unless you wish the pupils to shake with wield them and to make them esficient in the ague. See that the location is a pleasthe right direction, are no better than ant one. There may be a beautiful grove bones of iron and ropes of hemp. Beauty upon a slightly elevated spot of ground, is vain, except as the incloscd spirit shall and a neat and tasty building nestling

area.

there would remind one of “Academus' into activity, unfolded, matured and qualsacred shade," and there is the rery spot ified for the duties of the citizen, the pat. which you should advise the people to riot, the statesman and the christian ; select. Suppose it does cost money ; pay here, the moral man is to receive his conit quickly and cheerfully; it will be a trolling influence, and determining charsplendid investment. Two or three dol- acteristics. Here, those emotions are to lars apiece now for each family in the be awakened, those sentiments inspired, district, will expand into thousands, in and those principles inculcated, which the future cultivation of the cheerful, shall lead aright, and prompt to deeds of beautiful and lovely in the minds of their noble daring, and virtuous and holy acchildren. Or, if the location must be the tion. It is here, in short, that the imopen prairie, avoid the sloughs and low mortal mind, as it came from the hand of grounds; and plant trees plentifully upon Deity, with relations infinite and interests it, immediately, that no time be lost in eternal, is committed to the mechanist, their growth. And be sure in either case who is to give it vital energy, develop, that the site be large enough. Something mold and perfect it, and prepare it for more is needed than simply room to pass the end for which it was designed for around the building without rubbing both usefulness, for happiness, and for Godfence and wall with the elbow's. In this here that the rising generations are to be large world there is room enough; and it disciplined, educated and prepared for is not necessary to compress the educa- their responsibilities to society, to the tion of a child into a four by eight rods state, the church, and to their Creator. Large minds cannot grow thus

Too much care, then, cannot be exerconfined, unless they spindle upward cised, in an effort to render the influences upon a narrow base, liable to be over

of the school-room such as shall accomturned by a breeze that would serve only plish these great objects of study and disto fan the brow that canopies a noble soul. cipline: in selecting such studies and

School officers, as well as others, sho'a adopting such exercises, and discipline, look well to those foundations of things,

and in engaging such teachers, and sefor mind and eternity are involved; the curing such facilities and appliances, as one is the most valuable existence, and

shall instruct aright the intellect, enlarge the other the longest period.

the understanding, strengthen the judgRacine, Wis.

ment, give a healthy tone to the feelings,

control the will, refine the taste and spir: [For the Journal of Education.

itualize the soul, Every influence exertTHE INSTRUCTIONS OF THE SCHOOL. cd goes to form the character and fix the ROOM.

destiny, and every impression made is

eternal in its consequences, reaching beThe instructions of the school-room, if yond time into the infinite future, in its properly administered, are not inferior in effects upon the character and happiness value to those of any other department of of man. Then, if the schoolroom be unlife. It is here that the physical consti- pleasant and repulsive in appearance, the tution of our youth is to be developed in sensibilities of the student must suffer-strength, symmetry and beauty, and pre- if the school book be imperfect and wrong, pared for the arduous labors of useful its teachings will be wanting and incorlife; here, the intellect is to be awakened rect—if the teacher be deficient and un

M. P. K.

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