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wish to state some of the difficulties attending the instruction and discipline of a mixed school, and some of the advantages in the classification of pupils according to their ages and attainments. The one-school system brings into the same room all the pupils of the district, however different in ages and attainments, and so divides the labors of the teacher that his services become of but little value. It necessarily multiplies the number of classes, and affords but little opportunity for explanation and illustration, and for pointing out the practical bearing and utility of the subjects taught. It allows to the teacher very little time for awakening and disciplining the minds of his pupils by a skillful and searching examination into the amount of their knowledge and the process by which they obtained it; "the work of education going on in such schools cannot be appropriate and progressive. There cannot be a regular course of discipline and instruction, adapted to the age and proficiency of pupils; a series of processes, each adapted to certain periods in the development of the mind and character, the first intended to be followed by a second, and the second by a third, the latter always depending on the earlier, and all intended to be conducted on the same general principles, and by methods vary. ing with the work to be done, and the progress already made.

Such a system must embrace the lower and higher branches of an English education, and different methods of instruction are called for, which can never be pursued with success in the same school-room. The elementary principles can be made intelligible to the young only by a large use of oral methods.

The higher branches, especially the mathematical, require patient application and habits of abstraction, which cannot be secured amid a multiplicity of distracting exercises, movements and sounds.

Many important subjects of study must be excluded, for the teacher has no time to attend to them, and no regular and suitable course of study can be introduced, owing to the shortness of schools, and the transient character of the teachers. It is hardly possible to overrate the evils which result from a frequent change of teachers, * for scarcely any two have the same methods; and one who follows has no opportunity of becoming acquainted, by actual observation, with the condition of the school or the method of his predecessor. The one has departed before the other arrives. He enters the school, a stranger to the children and parents; unacquainted with the relative propensity and aptitude, the disposition and habits of the different scholars; ignorant of the course of discipline and instruction pursued by former teachers, and with the prospect of retiring himself at the end of two or three months."

It would be easy to enumerate many other evils resulting from a frequent change of teachers.

The following may be regarded as among the peculiar advantages of the graded system: It greatly increases the ability to erect convenient and attractive buildings for the accommodation of the schools. At the same time it increases the ability to secure the services of well qualified instructors. "A judicious course of study can be introduced and adhered to, with far greater facility in a graded than in a mixed school. Text books are selected with more care and judgment and less frequently changed; and hence, the progress of the scholar is less retarded, and parents are subject to less expense. The facilities for procuring libraries and articles of apparatus, are also greatly increased.

By this gradation of schools, a few large classes are formed, and the teacher is allowed more time for their instruction. Great advantage is derived from the excitement, the exhilaration and the enthusiasm which always arise from a companionship in study. “Every one who has taught in a graded school, will acknowledge the stimulating effect which a large class exerts upon every member of it, not only when reciting, but also when studying, by reminding him constantly that many besides himself are engaged at the same time on the same lesson, and that he will soon be required to appear in their presence and be measered by as well as with them.” The teacher has a fixed amount to accomplish. He has a less number of subjects to teach, and has more time to prepare for the different recitations.

In a mixed school composed of a large number of classes, pursuing as many different studies, the teacher has no time to study the condition and wants of his classes, but is driven by the multiplicity and urgency of his duties from class to class, until he necessarily produces in their minds the same confusion which he feels in his own, and his own mind is so quickly taken off from one exercise and directed to another, that there is not time for exciting any high degree of ardor or enthusiasm, and instead of kindling up a fire in other minds, it imparts a chill by its contact. In every point of veiw, the establishment of a graded school, with teachers adapted to each grade, is an object greatly to be desired.

COUNTY CONVENTIONS. In the discharge of my official duty, and desiring to meet as far as possible town superintendents, teachers and the friends of education generally, for the purpose of conference, I called and attended Conventions, during the months of May, June and July, in the following counties :-Walworth, Rock, Green, Lafayette, Iowa, Grant, Crawford, La Crosse, Sauk, Columbia, Dodge, Jefferson and Waukesha. These Conventions usually continued in session two days, the time of which was devoted to lectures, discussions, the reading of Essays on important educational topics, and reports from Superintendents on the condition and progress of education within their several jurisdictions. With a few exceptions a lively interest was taken in the meetings, and without doubt considerable good was accomplished through their instrumentality. The evening lectures were generally largely attended by attentive andiences. Our best Conventions, I may be allowed to say, the most spirited and interesting, were those of Iowa, Dodge, Jefferson and Waukesha counties. We had good lectures—with a single exception-good Essays, good discussions, good audiences, and a good time generally.

In addition to the above labors I have attended two County Institutes, and participated in their exercises. Of addresses and lectures I have delivered forty-four, in different parts of the State, and for this purpose have travelled 2,334 miles. Every where I have been kindly and warmly welcomed, and here express a grateful sense of obligation for the many attentions I have received in the hospitable homes of Wisconsin.

Should life and health be spared, the remaining counties will be visited by me during the coming year.

WISCONSIN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION. It affords me sincere pleasure to be able to say, that this new claimant for public favor has proved itself an efficient co-worker in the educational field of labor, and worthy the patronage bestowed upon it by the State. Freighted with the richest instruction, adapted both to the fireside and the school room, it has paid its monthly visits to every district, and the home of every Town Superintendent. It must create a new interest wherever it is received and read.

Assurances are given that the succeeding volume will be an improvement on the past-that in all respects it shall be made quite equal to the best Educational Journals in the land. If prudent management, talent, energy, hard work and brain work can avail anything, this assurance, I am confident, will be fully met and made good.

The publication of the decisions of this Department will ere long be commenced in its columns. This will render it still more valuable to our school officers, and to

the inhabitants of school districts generally. Especially ought it to be in the hands of every teacher.

TEACHERS' WAGES. Although the Reports show a steady increase in the amount of compensation paid teachers, yet that amount is still far too small, compared with the degree and kind of labor for which it is expended. Perhaps I ought rather to say that it is inadequate to procure the services of good and competent teachers, or is a poor, scanty pittance for the labors of those at all worthy the name of educators. The following table exhibits the average wages paid teachers, male and female, from the organization of our present system to the close of the current year: Years. Average amount paid

Average amount paid Male Teachers.

Female Teachers.
1849
$15 22

$6 92
1850
17 14

8 97
1851
17 15

8 35
1852
15 83

8 64
1853
18 17

9 94
1854
18 75

11 00
1855
23 10

12 08 1856 The highest average amount-comparing counties—was paid in Oconto county ; the lowest in Marquette.

As a matter of some interest, and as showing the general appreciation of the value of the teacher's office. I subjoin an additional table, in which the average amount of wages paid in the several counties is set forth.

AVERAGE AMOUNT OF WAGES PAID TEACHERS IN THIS STATE,

From the year 1849 to 1855.

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Brown,
Calumet,
Columbia,
Crawford,
Dane,
Dodge,
Fond du Lac,
Grant,
Green,
Iowa,
Jefferson,
La Fayette,
Manitowoc,
Marquette,
Milwaukee,
Portage,
Racine,
Rock,
St. Croix,
Sauk,
Sheboygan,
Walworth,
Washington,
Waukesha,
Winnebago,
Kenosha,
Richland,
Bad Ax,
Ontagamie,
Waupacca,
La Crosse,
Waushara,
Adams,
Marathon,
Oconto,
Ozaukee,
Polk,
Pierce,
Chippewa,
Jackson,
Monroe,
Trempeleau,
Buffalo,

15 26 11 48 15 22 12 67 19 91 15 00 20 52 15 66 23 64 11 10 19 97 13 74

6 00 13 67 7 00 17 08 6 08 12 16 8 23 14 50 14 50 15 837 57 17 007 57 11 75 5 3913 99 6 92 15 39 7 34 15 798 56 16 92 9 33 18 75 9 37 20 57 11 g 12 5012 50 11 58 10 56 15 1616 50 17 00 8 00 15 00 10 50 15 00 13 05 20 50 11 18 41 6 23 14 21 6 98 15 11 7 35 13 46 7 45 14 517 83 15 94 9 24 21 18 10 79 13 23 5 8514 12 6 46 15 10 7 23

16 37 7 63 16 70 8 39 19 11 9 85 12 16 5 78 14 666 68 14 777 93 13 52 7 50 14 23 8 75 17 28 8 86,21 40 10 40 19 49 11 44 20 29 10 69 20 7911 90 22 7410 92121 78/12 16 22 65 12 23 24 85 14 14 14 17 6 40 14 697 13 15 62 7 56 15 30 7 17 16 11 8 10 18 04 9 21 20 57 11 74

21 84 11 44 21 59 11 8218 45 9 28121 42 12 04 20 66 13 45 22 58 14 96 14 12 5 66 15 17 6 96 16 63 7 68 16 41 7 63 17 48 9 26 18 93 9 23 20 95 11 46 16 0017 80 19 70 10 21 28 87 11 32 18 7211 7921 45 10 85 21 87 12 28 25 47 13 77 23 50 8 00 22 00 11 50 22 00 11 50 19 67 13 12 20 58 12 38 22 25 14 07 25 23 15 01

4 75 13 14 6 65 15 00 7 00 13 906 63 16 76 7 53 17 72 7 64 17 89 893 15 69 9 43 17 04 9 90 18 80 11 12 17 45 9 40 17 20 11 6223 57 15 93 23 36 13 77 40 00 14 00

18 33 6 00 33 33 6 00 26 25 12 62 29 0011 75 15 94 7 28 16 28 8 17 17 87 9 03 16 498 50 18 15 9 81 24 25 12 49 26 63 13 92 14 05 6 72 15 15 6 8415 62 7 59 16 25 8 01 17 37 8 45 19 77 9 91 21 95 11 25 16 00 6 20

45 00 11 63 40 00 13 83 19 05 4 50 14 63 8 0520 00 8 00 13 74 7 07 17 528 91 18 60 8 15 19 02 9 48 18 88 6 52 17 91 7 29 11 767 74 16 11 9 05 16 87 9 28 17 41 11 1321 13 12 51 14 83 6 48 16 59 7 50 16 68 7 83 18 99 7 82 17 81 8 98 22 11 9 59 23 98 10 28 11 90! 6 14 15 04 07 14 80 7 0115 09 8 51 15 28 8 66 02 10 14 19 24 12 72 6 67 14 73 7 66 16 53 7 28 15 507 83 18 99 8 93/18 44 10 0021 28 11 2 16 00 5 76 15 37 7 4915 32 9 5213 88 7 73/17 93 9 65 18 07 9 6921 23 11 65

21 55 8 8819 36 9 68 17 271 9 27 22 909 87 24 8111 47 26 65 16 15 13 00 17 25 10 50 20 0010 0018 42 9 94 20 20 7 41 24 16 9 55

15 00 10 00 22 0012 00 17 12 8 86 20 58/10 20 18 66 10 95 15 81 8 85 11 931 9 92 15 00 19 8110 94 21 85 19 73

6 00 15 66 4 3313 25 7 75 15 73 7 83 19 20 10 25

14 03 9 33 18 25 9 75 16 00 87326 33 13 49 3 00 5 33 6 50 15 48 8 20 18 04 8 5

5 75 15 50 6 0721 50 8 65 15 00 10 00 24 50 22 50 25 008 0 30 00 16 00 35 00 14 50 34 50 18 00 16 61 9 86 17 80 11 52 20 15 14 16

8 00 18 00 35 00 34 17 20 20 00

16 33 84 00 20 0025 80 10 00

7 25 19 00 880 18 00 25 00 15

12
12 00

We learn from this exhibit of the average amount of wages paid teachers, that the man who saws our wood, or takes care of our horses and cattle; and the female who presides in the kitchen or the dairy-rooom, are better paid as a general thing, receive more per month, than those we employ in the work of educating our children and training them for respectability and usefulness. Now we may complain of the scarcity of good teachers till dooms-day, and they will never be other than scarce so long as we offer no better inducements for preparation, and no more adequate reward for ability and experience. "Poor pay, poor preach," applies in this matter. The supply, whether of a prime or of an inferior article, is generally equal to the demand. If the demand, in dollars and cents, be for poorly qualified and incompetent teachers, there will be found a very abundant supply—nay, the market will be glutted. On the contrary, if by the offer of libežal salaries and permanent employment the demand be for educated teachers—for talent, industry, energy and devotion—the demand will be met, perhaps, by those very persons who are now unfit for the duties of the school-room.

MUSIC IN SCHOOLS. There is something in genuine music-I mean that of the feelings and affections —that enchains the attention, that touches the delicate springs of the soul, and leaves a charming power to linger around the heart, long, long after the tones have died away. Thus, when almost everything else is forgotten, that earliest remembered song of a mother, breathed in soft and tender tones, is with us still, and we seem to hear it in the hush of the calm night though the lips which uttered it have long since been mute and tuneless in the deep silence of the grave. Even when deeply defiled by sin, and we wander an outcast in the earth, a simple strain of music will awaken some old memory, as if it gushed from a mother's door, and sweep our thoughts away back, we can scarce remember when, and make us feel better men.

Music has a divine, a wonderful moral power. There are but few hard and obdurate hearts which it cannot soften and subdue-few souls so insensible that it cannot unlock the sources of their better feelings. There was formerly at Sing Sing, N. Y., a lady, who, from as pure motives as ever lodged in a human bosom, discharged the duties of matron in the female prison; I allude to Mrs. Farnham. On one Thanksgiving-day she collected the convicts in her parlor, and sang to them, accompanying her voice with the music of the piano. As the rich melody fell upon their ears, and its melting power penetrated their hearts, those abandoned, wretched creatures wept like children. Leprous though they might have been with crime, they were yet human; and those songs, perhaps the same that a mother sang to them in their childhood, brought up remembrances of early and innocent days, and subdued them unto tears.

A power so elevating, refining and subduing, ought ever to be employed in the school-room, as an important agent in the development and discipline of all that is noble and good in the souls of children. Every school should have its hymns and songs, in which all may join. The exercises of every day should be interspersed with singing. How this would add to the cheerfulness of the school room-allay irritated feeling--and relieve from the weariness of study! A teacher who has music in his soul, and puts music into the souls and voices of his pupils, will have little or no difficulty, as a general thing, in managing and governing his school. If

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