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ent summer.

State UNIVERSITY.-Courses of Lectures the part of architects, and the liberality that will be given, during the summer term, on the has been shown by the people of the Key Stone following subjects :-On the Physical Sciences, State in publishing it, is worthy of all praise. and their application to Agriculture and the Thomas II. Barrows, Esq., is the editor, and Arts, daily, at 10 A. M., by Prof. Carr; on the has shown himself admirably qualified to diArt of Teaching, Mondays, Wednesdays and rect in this important department of the eduFridays, at 5 P. M., by Prof. Reed; and on cational morement. Physiology, Tuesdays and Thursdays at 4 P. M., by Prof. Fuchs.

OUTLINES OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY.By These courses are open, just as they should George Weber.— We have read this compend be, to citizens and strangers, and we doubt not with much interest, and we think it well calcuwill be of great benefit to those who hear them. lated to awaken an interest in the pupil's mind We rejoice in these unmistakable indications of and excite his zeal for inquiry. Clearness and life in our University.

animation characterize every page, and the H A FINE School House will be erected care with which the translation from the Ger. at Oak Creek, Milwaukee Co., during the

man has been made, as well as the repntation pres

of the American Editor, Francis Bowen of No better eridence could be furnished of the intelligence and public spirit of Harvard College, leave us in no doubt as to the the citizens of this thriving town.

accuracy of the work.

This is not a mere register of the events of

history, but the materials which have been BOOK TABLE.

selected, bave been arranged in historical suc

cession. We cheerfully commend this work to @PRAGUE's NATURAL Philosophy. This is a the attention of teachers wishing a good mannew work and exhibits a familiar acquaintance ual for private use, or a good text book for with the manipulations of Natural Philosophy. their schools.--Published by Hickling, Swan The folly of attempting to teach this branch and Brown, Boston, Mass., without apparatus suitable for illustrating the principles, is very nerally acknowledged

GREEN'S BOTANY.—This work is well spoken and we think this work will be found of gront of by those qualified to decide concerning its value, both as a class book and as a reliable merits. It consists of two parts—the Primary guide for teachers or those wishing to purchase Class Book and the Analytical Class Book.or constract apparatus. The illustrations are

The former will be found suitable for the Disvery fine and the directions for using appara-trict School, and the latter for the Academy tus are very specific, and the principles are or High School.--- Published by D. Appleton & discussed with that clearness so essential to a Cn., New York. proper understanding of the subject. Pub

THE STUDENT AND SCHOOLVATE.-A neat lished by Phillips, Sampson & Co., No. 13, Winter street, Bostott.

wide awake monthiy, designed for families and

schools. Each number contains Declamations PennsylvANIA School ArcutECTURE.— and Dialogues, and is also intended for a The object of the Legislature of Pennsylvania monthly Class Reader in School. Published in publishing this work, was to furnish the

by N. A. Calking & Co., 348 Broadway, New Districts of the State a safe guide in School

York. House Architecture. The wisdom of such a course will be more evident when we remember that even in our own state thousands of dollars FAITH.-The eye in which is doubt will swim are annually wasted in building inconvenient, irresolute, the arm of the doubter will hang ill-arranged, poorly ventillated and ill looking powerless. It is only the calmness of truth houses.

that must steady the one, and the energy of In this volume we have the results of expe- truth that must nerve the other. Falsehood is rience on the part of teachers and of study on perfect blindness and perfoct death.

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, .

VOLUME 1.-AUGUST, 1856.—NUMBER VI.

BEST METHOD

OF TEACHING

COMMON SCHOOLS.

(From Am. Journal of Ed.

is taught in every school. In Holland it MORAL EDUCATION.

is required to be taught, according to law, in every parish as a separate branch, and

the clergymen must transmit his marks of MORALS IN merit; of each pupil, to the public school

teacher, and those marks go to make up the relative rank of the pupil in that pub.

lic school. In our country it is forbidden BY REV. CHARLES BROOKS, OF MEDFORD, mass. by law to teach sectarian dogmatics in

public schools; but not forbidden to teach

morals. The question before us now is, Tøis world is our school-house : God how can morals be most effectually taught is our Teacher and the Bible our class-book, in our common or public Schools ? and yet there are in the United States, Can there be a more difficult problem two millions of children between the ages for solution? It confessedly stands at of 5 and 15 who receive no moral culture; the head of perplexing questions in this so many heathen in the midst of Chris- department on account of the jealousy of tianity; barbarians in the midst of civili- different religious sects. I undertake it zation! Do you ask, what are we going with extremest diffidence; but without to do with this increasing army of future angling for sympathy or wasting time in voters, who begin to think they hold the apologies, let us to our work. balance of power and are therefore pre What is it to teach morals in a school? paring to take command of the country.- It is to impart moral ideas to children's That is not the question. The question minds by words; and then, by exercise is, what are they going to do with us? - and example, to make those moral ideas I can find but one way of disarming the become active principles, embodied in the native savageness, and of preventing the life. The intellectual idea is first, as a probable future venality of this mass of cause; the good life is second as an efour own and foreign population ; and that fort, is, by having a law that shall compel every Under the head of morals I include all child to go to school, and then by having principles which should regulate the conmoral nurture secured to every pupil. duct of men: viz, justice, veracity, tem

That morals should be taught to every perance, industry, chastity, economy beschool I take for granted. That they can neficence, love of truth, love of order, conbe taught in every school I also take for scientiousness, obedience to law, obedi. granted; because they are taught in hun-ence to parents, veneration of age, duties dreds of schools in the country. In the to brothers and sisters, duties to the Kingdom of Prussia, religion stands first young, to the state, to the cause of right, in every catalogue of school-studies and it liberty, and love. To do violence to any

of these principles is to do an immoral school-house, as the grinder of aromatic act; it is to go contrary to the will of God seeds carries with him wherever he goes, and the commands of Christ.

the fragrance of his workshop. Having defined what is meant by mor My first mode, therefore, of securing als, and what it is to teach them, the moral teaching in the school, is to secure modus operandi is the next question. it in the family.

I apprehend there are four ways or The second method of teaching morals methods by which these moral principles in schools, is by the conce and example of may be taught in the schools of the United the teacher. This method is direct The States. Three of these methods are di- whole practical philosophy of the school rect; one indirect. The indirect method system may be summed up in these eight I will mention first; and it is through words, “as is the Teacher, so is the the

school." The nineteenth century deFamily. If parents communicate mor- mands a higher type of teachers; teachal ideas to their children's minds by fire- ers who are more than a match for the side instruction, and communicate spir- intense mental activity of the age, and ritual glow to their hearts by eloquent who can more than master its tyrannous goodness of life, then their children go to selfishness. The 19th century imperiousschool prepared and willing to receively demands, also, that the high and samoral culture there, and prepared also to cred office of teacher should be made a set before the school, winning lessons of fired profession, and that school instrucmoral beauty. Such children become so tors should be as fully prepared for their many silent teachers of morals in the duties as the clergyman is for his. Teachschool. If children receive no spiritual ers, teachers, yes, I say teachers have an development at home, then they go to inconceivable and paramount agency in school with calloused hearts. In one shaping the destinies of the world. If sense, therefore, parents are to decide the question be put to me, --which is the whether moral culture can or cannot be most important to the highest and most prosecuted in the school.

durable interests of society, viz; to have Again. If parents in their families, a competent pulpit orator for 1000 grown will speak respectfully and affectionately up persons, or to have a competent school of the teacher of their children, then teacher for the children of those 1000 those teachers can get hold of the minds persons, I answer, that in my judgment and hearts of their pupils; but, if pa- it is the most important to have the comrents speak distrustingly or contemptu- petent teacher; inasmuch as the foundaously of the teachers of their children, tion and walls of a building are more then those teachers can do their children important, on the whole, than its finish very little good. Parents, therefore, or its furniture. We have reached a pe. have it in their power morally to riod of the world when society needs strengthen or build up the school or to whole men; men, whose physical, intelweaken or destroy it. The family is lectual and moral powers have been deGod's primary school, introductory to the veloped in their natural order, proper public school. In the family everything time and due proportion; men, in whom and everybody teaches There are inti- each of these powers occupies the exact nitely complex and indescribable feelings, place in the grown-up character, which which there give the greatest force to God ordained in the infant constitution. ideas and an unconscious influence to How can we have such men except by conduct. These manifest themselves in the early unfolding of their various pow. the glance of a mother's eye, the tones of ers? I say early. This work must be a father's voice, and the manner of a commenced as soon as reason dawns and faithful friend. It is this mysterious conscience speaks. What so necessary something, which is all around us like an as competent teachers of the young mind, atmosphere, that truly and permanently and competent guides of the young heart? shapes youthful character. The children It is competent teachers, therefore, that think the family thoughts, catch the fam- I would use for inculcating moral truth ily manners, and follow the family aims; and Christian virtue in our common thus carrying the family morals into the schools. A stupid, unfaithful and vicious

teacher, in a company of innocent chil- follow the reading of God's holy word), dren, is what the serpent was in Para- he will take great pains to pray like a dise.

child, and not like a man; and in all reIt comes then to this,--that, if we have ligious services he will be specially moved accomplished, purposely prepared, faith- hy brevity and humiliation, by earnestful and Christain teachers in our schools ness and simplicity to touch the deepest we can have and certainly shall have fountain of feeling in his pupils. By morality taught in them, both by precept this reading of the Scriptures and offering and example. If we have not such of prayer he will teach them that they teachers, we have no right to expect such should begin everything with God; that instruction. As is the teacher, so is the they should never plan what they dare school. Nothing can be truer. Compe- not ask him to aid, and never do what tent teachers, whose learning is sanctified they may not ask him to approve. Over by piety, and whose characters are all ra- the school-room door of one of the Nordiant with love, will assuredly impart mal Schools in Germany are these three their nobility of soul to their pupils.- words, “Pray and Work." This comTheir spiritual magnetism will go out mand our Christain teacher would obey, from them whenever innocent childhood and persuade his pupils to obey. Thus presents itself as a conductor. Such he would make morality permeate all teachers will unconsciously throw into true culture, and seize every little incithe daily lessons some moral suggestion, dent whereby he could expand the idea moral hint, moral maxim, or moral query of right or deepen the love of truth. I -thus giving moral polarity to every say, that the teacher who is thus filled thing. Morals will thus act the part in with Christ's holy spirit and God's holy the daily instruction, which oxygen acts love, can no more abstain from teaching in the atmosphere; insensibly mixed morality in his school than he can abwith other ingredients, yet the life of stain from breathing. My second practhem all. Such teachers will be consis- tical method therefore, of teaching mortent. They will strive to be what they als in schools is to have competent teachteach; and thus throw over all their in- ers, who are fully able and ever ready to struction the beautiful illustrations of do in this department, what God and na. their own example.

ture require to be done. Now it is very plain, that such tench The third practicable method of teachers, who project themselves into the mo- ing morals in our public schools is hy tives and affections of their pupils, will books. The Bible should occupy the gradually, but insensibly, become a rule, first place in schools. Whether it should a conscience, aye, a Bible to them. The or should not be introduced, is a question sight of such an instructor will be to them I would r.ot consent to entertain; for, if as the beauty of holiness; because they God's own word is not to he read by his know his heart is mored by generous im- children, I know of no book that should pulses, and his life governed by lofty be. principles. In one sense he represents There are good moral class-books God to them. Such a teacher knows which might be used with great effect hy that our earthly life and our immortal the teachers. There is a small book hopes are intended to form character, and called “Morals for Schools," written by that character does not come of mathe- a lady Maine, which has done much matics and logic, so much as from the service; but the best work of the kind, I daily exercise of the intellectual and mor- think, is Dr. Wayland's “Moral Science." al faculties united, and from the daily This great and good man has secured the practice of good deeds. When he reads lasting gratitude of the philanthropist the Sacred Scriptures each morning (and and the Christain ; and now, after a long, no school should ever be opened without useful and brilliant career, retires from reading them), he will select those part. his high position amidst the benedictions which will most readily attract jurenile of the courtry. Let me now sseak of curiosity and mo seriously impress our school-books, and I say, that books, youthful hearts. When he leads in their like teachers, must have morality in devotions (and this service should always them, else they cannot impart it. Books

164

WISCONSIN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.

therefore, must be made with special ref Examine all the school-books used in crence to this paramount object. The the public schools of the United States; reading books should contain interesting and you will say that nineteen out of stories, dialogues, poems, parables, por- twenty go upon the supposition that the tions of natural history, description of intellect only is to be cultivated. You storms, seasons, atmospheric phenomena, would hardly guess from them, that a biography of good men and women who child had a heart to be sanctified, as he have resisted temptation, and attained has a head to be enlightened. I

say,

then eminence by their moral force of charac- that we need school books upon a new ter, biography of bad persons who have plan; books which embrace the whole come to poverty, disgrace and ruin by complex nature of childhood; books yielding to temptation. The most val- which look at the world, at man, at truth uable information, and the most attraç- and duty, from God's angle; books which tive moral principles may be so united so communicate the divine ideas in in a reading book, as to be imperceptibly science, and in life, that they can make introduced together to the young mind. us think God's thoughts after him. I The grammar book should teach its see no reason why we should not have science thoroughly, but its principles such books; and when we do have them, should be illustrated by short and pithy what a mighty power will they become maxims which contain the moral element. for infusing the eternal principles of If the author of a grammar wishes to do Christ's morality into the soul of inquisiit, he can make its pages luminous with tive and impressible childhood. And Divine truth, without exciting the least this is my third way of teaching morals surprise in any pupil. So the author of a in schools. geography, without any violence to his pu- My fourth and last method is this--to pil's feelings, can show the earth to be full introduce roluntary discussions on moral of the riches of God, and thus make the topics. The head master should preside foot-tool of the Almighty an altar of de- over, and direct them. Such discussions votion. History, how it shows, at almost would incidentally teach children gramevery step, the development of a vast, al- mar, the art of expression before nummighty, moral government! Ilalf the bers, the laws of fair debate, the princifacts of history are luminous with the ples of just criticism, the laws of order, steps of a divine providence. Why sho'd &c.; but, my plan is to use them for not a history beam a similar radiance ?- | teaching moral truth with exceeding Take astronomy. How irresistibly that distinctness and power. A book of descience leads to our trust and adoration hatable questions, embracing history, of God; and while it assures us that" an biography, government, domestic life, undevout astronomer is mad," should not play, work, virtue, vice, &c., should be the books that teach this sublime science, prepared with special reference to such a be full of light from the Son of Right- school exercise. If such a book does not eousness? Then there is arithmetic; exist, let the teacher give out such a and even from this least promising of de- question from his own mind as he knows partments, a child may be taught to num- to be fitted to his pupils; such questions ber his days so as to apply his heart to as the following: religious wisdom. If the makers of 1. Can a person be justified in telling school-books resolved to give to every a falsehood under any imaginable cirbook a true moral and spiritual polarity cumstances ? they could do it without betraying the 2. Is every citizen morally bound to religious sect to which they belong. vote in the election of town, state, and

I hardly, therefore, need say, that we national officers? need books with a vastly higher type of 3. Is every person who owns property, character than those in common use. We morally bound to have a written will and need books which do not put asunder testament? what God has joined together. We need 4. How far is a good brother or sister books charged with moral electricity, morally bound to help a bad brother or which will flow by an insensible stream sister ? into the student's open soul.

All human life and human history

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