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of the earth. The majority of students Stearns, General Bem's Charts; which never would take the prins to construirt had had such surcess in France, that they a map i : their imagination, by the heln had been, after ample experiment of their of the printed words that they learned to efficiency, furnished, by order of the Gor. repert; and those few who, hy necessity, erment, into “ toutes les ecoles premieres thought on pictures, were liible to mis- et les colleges royaux.” state and place the nations in very differ. By help of this method, all practical ent relations from the real ones, and this difficulty is removed from the study of would be a lise-long impression in their history. Those outlines and general views
I have heard old people relate which were so inappreciable by the memamusing facts proving this last observa- ory, when they were hidden in words, are tion. I remember the time when the caguerreotyped on it, with scarcely perschool atlas was first introduced, and how ceptible effort, when the dates are conied our fathers and mothers were entertained by the student himself, in a symmetrical by looking at our maps. And I recollect nicture, brilliant with colors, each one of how one cultivated woman, very well read which discriminates the career of a nation in history, exclaimed in surprise at the in time, so far as there is extant chronomap of Europe, because she had always logical data for it. carried in her imagination the picture of It is the ingenious representation of the it with Spain between France and Eng-time, in a block so divided and subdivided land, and this--notwithstanding her hcar-that any year of the 2,500 in the ancient ing so frequently of the Straits of Dover! chart, or of the 1859 of the modern chart, And again I remember a whole company can be discriminated at once, at the loof gentlemen and ladies, among whom cality of its present representation, by the was Judge Story and John Pickering, who glance of the eve, whether intuitive or guessed that Madagascar was in west lon- reminiscent, which solves the most diffigiture. The school-atlas now gives to cult problem of education ; because it every boy and girl of twelve years old, in brings the outlines of the story of huone season, more correct ideas of the to- manity into the mind of the youth, through pogriphy of the globe, than the most cul- the sensuous fancy, at that age when imtivated used to acquire in a lifetime. pressions are indelible. Children who
As much vagueness and unsatisfactori- make this chart, as they first study hisness attends the study of history now, in tory, will never know that there was most schools, as formerly attended that any difficulty in remembering dates, or of geography ; and no more. No chart seeing ends froin their beginnings in the on the principle of the stream of time doings of nations. And the grown np, meets the difficulty, for none gives enough who will condescend to make it, as some assistance to the eye, which is the natural old men of more than 50 years have done, memorizer, but which can not divide a will be able to rectify a hundred preconline into more than five parts without be- ceptions, and put all their knowledge into ing dazzled, while it is necessary that the order. symbol of time should be divided into We may hope, therefore, if this plan 2,500 or 1850 parts at a glance. Mrs. gets diffused through the schools of the Willard's “Temple of Time," the most in- country, that history will no longer be left genious chart ever besides invented, gives, out of education, as it has been, only beafter all, only a general perspective view cause there was such intrinsic difficulty of chronology, and no particular dates. in teaching it adequately, that those who
For all these reasons it was, that in 1819, appreciated its value most highly, consome of the most distinguished members cluded that it could not be a' school-study, of the Board of Education in Massachu- but must be left for the mature mind to setts (including the learned Secretary, now acquire when school-days were over. The President of Brown University in Rhode experience of teachers was, that to give Island) suggested to an experienced teach-its generalities reduced its volume to such er of History in Boston, to arrange for a bare skeleton of names and dry stateAmerican schools, but primarily for the ments, as was more liable to disguist and State Normal School of West-Newton, repel interest and general courage to study then under the charge of Rev. Eben R. than to conciliate and excite the imagin
ation and will; while, on the other hand, what periods of history are still subjects of it was plain that, in school days, there was chronological controversy. The discrepnot time enough to get these innumerable ant date, with its authority, may, in such details, which make up universal history. a case, be written on the margin of the
But we here speak of the common century where the Chart date is represenschools. It is desirable, in all cases, that tel. The Chart follows the computations these Charts should be learnt before de- of the authors of L'art de verifier les tails are extensively studied. But it has dates, rectified only so far as Karl Otfried been the experience of those teachers who Muller, Niebuhr, and Arnold have settled have followed the method, as detailed in particular events. It makes a Chronology the “Guide to Recitation" most faithfully, more literally scriptural, on the whole, that it stimulates to the Reading of His-than Usher's, which is commonly follow
tory at once: and I have testimony from ed in English and American school-books | many well-known teachers, that they nev- and Bibles; and it harmonizes better with er had so much ground gone over thor- modern discoveries among the ancient oughly, even in school-days, as by stu- monuments. Doubtless, radical rectificadents of this Method, who spontaneously tions may be made by-and-by, "hen hisconsulted all the books within their reach, torical science, properly so called, has to enrich their outlines with associations made great advances; for now it is hard
Bem's method, as arranged by the ly a century old Guide to Recitation," with manual, al The proposition that History itself is a so, supplies the place of competent in- new Science, may startle some readers.structors of history, which are sadly want. But it is true. It is only Peoples, free ing in American schools. Any earnest Peoples, that write history. The sacerteacher can teach the Charts by following dotal governments of antiquity strove the Guide implicitly, -learning himself rather to conceal the Past, with its revelawhile drilling the pupil. An invaluable tions, from the darkened multitudes that | attaiment is made, even if the student they governed, than to instruct them gains nothing more in his school-days in it. And how should historic genius be than the minimum, a knowledge of the stimulated, under despotic monarchs ?-Chart. But if the teacher knows, or has it is true that modern diplomacy in Eutime to read the books indicated in the rope has made venal historians. Nothing manual, he can give oral instructions at is less seliable than most histories of modo the recitations, or after the Chart has been ern Europe. Only the Hebrews have a learned, which shall illuminate it with in- history, written out by cotcmporaries, delible associations. And the Chart will previous to the fifth century before Christ. help any lecturer on Universal History The whole career of Ancient India, China, who is familiar with it. It discriminates Babylon, Nineveh, Egypt, Ethiopia, Methe periods worthy of the most study, and dia and Lydi has left no cotemporary hisshows the gaps of the science that need to torian. Their whole history is to be dibe filled up by investigations, for which vined from monuments.
For those ages Americans have great opportunities, by we have no book but the Bible, whose last their ubiquitous commerce and love of ad- historian (Nehemiah) is cotemporary with venture.
Herodotus; for the Hebrews only, even 1 No books of history, already owned by when they had a king were free, Religion
scholars or schools, are made useless, but, being with them a love of a spiritual charen the contrary, are more useful by using acter: "Where the spirit of the Lord is Bem's method. The manual should, in- there is Liberty,"--and only there! deed, be the leading text-book, but every There are fifteen hundred years of Greek 'esson may be enriched, by whatever any tradition before the period when Herodugood books say on the subjects tkat the tus wrote, and even then there is less than dates of the lesson involve. In case of two hundred years of first-rate Grecian hisconsulting other books, there will often tory. There is so much, however, bebe found a discrepant dating, especially in cause the Greeks, if they did not know the the times previous to the Greek Olympi- Infinite Spirit, whom the Hebrews worads. But this may lead to a new nicety shiped as Jehovah, at least believed in Di. of knowledge. The student will thus learn vinities who were not stocks and stones,
but had, to their imaginations, personalmark; until the Rerival of Letters restorexistence, and superhuman forms and at- ed to men the Ancient Historians instead tributes: and these they worshiped ac- of their Romantic dreams. But these hiscording to their private judgment. torians were swallowed whole, and not ex
But after Alexander's death, historic amined, criticised, and classified, and their genius languished; for there was nothing reliable testimony separated from their to feed it on, in that which constituted the mistakes, until the last hundred years durhistory of the Mace lonian, Græco-Syrian ing which the vail that the Mohammedan and Græco-Egyptian kingdoms, which power had cast over the seats of the An. stretched their stormy carcer from that cient Empires, since the seventh century, event, till Rome conquered them all, in has been lifted by the British conquests in the last 150 years before Christ. There India, and the prowess of Bonaparte's arwere no Commonwealths all this time, but my in Egypt. only individuals struggling in life-and Does there not seem to be something death battles for supremacy over each providential in the fact, that History first other, and power to make the nations, arose from the sleep of ages, just when they ought to have tried to bless, tools of America was discovered ; and that, just their personal caprice and ambition.-- when this great Democracy is waking to Rome, which began to grow into a Re- self-consciousness, and needs to be taught publican form, as Greece began to decline, how to dispose the elements of a new was still hut a Conquering Despotism ;- world into a truly Christian order, she and Livy's attempts, in the century before takes up the telescope of critical observaChrist, to write a history of the seven cen- tion? Does it not intimate that God turies previous to himself, has given a would inspire and “purify to himself a great work of literary art to the world, peculiar people, zealous of good works?" rather than a history of Rome. His ob But in vain does the Spirit of God intiject was not to tell the simple facts, like mate this destiny to us, unless we co-opethe Bible historians, or even like Herodo- rate with it, "with the will and the untus, Thucydides and Xenophon, "extenu- destanding also.” As Adamn fell through ating nothing, and setting down naught in the antediluvian ages; as Abraham's fammalice," but to glorify the city of Rome as ily, after being raised through 1,500 years a god, in order to wake up, if he could, to Solomon's glory, declined from that the old spirit of patriotic self-devotion,-height in a third of the time; as ChristiThis he says himself.
anity itself has been secularized in Europe, We must come down to the most mod- so may the renewed call, addressed dow ern times for the best extant history of to a nation, not to a single man, prove but Rome. It is Dr. Thomas Arnold's, a work shall have its ebb also, unless our nation
another wave of the Divine mercy which that it is an education to read; for it shows that historic events can be viewed Love and Justice in its constitution and
shall, by embodying the Eternal laws of and written out in the light of Eternal laws of morality now, as well as of old, if of man at once, without whose union with
action, realize itself as the son of God and only the historian has moral sense and the Father, there may be no everlasting clear reason. In Arnold's volumes, and those of Niebuhr, who gives the history procession of the Spirit of Truth into hu
"the life that now is, be " from the second Punic war to the times male part and lot of that which is to of Constantine, we see how Rome, having trampled out the life-principle of all other come,” nationally, as well as individually.
Let us then, with all our getting, get nations, with its unscrupulous foot, fell it
understanding," and learn ourselves, and self through gross repletion."
teach our children history; so we shall The Empire of Rome crushed the Ge- not, in the recklessness of ignorance, nius of Historic Art, whose last pure flash lose the ark of our liberties, wherein to was Tacitus; for Plutarch, like Livy, keep the charter of our prosperity, in a wrote as an advocate, to illustrate his own blind and exclusive delving after the latphilosophy, and the politics he wished to ter in the earth. As Coleridge says, in reteach his pupil Trajan. For fisteen hun- commending the Old Testament-history, dred years after this, History slept in the as the best manual of a Statesman: "It is
BY GIDEOY 7 THAYER.
only by means of celestial observations, out, will unfold to you r.atural biases and that the seas of this world may be navi- motives, of which you may now be wholgated with safety."
ly unaware. You may have been drifting And let us Waste no time in unavailing forward on the stream of life, like a demethods; but, since there is a method dis- serted ship on the bosom of a mighty covered, by which the elements of this river, heedless of your course, and trust. most practical of sciences may be obtained ing that the right haven would be found as easily as those of other sciences, let it at last, without any special agency on be no longer excluded from its proportion- your part to avoid the shoals and whirl. ate place in school education. No royal pools the obstructions and rocks, that decree here, as in France, can order it in- lie exposed or hidden before you. You to “all schools and colleges," but it must feel no compunctious visiting" at this be diffused by the concurring action of nu- state of things; for you have never been merous Boards of Education, and espec- roused to their contemplation. Your at. ially by Teachers who are Teachers -- tention has never been called to an inves. Hence this appeal.
tigation of those ruling influences which, unknown to yourself, have hitherto led you onward in time's pathway.
You have felt no responsibility, for you (From the American Journal of Education.
have acted for yourself alone; and being,
as you supposed, an exemplar or model to LETTERS TO A YOUNG TEACHER. no other, have made no effort to alter your i
The case is now whoily changed. What you are in motive, principle, habit,
manners, will the pupils under your Haring, in a former letter, briefly touch- charge, to a greater or less degree, become. ed upon the general subject of school. There may be points exhibited by you bekeeping, I propose now to indicate more fore vour school, which in roord von steadparticularly what steps are to be taken toily condemn; but powerless and ineffectsecure success in objects at which you ive will be that precept which your examwill aim. And, in my view, self-examin-ple opposes with its living force. Hence tion, self-discipline, self-government, self- the necessity of this personal inspection. renunciation, to a great extent, comprises" Know thyself” was the injunction of an the most obvious and certain means at ancient philosopher; and it has been reyour command. These will do more to iterated by many among the wise of modpromote the successful management of ern days. your school, than any set of rules, how
Most of those traits which make wliat ever well conceived or rigidly enforced.
we call character in a man, are the re. To ascertain and explore the springs of sults of education as developed not on!y action in one's own mind, is to obtain pos- by the process of school instruction, but session of ihe key that will unlock the by whatever passes before the eye, whatminds of others; than which nothing is ever sounds upon the ear, excites the immore important in the business you have agination, warnis the heart, or moves the undertaken; and nothing will give more various passions within us; and the more effectual control over those intrusted to frequently the mind falls under the same your care. And, as this is a leading ob- set of influences, the greater the probaject with the teacher, and one on which bility that the character will take a stamp his usefulness mainly depends, it should conformable to such influences. Ilenco be, first of all, secured. There are ten we perceive, although with some exceppersons who fail in school-government, to tions, a marked similarity in individuals of one who fails in mere instruction. The of the same parentage. But there are extent of classical and scientific prepara- traits inherent in the human constiiution, tion is of little moment, where the capac- and widely differing from each other, as ity for government is deficient.
strongly marked as the instincts of aniSelf-examination, if faithfully carried mals, which lead one species to seek the
air, and another the water, without any yond ourselves. In fact, self-love will be teaching whatever.
continually blinding us, or leading us asThe man of nervous temperament will tray from a strict and righteous judgment; exhibit conduct comformable to it; the and, to enable us to be just, we must as phlegmatic, to it. The acquisitive ten constantly seek for aid where only it is to dency produces the avaricious man; the be found. ticiturn, the silent man. Although the
Having, then, ascertained the defects in operations of these original elements in our s ecies can, pe: haps, never be entirely that self-discipline which reformation re
our character, our next step is to iinpose reversed, they may, under the faithful training, be so qualified as to make them quires. It may be difficult,-it doubtless subscrve the cause of duty and humanity;
will be; but the result will be worth for we are never to admit that the great
more than its cost. The work must be Creator made anything but for the promno- commenced in strong faith, with an untion of the ultimate well-being of his crea
yielding will; anıl a resolute perseverance tures. As, on the completion of six days' will achieve the victory. work, he saw that "it was very good," we Have you doubts as to how you shall are bound to believe that every element in begin upon the new course? Phrenology man's nature, whether physical, moral, teaches that every organ has one antagosocial or intellectual, was intended to be- nistic to it; and that by exercising it, and come the instrument of good in some de- suffering its opposite to lie dormant, the partment of the great system of things, former will enlarge, and the latter shrivel however perversion or 'excessive indul- for want of exercise. Take a hint from gence may sometimes produce the very this. Have you discovered that your mo. opposite effects. To say otherwise, would lives centre in self? Seek every opporbe like asserting that light is no blessing, tunity for benefiting others, even at some because it may dazzle or blind the eye; personal sacrifice. Have you found youror that fire is a curse, because it some- self indulging in any passion? Cultivate times consumes our dwellings or destroys a feeling of gentleness and forbearance.our treasures; or that water is our foe, be. Put yourself in the way of meeting prov. cause it may drown us.
ocation, that you may learn, by pra«tical It being established, then, that ours is experience, to resist the temptation to the a complex
nature, and that, without an ad- evil, llave you detected a love of ease, or equate knowledge of it, as existing in our- of inaction or indolence! Nerve yourself selves indivirlually, we cannot do all in to a vigorous attack upon the propensity our sphere, of which we are capable, for or habit, if it has already become such, the benefit of ou fellow-beings, the acqui- assured that, if continued, it will prove sition of this knowledge becomes our first fatal to every noble purpose. Have you duty; and especially, when we put our accustomed yourself to speak ill of others, selves in a position to stamp an image of or encouraged slander or gossip in your our spiritual selves upon those who are associates? Resolve to check it where committed to our influence and our train- you can, whether in the don'estic circle, ing
or abroad among strangers; and resolve, Our first care, then, in this business of as a general rule, to be silont where you Eelf inspection, is to ascertain whether we cannot commend. If others are unjust to have any tendencies or proclivities that you, be forgiving and generous to them. militate with our highest idea of a perfect if the cost or inconvenience be great, the man; whether our motives are lofty, our discipline will be all the better and more affections holy, our principles upright, our useful. It is by such trials that the charfeelings and tastes pure, our intentions acter is to be improved and perfected. It ụnselfish, our habits such as they should was not sleeping on beds of down that he. Every one has a beau ideal in his prepared the men of '76 to endure the unown mind; and, if we feel below it in any utterable hardships of those days; but a of these particulars, we are to set about long and severe training in the rigorous bringing ourselves up to the standard we school of adversity and self-denial. It is have assumed.
the wielding of the heavy sledge that imIn this great work we shall need aid be- parts vigor to the art of the smith; while