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confusion towards their own country. They were under the command of Sir Maurice de Berkly.
- Note VIII. And Connoght poured from waste and wood Her hundred tribes, whose sceptre rude Dark Eth O'Connor swayed.—St. IV. p. 165. There is in the Foedera an invitation to Eth O'Connor, chief
of the Irish of Connaught, setting forth that the king was about to move against his Scottish rebels, and therefore requesting the attendance of all the force he could muster, either commanded by himself in person, or by some nobleman of his race. These auxiliaries were to be commanded by Richard de Burgh, Earl of Ulster. Similar mandates were issued to the following Irish chiefs, whose names may astonish the unlearned, and amuse the antiquary.
• Souethuth Mac Gillephatrick;
Fitz-Louis, or Mac-Louis, otherwise called Fullarton, is a family of ancient descent in the Isle of Arran. They are said to be of French origin, as the name intimates. They attached themselves to Bruce upon his first landing; and Fergus MacLouis, or Fullarton, received from the grateful monarch a charter, dated 26th November, in the second year of his reign, (1807) for the lands of Kilmichel, and others, which still remain in this very ancient and respectable family.
Note X. r
The forces of King Robert lie.—St. X. p. 170. The arrangements adopted by King Robert for the decisive battle of Bannockburn, are given very distinctly by Barbour, and form an edifying lesson to tacticians. Yet, till commented upon by Lord Hailes, this important passage of history has been generally and strangely misunderstood by historians. I
will here endeavour to detail it fully.
Two days before the battle, Bruce selected the field of action, and took post there with his army, consisting of about 50,000 disciplined men, and about half the number of disorderly attendants upon the camp. The ground was called the New Park of Stirling; it was partly open, and partly broken by copses of wood and marshy ground. He divided his regular forces into four divisions. Three of these occupied a front line, separated from each other, yet sufficiently near for the purposes of communication. The fourth division formed a re
serve. The line extended in a north-easterly direction from
the brook of Bannock, which is so rugged and broken as to
the garrison of Stirling. But, first, the garrison were bound to neutrality by terms of Mowbray's treaty ; and Barbour even seems to censure, as a breach of faith, some secret assistance which they rendered their countrymen upon the eve of battle, in placing temporary bridges of doors and spars over the pools of water in the carse, to enable them to advance to the charge.* 2dly. Had this not been the case, the strength of the garrison was probably not sufficient to excite apprehension. 3dly. The adverse hypothesis leaves the rear of the Scottish army as much exposed to the Stirling garrison, as the left flank would be in the case supposed. It only remains to notice the nature of the ground in front of Bruce's line of battle. Being part of a park, or chase, it was considerably interrupted with trees, and an extensive marsh, still visible, in some places rendered inaccessible, and in all of difficult approach. More to the northward, where the natural impediments were fewer, Bruce fortified his position against cavalry, by digging a number of pits so close together, says Barbour, as to resemble the cells in a honey comb. They were a foot in breadth, and between two and three feet deep, many rows of them being placed one behind the other. They were slightly covered with brushwood and green sods, so as not to be obvious to an impetuous enemy. All the Scottish army were on foot, excepting a select body of cavalry stationed with Edward Bruce on the right wing, under the immediate command of Sir Robert Keith, the Marshal of Scotland, who were destined for the important service of charging and dispersing the English archers. Thus judiciously posted, in a situation fortified both by art and mature, Bruce awaited the attack of the English.
* An assistance which (by the way) could not have been rendered, had not the English approached from the south-east; since, had their march been due north the whole Scottish army nust have been between them and the garrison.
Note XI. Beyond, the Southern host appears-St. X. p. 170. Upon 23d June, 1314, the alarm reached the Scottish army of the approach of the enemy. Douglas and the Marshal were sent to reconnoitre with the body of cavalry.
“And soon the great host have they seen, .
The two Scottish commanders were cautious in the account: which they brought back to their camp. To the king in private they told the formidable state of the enemy; but in public reported that the English were indeed a numerous host, but ill commanded and worse disciplined.
The men of Argyle, the islanders, and the Highlanders, in general, were ranked in the rear. They must have been numerous, for Bruce had reconciled himself with almost all their chieftains, excepting the obnoxious Mac-Dougals of Lorn. The following deed, containing the submission of the potent Earl