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hurt. 20 And the rest of the, senger, when he shall sound men, who were not killed by his trumpet, and the mystery these scourges, returned not of God hath been finished, as from the works of their hands; he hath proclaimed the glad tid. so as not to worship demons, ings to his servants the proand idols of gold, and of silver, phets. and of brass, and of stone, and 18 And the voice which I of wood, which can neither see, heard from heaven spake to me nor hear, nor walk : 21 nor did again, and said, “ Go, take the they repent of their murders, little book which is open in the nor of their sorceries, nor of hand of the messenger who their fornication, nor of their standeth upon the sea and upon thefts.

the land.” 9 And I went to the Ch. X. 1 And I saw (another] messenger, desiring him to give mighty messenger coming down to me the little book. Then he from heaven, arrayed with a said to me, “ Take, and eat it; cloud: and a rainbow was over and it will make thy belly bitter, his head, and his face was as but in thy mouth it will be the sun, and his feet as pillars sweet as honey." 10 And I of fire : 2 and he had in his took the little book out of the hand a little book open: and messenger's hand, and ate it : he set his right foot upon the and in my mouth it was sweet sea, and his left foot upon the as honey; but as soon as I had land; 3 and cried with a loud eaten it, my belly was made voice, as when a lion roareth : bitter. 11 Then he said to me, and, when he had cried, seven “ Thou must again prophesy thunders uttered their voices. 4 concerning many people, and And when the seven thunders had nations, and languages, and uttered their voices, I was about kings.” to write: and I heard a voice Ch. XI. 1 And a reed like a from heaven, saying, “ Seal up rod was given me by the mes. those things which the seven senger, saying, “ Rise, and meathunders uttered, and write them sure the temple of God, and not.” 5 And the angel whom the altar, and compute those I saw standing upon the sea, who worship in it. 2 But the and upon the land, lifted up his court which is without the temright hand to heaven, 6 and ple leave out, and measure it sware by him who liveth to the not; for it is given up to the ages of ages, who created hea- gentiles : and they will tread ven and the things which are the holy city under foot fortytherein, and the earth and the two months. 3 And I will grant things which are therein, and to my two witnesses that they the sea and the things which shall prophesy a thousand two are therein, that the time would hundred and sixty days, clothed not yet be; 7 but in the days in sack-cloth. 4 These are two of the blast of the seventh mes- olive-trees, and two candle. sticks, placed before the Lord they went up to heaven in a of the earth. 5 And if any one cloud; and their enemies bepurpose to hurt them, fire will held them. 13 And in that hour proceed out of their mouth, was a great earthquake, and and will devour their enemies; the tenth part of the city fell, and if any one purpose to hurt and by the earthquake seven them, he must be killed in this thousand men were killed ; and manner.

the rest were affrighted, arid 6 These will have power to gave glory to the God of hea. shut heaven, that it rain not ven. 14 The second woe is during the days of their prophe-past; behold, the third woe cy: and they will have power cometh quickly. over the waters, to turn them 15 AND the seventh messeninto blood, and to smite the ger sounded his trumpet; and earth with every scourge, as there were loud voices in hea. often as they will. 7 And when ven, saying, “ The kingdom of they shall have finished their this world is become the kingtestimony, the beast which will | dom of our Lord, and of his ascend out of the abyss will Christ; who shall reign to the make war against them, and ages of ages.” 16 And the twenovercome them, and kill them. ty-four elders, who sat before 8 And their carcases will lie God on their thrones, fell on in the street of the great city, their faces, and worshipped which is called, spiritually, So-God, 17 saying, “We thank dom, and Egypt, where, indeed, thee, O Lord God Almighty, their lord was crucified. 9 And who art and who wast, because they of the people, and tribes, thou hast taken to thee thy and languages, and nations, great power and hast reigned. will behold their carcases three 18 And the nations were andays and a half, and will not gry, and thine anger is come, suffer their carcases to be put and the time of the dead that into a tomb.

they should be judged, and 10 And those who dwell upon that thou shouldst give a rethe earth will rejoice over them, ward to thy servants the proand be glad, and send gifts one phets, and to the saints, and to another; because these two to those who fear thy name, prophets tormented those who the small and the great; and dwelt on the earth.” 11 And shouldst destroy those who desafter the three days and a half | troy the earth.” 19 And the the breath of life from God, temple of God was opened in entered into them, and they heaven, and the ark of the costood on their feet; and great venant of the Lord was seen in fear fell on those who saw his temple: and there were them. 12 And I heard a great lightnings, and voices, and voice from heaven, saying to thunderings, [and an earththem, “ Come up hither.” And quake,] and great hail.

Ch. XII. 1 NOW a great was cast out upon the earth, wonder appeared in heaven; a) and his angels were cast out woman clothed with the sun, with him.* 10 And I heard a and the moon was under her loud voice. in heaven, saying, feet, and upon her head a crown “ Now is come salvation, and of twelve stars: 2 and she was might, and the kingdom of our with child, and cried out, being God, and the authority of his in travail, and in great pain to Christ: for the accuser of our bring forth. 3 And another won- brethren is cast down, that acder appeared in heaven; for, cused them before our God behold, a great red dragon, hav- 1 day and night. 11 But they ing seven heads and ten horns, overcame him through the and seven crowns upon his / blood of the lamb, and by the heads. 4 And his tail drew the word of their testimony; and third part of the stars of hea. they loved not their lives, but ven, and cast them to the earth. exposed them even unto death. And the dragon stood before 12 Rejoice therefore, ye heathe woman who was about to vens, and ye who dwell in them. bring forth, that, when she Alas for the earth, and for the brought forth, he might devour sea! because the impostor is her child. 5 And she brought come down to you, having forth a male child, who was to great wrath, knowing that he rule all the nations with a rod hath but a short time.” 13 And of iron: and her child was when the dragon saw that he caught up to God, and to his was cast out upon the earth, throne. 6 And the woman fled he pursued the woman who into the desert, where she had brought forth the male child. a place prepared of God, that 14 And to the woman were she might be fed there a thou- given two wings of the great sand two hundred and sixty eagle, that she might fly, from days.

before the serpent, into the de7 And there was war in hea- sert, to her place, where she ven : Michael and his angels is to be fed for a time and warred against the dragon ; and times and half a time. 15 the dragon warred, and his an. And the serpent cast out gels, 8 but they prevailed not, from his mouth, after the wonor was their place found any man, water as it were a river, more in heaven. 9 For the great that he might cause her to be dragon was cast out, that old carried away by the river. 16 serpent, called the impostor, But the earth assisted the woand [the] adversary, who de- man, and the earth opened its ceiveth the whole world; he mouth, and drank up the river which the dragon cast out from to him over every tribe,, and his mouth. 17 And the dragon people, and language, and nawas angry with the woman, tion. 8 And all who dwelt on and departed to make war with the earth, whose name was not the rest of her offspring, who written from the foundation of kept the commandments of the world, in the book of life God, and maintained the testi- of the lamb that was slain, wormony of Jesus.

* “ All this is a visionary scene, presented to the mind of John. See the note on ch. iv. ver. 2. The meaning of the allegory seems to be, that, after a contest in the Roman empire, the champions of the Christian cause prevailed; heathenism, or the religion of the empire, was abolished: and the christian emperor Constantine gave a civil establishment to christianity." Newcome.

shipped him. 9 If any one have CH. XIII. 1 Then I stood an ear, let him hear. 10 If any upon the sand of the sea, and one lead into captivity, into saw a beast rise up out of the captivity he shall go: If any sea, having ten horns, and se- one shall kill with the sword, ven heads; and upon his horns with the sword he must be ten crowns, and upon his heads killed. Here is the patience names of blasphemy. 2 And the and the faith of the saints. beast which I saw was like a 11 And I beheld another leopard, and his feet were as beast coming up out of the those of a bear, and his mouth earth; and he had two horns as the mouth of a lion: and the like a lamb, but he spake as a dragon gave to him his own dragon. 12 And he exercised power, and his own thrope, all the authority of the first and great authority. 3 And I beast in his presence, and caussaw one of his heads wounded, eth the earth, and those who as it were, to death ; but his dwell in it, to worship the first deadly stroke was healed : and beast, whose deadly wound was all the world wondered and fol-healed. 13 And he doth great Zowed after the beast. 4 Andmiracles; so that he maketh men worshipped the dragon, be- / fire to come down from heaven cause he had given authority to on the earth in the presence of the beast: and they worship-men. 14 And he deceiveth those ped the beast, saying, “ Who who dwell on the earth by is like the beast ? and who is means of those miracles which able to war against him?" 5 it was given him to do in the And there was given to the presence of the beast; saying to beast a mouth speaking great those who dwell on the earth, things, and blasphemies; and that they should make an image authority was given to him sto to the beast which had the act] forty-two months. 6 And wound by a sword and yet lived. he opened his mouth in blas | 15 And he had power to give phemy against God, to blas- life to the image of the beast, pheme against his name, and that the image of the beast his tabernacle, [and] those who should both speak, and cause dwell in heaven. 7 And it was that as many as would not worgiven him to make war against ship the image of the beast the saints, and to overcoine should be killed. 16 And he them: and authority was given causeth all, both small and great,

rich and poor, free-men and the first-fruits to God, and to slaves, to receive from him a the lamb. 5 And in their mouth mark on their right hand, or on was found no falsehood : [for] their foreheads : 17 [and] that they are spotless. no one should be able to buy or 6 And I saw (another] mes. sell, but he who had the mark; senger flying in mid-heaven, (ven the name of the beast, or having an aionian gospel to prothe number of his name. 18 claim to those who dwell on Here is wisdom. Let him who the earth, and to every nation, hath understanding count the and tribe, and language, and number of the beast: for it is people, 7 saying with a loud the number of a man; and his voice, “ Fear God, and give number is six hundred and six-i glory to him ; for the hour of ty-six.

his judgment is come: and Ch. XIV. 1 And I looked, worship him who made the and, behold, the lamb stood on heaven, and the earth, and the Mount Sion, and with him a sea, and the springs of waters.” hundred and forty-four thou- 8 And another messenger sand persons, having his own followed, saying, “ The great name and his Father's name Babylon is fallen, is fallen; bewritten on their foreheads. 2 cause she made all nations And I heard a sound from hea- drink of the wine [of the fury ven, as the sound of many wa- of her fornication." ters, and as the sound of great 9 And another (third] mesthunder: and the sound which senger followed them, saying I heard was as that of harpers with a loud voice, “ If any one playing on their harps : 3 and worship the beast and his they sang as it were a new song image, and receive the mark before the throne, and before of the beast on his forehead, or the four living creatures, and on his hand; 10 he shall drink the elders : and none could of the wine of the fury of God, learn that song, but the hundred which is prepared, without and forty-four thousand, who mixture, in the cup of his were bought from the earth. 4 anger; and he shall be torment. These are they who were not ed in fire and brimstone in the defiled with women : for they presence of the [holy] messenare virgins: these [are they igers, and in the presence of who follow the lamb whitherso- the lamb: 11 and the smoke ever he goeth: these were of their torment shall ascend bought from among meri, as to the ages of ages :* and they

. It would be very unreasonable to infer the gloomy doctrine of eternal misery from the loose and figurative language of a prophetic vision, in opposition to the plainest dictates of reason and justice, and to the whole tenor of divine revelation. But if any one is disposed to lay undue stress upon this text, it may be sufficient to remark, that it is not here asserted that the torment continues, but that the smoke of it ascends to the ages of ages. The smoke of a pile in which a criminal has been consumed may continue to ascend long after the wretched victim has ceased to suffer. And a memorial of the punishment which has been inflicted on vice may rerain long after vice itself has been utterly exterminated. After all, as the prophecy relates wholy

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