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to offer up sacrifice, first for his , tabernacle : for, ó See,” said own sins, and then for those of God, " that thou make all the people : for this he did things according to the pattern once for all, when he offered up which was shown thee on the himself.* 28 For the law ap mount.") 6 But now, our Highpointeth men high-priests who priest obtained a more excelhave infirinity; but the word of lent ministry, in as much as he the oath, which was after the is the mediator of a better covelaw, appointeth the Son, who is nant, which is established on made perfect to the age

better promises. Ch. VIII. 1 NOW the sum 7 For if that first covenant of what has been said is this : had been faultless, then no place We have such a high-priest, would have been sought for the as sitteth on the right hand of second. 8 For, finding fault with the throne of the Majesty in the them, t It is said, “ Behold, the heavens ; 2 a minister of the days are coming, saith the most Holy Place, and of the Lord, when I will make a new true tabernacle, which the Lord covenant with the house of pitched, [and] not man. 3 For Israel, and with the house of every high-priest is appointed Judah : 9 not according to the to offer gifts and sacrifices : covenant which I made with wherefore it is necessary that their fathers, in the day when I this High-priest have also some took them by the hand to lead thing to offer.

them out from the land of Egypt: 4 For if he were on earth he when they continued not in my would not be a priest ; since covenant, and I regarded them there are [priests) who offer not, saith the Lord : 10 for this gifts according to the law: 5 is the covenant which I will (who serve as to the example make with the house of Israel and shadow of heavenly things, after those days, saith the Lord: as Moses was instructed of God, I will put my laws into their when he was about to make the mind, and will write them on

* This he did, i. e. offered up sacrifice, first, for his own sins. “ Bit Christ in a moral sense was sinless. See ver. 26, and ch. iv. 15. His sins therefore were merely ceremonial, that is, being a descendant of the house of Judah, ver. 14, he was, as to the priesthood, in an unconsecrated state. And as Aaron was consecrated to his priestly office by the blood of animal sacrifices, so Christ was consecrated to his nobler office by the sacrifice of himself. This way of representing the death of Christ was adapted to conciliate the prejudices of the Hebrew Christians. Moreover, as the posterity of Aaron were successively removed by death, ver. 23, successive priests were consecrated by successive sacrifices; but Christ lives continually, and has no successor. Also, priests under the law were subject to infirmity, and might desecrate themselves by ceremonial pollution, ver. 29; it was necessary, therefore, that they should be re-consecrated by the daily sacrifice. But Christ being incapable of cerenxonial pollution, his one sacrifice was sufficient. He now is perfect for ever. But in the same sense in which Christ offered up a sacrifice for his own sins, in that very sense did he other himself a sacrifice for the sins of the pe ple. That is, not to appease the wrath of God for moral offences, which is an idea quite remote from the author's mind, and foreign to his argument; but to consecrate believers, and to bring them out of an unholy into a holy state, by a figurative application of the blood of Christ, as the Israelites were formerly purified and made ceremonially holy by the real sprinkling of the blood of animal victims. See ch. ix. 11-28. These observations must be carried in mind by the reader of this epistle, in order to understand the writer's language and doctrine in the ninth and tenth chapters concerning the priesthood of Christ. See Grotius and Crellius in loco, and in chap. v. Ver. 3." Im. Ver. note. ti. e. the Jews.

their hearts; and I will be to always enter into the first taberthem a God, and they shall be nacle, performing the services to me a people. 11 And they of God: 7 but into the second shall not teach every one his the high-priest alone entereth fellow-citizen, and every one his once every year, not without brother, saying, Know the blood, which he offereth for Lord :' for all shall know me, himself, arid for the sins of ignofrom the least [of them to the lance of the people : 8 the holy greatest of them. 12 For I will spirit signifying by this, that be merciful to their unrighte- the way into the most Holy ousness; and their sins, and their place is not yet laid open, iniquities I will remember no while the first tabernacle yet more." 13 In that God said, " A standeth: 9 which tabernacle is new covenant," he hath declar- a figure for the present time, in ed the former void. Now that which gifts and sacrifices are which is declared void and offered, which cannot make him groweth old, is about to disap- who worshippeth perfect, as conpear.

cerning his conscience; 10 conCh. IX. NOW the first cove sisting only in meats and drinks, nant had also ordinances of wor- and different washings, and car. ship, and a worldly sanctuary. nal ordinances, imposed till the . For the first tabernacle was time of reformation prepared, which is called Holy ; 11 But Christ, a high-priest in which was the candlestick, of the future good things, being and the table, and the shew-come, entered once for all into bread. 3 And, behind the se- the most Holy Place, through cond veil, the tabernacle which the greater and more perfect is called the Holy of Holies : 4 (tabernacle, not made by hands ; having the golden censer, and (that is, not of this present build. the ark of the covenant covered ing;) 12 nor by the blood of all over with gold, in which was goats and calves, but by his the golden pot that had the own blood ; having obtained an manna, and Aaron's rod, that aionian redemption. budded, and the tables of the 13 For if the blood of bulls covenant: 5 and above which and of goats, and the ashes of a were the cherubim of glory, | heiser, sprinkling the unclean, shadowing the mercy-seat: of sanctify to the cleansing of the which things we cannot at pre- fesh ; 14 how much more shall sent speak particularly

the blood of Christ, who through 6 Now these things having the aionian spirit* offered him. bcen thus prepared, the priests self spotless to God, cleanse

who offered himself with a spotless mind unto God, Wakefield, who, with the Ethiopic, leaves out Qiwiou, W aionian." The Clermont and some other copies read áyrou, " the holy spi. rit;" which is supported by the Coptic and the Vulgate versions. The phrase “ aionian spirit," is very unusual : but if admitted as genuine, it must signify that Christ offered linself by divine appointment. See Im. Ver. note.

your conscience from dead, by these things; but the heavenworks, that ye may serve the ly things themselves, with bet. living God? 15 And for this ter sacrifices than these. cause Christ is the mediator of 24 For Christ hath not enthe new covenant ; that, deathtered into the Holy Place made having taken place for the re- with hands, which answereth demption of the transgressions to the true one; but into heaunder the first covenant, those ven itself, now to appear in the who are called might receive presence of God for us: 25 nor the promise of the aionian in- was it necessary that he should heritance.

offer himself often, as the high16 For where a covenant is, priest entereth into the most there is a necessity for the death Holy Place every year with the of that which establisheth the blood of others ; 26 (for then covenant.* 17 For a covenant he must have suffered often is firm over the dead : whereas since the foundation of the it is of no force while that world ;) but now he hath been which establishes the covenant manifested once, at the end of liveth. 18 Wherefore neither the ages, to put away sin was the first covenant confirmed through the sacrifice of himself. without blood. 19 For when 27 And as it is appointed to Moses had spoken to all the men once to die, and after this people every commandment ac- a judgment; 28 so Christ also cording to the law, he took the was once offered to bear away blood of calves and of goats, the sins of the many ; and to with water, and scarlet wool, those who wait for him, he will and hyssop, and sprinkled both appear a second time, without the book and the people, 20 a sin-offering to salvation. saying, “ This is the blood of Ch. X. 1 For the law having the covenant which God hath a shadow of future good things, enjoined upon you.” 21 More- and not the very image of the over, in like manner he sprink- things, can never make those led with blood the tabernacle who come to the altar perfect also, and all the vessels of the by the same sacrifices which ministry. 22 And, according to are offered year by year conthe law, almost all things are tinually. 2 For then would they cleansed with blood ; and with not have ceased to be offered ? out the shedding of blood there because the worshippers once is no remission.t 23 It was cleansed would have had no therefore necessary that the more consciousness of sins. 3 patterns of things which are in But in those sacrifices there is a the heavens should be cleansed I remembrance made of sins every

..That is, of the victim by which the covenant is ratified. See Wakefield aud Doddridge.

+ Observe here, that even inanimate things, the books, the tabernacle, the vessels, etc. are, represented as in a sinful state till they obtain remission by the shedding of blood: j. e. they are ceremonially impure and unholy till they are ceremonially consecrated. See ch, vii. 27, note.

Gr. without sin. See ch. vii, 27, note.

year: 4 for it is impossible* , mies be made his footstool. 14 that the blood of bulls and goats For by one offering he hath should take away sins.

made perfect perpetually those 5 Wherefore, when Christ who are sanctified.t 15 Of cometh into the world, he saith, which the holy spirit also is a “ Sacrifice and offering thou witness to us : for, after having wouldst not; but a body thou said before, 16 « This is the hast prepared me. 6 In burnt covenant which I will make offerings and sacrifices for sin with them after those days, thou hadst no pleasure. 7 Then saith the Lord, I will put my I said, "Lo, I come (in the vo- laws into their hearts, and in lume of a book it is written of their minds will I write them;" me) to do thy will, O God.'" | 17 it then saith, and their sins 8 Above he saith, sacrifice, and and iniquities I will remember offering, and burnt-offerings, and no more." 18 Now when these sacrifices for sin, thou wouldst are remitted, there is no more not, and hadst no pleasure in any offering for sin.B them ; (namely those which are 19 Having therefore, brethren, offered according to the law ;) | assurance of an entrance into then he saith, "Lo, I come to the most holy place through the do thy will." 9 He taketh away | blood of Jesus, 20 by a new and the first, that he may establish living way which he hath conthe second. 10 By which will secrated for us through the veil, we have been sanctified, through (that is, his flesh;) 21 and havthe offering of the body of Jesus ing a high-priest over the houseChrist once for all.

| hold of God; 22 let us come 11 And every priest standeth near, with a true heart, in full ministering daily, and offering assurance of faith, having our frequently the same sacrifices, hearts sprinkled from an evil which can never take away conscience, and our body washsins:t 12 but this person, after ed with pure water : 23 let us he had offered one sacrifice for hold fast the steady profession sins, is perpetually seated at of our hope; (for he who hath the right hand of God; 13 promised is faithful: ) 24 and thenceforth waiting till bis ene- I let us consider one another, that we may provoke each other | 33 partly, while ye were made to love, and to good works : 25 a spectacle by reproaches and not forsaking the assembling of afflictions; and partly, while ye ourselves together, as is the became sharers with those who manner of some; but exhorting were so treated. 10 it: and so much the more, as 34 For ye had compassion ve see the day approaching for those who were in bonds,

# That is, legally impossible; for the law limited the efficacy of these sacrifices to one year. After which, new sacrifices were to be offered upon the annual day of atonement for sins of ignorance only, which however free from moral turpitude, would exclude from the benefit of the Mosaic covenant, if not cancelled by the appointed sacrifices. See ch. ix. 7.

t that is, sins of ignorance, ix. 7. The sacrifices of the law could not take away sin, as their efficacy was limited to a year. See ver. 4.

| See ver. 10. Believers are so far consecrated by this great sacrifice, that they can never forfeit their privileges by sins of ignorance. The writer labours to reconcile the Hebrews to a suffering Messiah, by these bold figurative representations of the efficacy of his death. “ Our Lord," says Mr. Lindsey (Sequel. p. 88), “ never called himself a high-priest, nor is he so styled by any of the writers of the New Testament, except the author of this epistle; whence we may conclude, that neither Christ for the evangelists esteemed this to be any real part of his character, or needful to be attended to by his followers.” Iin. Ver. note.

“ The author here finishes the argumentative part of his epistle, in which he illustrates and prores the excellence of the New Covenant when compared with the Old. The practical part follows." Newcome.

26 For if we sin wilfully, and bore joyfully the spoiling of after we have received the your goods; knowing that ye knowledge of the truth, there have for yourselves a better no longer remaineth any sacri- and an enduring substance sin fice for sins: 27 but a certain heaven.7* 35 Cast not away fearful looking for of judgment therefore your confidence, which remaineth ; and of fiery indig- will have great recompense of nation which is about to con- reward. 36 For ye have need of sume the adversaries.

patience; that, after ye have 28 He who despised the law done the will of God, ye may of Moses, died without mercy, receive his promise. 37 For yet under two or three witnesses : a very little while, and “he 29 of how much greater pun- who is to come will come, and ishment, think ye, will he be will not delay.”. deemed worthy, who hath trod-1 38 Now, is the just by faith den under fout the son of God, shall live : but if he draw back, and hath counted the blood of my soul will have no pleasure the covenant, through which he in him." 39 But we are not of was sanctified, an unholy thing, those who draw back to destrucand hath injuriously treated the tion; but of those who have spirit of favour?

faith to the preservation of life. 30 For we know him who Ch XI. I NOW faith is a hath said, “ Vengeance belong-confidence in things hoped for, eth to me: I will recompense;" | a conviction of things not seen. [saith the Lord.) And again, 2 For through it, those of old

The Lord will avenge his time obtained a good witness. people.” 31 It is a fearful thing 3 Through faith, we underto fall into the hands of the liv- stand that the ages were so or. ing God.

dered by the word of God, that 32 But call to renembrance the present state of things arose the former days, in which, after not from what then appeared.f ye were enlightened, ye endur- 4 Through faith, Abel offered a great contest of sufferings; 1 ed to God a more excellent sa

* These words, sy ouparnis, in the heavens, are wanting in the Alexandrian and Clermont MSS. and in the Coptic, Ethiopic, and Vulgate versions : and are omitted by Mr. Wakefield. See Im. Ver. note.

+ See Wakefield and Sykes, who oberves that CISIVES properly signifies ages, or periods of time, and that there is no instance in the New Testament where more than this seems to be meant by the word. Sykes' note on Heb. i. 3. In the present instance the author's meaning is, that "it was so contrived that Christ's coming into the world, which we see, was brought about by means which could not be seen." Syke's note in loco and Rosenmuller.

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