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are excellent, being instructed to the letter: whose praise is out of the law ; 19 and be con- | not from men, but from God. fident that thou thyself art a Ch. III. 1 “ What advanguide of the blind, a light to tage then hath the Jew? or those who are in darkness, 20 what is the benefit of circumcian instructer of the unwise, a sion ?" 2 " Much every way : teacher of babes, having the but chiefly, because to the Jews form of knowledge and of the were committed the oracles of truth in the law ; 21 thou who God. 5 For what if some had teachest another, teachest thou not faith ? shall their want of not thyself? thou who preach- faith make the faithfulness of est that a man should not God without effect? 4 By no steal, dost thou steal ? 29 thou means : yea, let God be true, who sayest, a man should not but every man a liar : as it is commit adultery, dost thou written; ' That thou mightest commit adultery ? thou who be justified in thy words, and abhorrest idols, dost thou com- mightest overcome when thou mit sacrilege ? 23 thou who art judged.' 5 But if our gloriest in the law, through the unrighteousness enhance the breaking of the law dishonour- righteousness of God”_"What est thou God? 24 (For“ the shall we say? Is God unrightename of God is evil spoken of ous who inflicteth punishment ? among the gentiles, through (I speak according to the manyou;" as it is written.)

Iner of men.) 6 By no means : 25 For circumcision profiteth for then how shall God judge indeed, if thou keepest the law: the world.” 7" For if the truth but if thou art a transgressor of God hath abounded to his of the law, thy circumcision be- glory, through my unfaithful. cometh uncircumcision. 26 Ifness, why am I still condemned therefore the uncircumcision as a sinner?" 8"And why say ye keep the righteous ordinances of not, (as it is slanderously spokthe law, shall not the uncircum- en of us, and as some affirm cision of such be counted for cir- we say,) •Let us do evil, that cumcision? 27 and shall not the good may come?' whose con. uncircumcision which by nature demnation is just." fulfilleth the law, condemn thee 9 What then? do we excel as a transgressor of law, though a the gentiles? No, surely : for we Jew by the literal circumcision? | have before brought a charge

28 For he is not a Jew, who is against Jews and gentiles,* that one outwardly; nor is that cir- they are all under sin : 10 as it cumcision, which is outward, j is written, « There is none in the flesh : 29 but he is a Jew, righteous, no, not one: 11 there who is one inwardly; and cir- is none [that] understandeth, cumcision is that of the heart, there is none that seeketh after in the spirit, and not according | God. 12 They are all gone out

* Gr. Greeks.

of the way, they are altogether fied of free bounty, even by his become worthless: there is favour, through the redemption none that doth good, no not which is by Christ Jesus; 25 even one. 13 Their throat is whom God hath set forth as a like an open sepulchre; with mercy seat, (through faith,] in their tongues they have used his own blood ;* to show his deceit; the poison of asps is method of justification, concernunder their lips : 14 their ing the remission of past sins, mouth is full of cursing and through the forbearance of bitterness: 15 their feet are God; 26 to show his method of swift to shed blood: 16 de-justification at this present struction and misery are in time: that he might be just, their ways; 17 and the way of when justifying him who is of peace they have not known : 18 ) the faith of Jesus 7. there is no fear of God before 27 Where then is boasting ? their eyes.” 19 Now we know It is excluded. By what law ? that what things soever the Of works? No: but by the law of law saith, it saith to those who faith. 28 For we conclude that are under the law: so that ! man is justified through faith, every mouth may be stopped, without the works of law. 29 and all the world become sub- | Is God the God of the Jews ject to the judgment of God. only? is he not of the gentiles 20 For by the works of law: also ? Yes; of the gentiles also: no one can be justified in his 30 since there is one God, who sight: for through law is the will justify those of the circumknowledge of sin.

cision by faith, and those of the 21 But now, God's method uncircumcision through faith. of justification, without a law, 31 Do we then make void law is manifested ; being attested through faith? By no means : by the law and the prophets; 1 yea, we establish law. 22 even God's method of justifi- Ch. IV. 1 What advantage cation through faith in Jesus then, shall we say, Abraham, Christ, unto all, [and upon all,] our father as to the flesh, who believe : for there is no found? 2 For if Abraham was difference: 23 for all have justified by works he hath sinned, and fall short of the whereof to boast:" " but not glory of God; 24 being justi- | before God. 3 For what saith

** The words SIC ALOTEWS through faith; are omitted in the Alexandrian and some other manuscripts, and they obscure the sense. The apostle represents Christ as a mercy-seat, consecrated by his own blood; upon which the goodness of God, as it were, takes its stand, and declares his gracious purposes and dispensations to mankind. See Locke; and Taylor's judicious note upon the text. The word inaoTneLov never signifies" propitiation," as it is translated in the common version ; but it is always used wherever it occurs, both in the Old Testament and the New, to express the mercy-seat; which was the golden lid of the ark upon which the Shechinah or cloud of glory rested, and from which oracles were dispensed. See Exod. xxv, 22; Numb. vii. 8, 9; Lev. xvii. 2; Heb. ix. 5. It must be evident to every unprejudiced person, that this beautiful allusion of the apostle, which is intended to represent Christ as the messenger of divine mercy, and the medium of divine communications to mankind, gives no countenance to the commonly received doctrine of atonement by vicarious suffering; though many lay great stress upon this text, misled by the common translation.” Im. Ver. Note.

the scripture? Abraham be-, or 10 his offspring, that he lieved God; and it was counted should be heir of the world. to him for righteousness.' 4 but through a righteousness of Now to him who worketh, the faith. reward is not counted a matter 14 For if those who are unof favour, but of debt. 5 But to der a law be heirs, faith is him who worketh not, but be made void, and the promise lieveth in Him who justifieth is made of none effect; 15 be. the ungodly, his faith is count. cause law produceth punished for righteousness. 6 As ment: for where no law is, David also describeth the hap-{ there is no transgression. 16 piness of the man to whom God Therefore righteousness is from counted righteousness without faith, that it might be through works; 7 saying, “Happy are favour; so that the promise they whose iniquities are for- might be sure to all the offgiven, and whose sins are cover- spring, not to that only which ed: 8 happy is the man to whom is of the law, but to that also the Lord will not count sin.'” which is of the faith of Abraham,

9 Cometh this happiness then who is the father of us all, 17 upon those of the circumcision (as it is written, I have made only, or upon thuse of uncir- thee a father of many nations,') cumcision also ? For we say I in the sight of that God whom that faith was counted to Abra- he believed, who giveth life to ham for righteousness. 10 How the dead, and calleth those then was it counted ? when he things which are not, as though was in circumcision, or in un- they were. 18 He, contrary to circumcision ? Not in circum- hope, believed with hope, so cision, but in uncircumcision. that he became the father of 11 And he received the sign many nations; according to that of circumcision, a seal of the which was spoken, . Thus shall righteousness arising from the thine offspring be :' 19 and befaith which he had, being yet cause he was not weak in faith; uncircumcised.; that he might he considered [not] his own be the father of all those who body now dead, when he was believe, though in a state of un- | about an hundred years old, circumcision, that righteous nor the deadness of Sarah's ness might be counted to them womb: 20 nor did he stagger also ; 12 and the father of cir- at the promise of God, through cumcision to those who are not unbelief; but was strong in of the circumcision only, but faith, and gave glory to God; also walk in the steps of that 21 and was fully persuaded, faith of our father Abraham, that what God had promised, which he had, being yet uncir- he was also able to perform. cumcised. 13 Besides, not 22 Wherefore Abraham's through a righteousness of law, faith was counted to him for the promise was to Abraham, righteousness. 23 Yet it was not written for his sake only, Christ died for us. 9 Much that it was counted to him ; 24 more therefore, having been but for the sake of us also, to now justified in his blood, we whom faith will be thus counted, shall be saved from anger if we believe in him who raised through him. 10 For if, when up Jesus, our Lord, from the we were enemies, we were redead ; 25 who was delivered up conciled to God, through the for our offences ;* and was death of his Son, much more, raised from the dead for our being thus reconciled, we justification.

shall be saved in his life. 11 Ch. V. 1 THEREFORE, hav- | And not only so, but we boast ing been thus justified, by faith, likewise in God, through our in this method of justification, we Lord Jesus Christ, through have peace with God, through whom we have now received our Lord Jesus Christ; 2 the reconciliation. through whom we have access 12 For this reason, as through also [by faith] into this favour, one man sin entered into the wherein we stand, and boast, world, and death through sin; in the hope of the glory of God. and thus [death 7 hath passed 3 (And not only so, but we upon all men, inasmuch as all boast also in afflictions ; know- have sinned: 13 (for until the ing that affliction worketh pa- law, sin was in the world: but sin tience ; 4 and patience, expe- is not imputed, when there is rience; and experience, hope. 5 no law : 14 nevertheless, death And hope will' not make us reigned from Adam to Moses, ashamed: for the love of God even over those who had (not is shed abroad in our hearts, sinned after the likeness of through the holy spirit which | Adam's transgression, who is a is given us.)

resemblance of him who was 5 For though we were weak, to come:) 15 yet the free gift still Christ died, in due season, likewise is not so, as was the for the ungodly. 7 For scarcely offence ; for if through the offor a righteous man will any fence of one, the many died ; one die : (yet perhaps for a much more, the favour of God, good man some would even and the gift, which is through dare to die :) 8 but God com- the favour of one man, Jesus mended his love towards us, in Christ, hath abounded to the that, while we were still sinners, 1 80, many.s 16 Neither is the gift as it was through one who sin-1 ye not that as many of us as ned: for the judgment was of have been baptized into Jesus one offence to condemnation, but Christ, have been baptized into the free gift is of many offences his death? 4 We were thereto justification. 17 Forif, through fore buried with him, through the offence of one, death reign-baptism, into his death; that, as ed through one; much more, Christ was raised from the dead, those who receive the abound by the glorious power of the ing of favour and [of the gift] Father, so we also should walk of justification, will reign in life in newness of life. 5 For if we through one, even Jesus Christ. I have been planted together in

* Christ was delivered up for our offences; not to bear the punishment of them, nor to appease the anger of God; but to abolish the dispensation by which men were condemned as sinners, and to introduce a new and better dispensation by which they should be justified and treated as righteous. Thus he rose for their justification. See Eph. ii. 14-16.

+ It renders the sense here much more consistent by supposing the comma, in the Greek, to be placed after ouv, instead of being placed after TIOTEWS, which is here connected with Eigniny peace.“ Jesus was raised for our justification : therefore, being justified, we now, by faith in this justification have peace with God.” It is well known that the apostles wrote without points, especially commas. | This also refers to God's method of justification spoken of ch. i. 17; see above, ver. 1. $ Oi nonnol, the many, “the great body of mankind. See ver. 18, 19.” Newcome.

18 So then, as through the the likeness of his death, cer. offence of one, judgment came tainly also we shall be in the upon all men to condemnation ; likeness of his resurrection : 6 so likewise, through the righte- knowing this, that our old man ousness of one, the free gift hath hath been crucified with him, come upon all men to justifica-that the body of sin might be detion of life. 19 For as through stroyed, that we should no longthis disobedience of one the er be servants to sin. 7 For he many were made sinners, so who is dead, is freedt from sin. likewise through the obedience 8 Since then we have died of one the many will be made with Christ, we believe that righteous.* 20 Now the law we shall also live with him: 9 entered in, privily, so that of knowing that Christ, having fences abounded. But where | been raised from the dead, dieth sin abounded, the favour of no more; death hath no more God, hath much more abounded: dominion over him. 10 For in 21 that, as sin hath reigned in that he died, he died to sin death, so favour likewise might once : but in that he liveth, he reign, through justification, to liveth to God. 11 In like manaionian life, through Jesus ner, reckon .ye yourselves also Christ our Lord.

to be indeed dead to sin, but Ch. VI. 1 What shall we alive to God, in Christ Jesus. say then ? shall we continue in 12 Let not sin therefore sin, that the favour of God may reign in your mortal body, abound ? 2 By no means. How that ye should obey it : 13 nor shall we, who have died to sin, yield your members to sin, as live any longer in it ? 3 Know (instruments of unrighteousness;

* " Thongh the construction of this paragraph is intricate and obscure, nothing can be more obvious than this, that it is the apostle's intention to represent all mankind, without exception, as deriving greater benefit from the mission of Christ, than they suffered injury from the fall of Adam. The universality of the apostle's expressions is very remarkable. The same “ many," who were made sinners through the disobedience of the one, are made righteous through the obedience of the other. If all men are condemned through the offence of one, the same all are justified through the righteousness of the other. These universal terms, so frequently repeated, and so variously diversified, cannot be reconciled to the limitation of the blessings of the gospel to the elect alone, or to a part only of the human race. Compare i Cor. xv. 22, 23. See Chauncy on Universal Salvation. Prop. iv. p. 22, etc." Im. Ver. note.

† Gr. justified.

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