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be published, as soon as they can be prepared. Let them be so published, as to conform, in size and appearance, to those already issued. In the writings of Dr. E., however multiplied, there is no prolixity, sameness, or repetition. His ingenuity and power to interest were inexhaustible. Whatever subject he took in hand, his views were always fresh, striking, and original. We are decidedly of the opinion, that the remaining volumes are called for, and should be forthcoming without unnecessary delay.
If there is any one class of persons to whom, above all others, we would recommend the works of Dr. E., it is our young ministers, and those who are studying with a view to the ministry. To the older evangelical clergy, more especially of the Northern and Middle States, his writings are already, to some extent, familiar. They have read them, and pondered them, and been profited by them. But to the younger portion of the clergy, to candidates, and theological students, these writings will be, in great measure new. Nor should it be any objection to the reading of Emmons, that individuals do not adopt his sentiments. No matter (so far as the question of reading is concerned), whether you receive them, or not. No matter whether, on all points of disagreement, you shall be convinced, or not. The interest, the pleasure, the profit of reading him will not depend materially on this circumstance. Even if you reject many of his conclusions, you will, as one said before, "admire his logic." You will find yourselves more than repaid for the perusal of his works, by the force and ingenuity of his reasoning, by the originality and comprehensiveness of his views, by the example of his flowing, pellucid style, and the clearness of his method. The peculiarity and freshness of his thoughts, will awaken thought on your part. He will suggest views, considerations, arguments, which never occurred to you before. He will put you upon new topics of interesting study, and open before you fields of inquiry, which you may enter and explore for yourselves. Again, then, we say to the class of persons here addressed, By all means, read Emmons. And be not satisfied with reading the volumes once, and then laying them aside; but have them on your study table, or somewhere within the reach of your hand. They require not only to be read, but studied. They are among the few books, poured forth from the teeming modern press, which will bear study, and are worthy of it.
EXAMINATION OF THE REV. A. BARNES' REMARKS ON
HEBREWS 9: 16–18.*
By M. Stuart, Professor in the Theological Seminary, Andover..
I have read with attention, the remarks of my highly respected friend and brother, the Rev. A. Barnes, of Philadelphia, on the exegesis which I have given of Heb. 9: 16-18, in my volume of Commentary on this epistle. I need not assure him, who knows me so well, that I am not in any degree offended by his strictures; for of the manner of them I cannot complain ; and as to the matter of them—that only furnishes me with an occasion of reinvestigating the difficult passage, usually called difficult, to which he has invited my attention once more, in order that I may ascertain, at least for myself, still more definitely, whether I have defended an erroneous opinion. A somewhat thorough re-investigation of the whole subject has ended in the conviction, that Mr. B.'s arguments are not sufficient to establish the position, that I have misunderstood, and in my Commentary misinterpreted, the passage in question.
I hope and trust, that this state of mind is not the result of prejudice in favor of my former views. I have lived long enough to know that men are not infallible ; at all events, to know that I am not. I am one of those who believe, that in respect to many of the details of sacred science, truth is the daughter of time. I do not mean, of course, that truth in itself is changed by time, but that we must gradually and by protracted and patient effort come to the knowledge of many truths; and among these are to be found not a few, which are far from being unimportant. Being a full believer in all this, I deem it quite possible, that I may yet in many cases be justly corrected, as to my expositions of the Scriptures; and it
* Printed in the Biblical Repository, July, 1842.
can be hardly otherwise than certain, that in some I have failed to do justice to the sacred writers.
That Mr. B. differs in judgment from me respecting the true meaning of Heb. 9 : 16-18, I can have no right even to regret, unless I can be well assured that he is in the wrong and I in the right. There has been a difference of opinion among interpreters, respecting this passage, long before our time. It is not a case, however, out of which any heresy can well be made out on account of such a difference. And even if it could, my respected brother and myself are not among the class of men who are over-anxiously seeking after heresy, or over-zealous speedily 'and loudly to proclaim it on slight occasions. I trust we can look upon honest differences of opinion (and such there may be), on points like the present, as affording new impulse to study and investigation. Happy for all who must differ on such points, if they can turn the matter into such a shape as to make it a means of their own improvement, and perhaps of casting light on the paths of other inquirers. I trust that Mr. B. and myself will at least show, that we are not only disposed átndsísı šv årútin, but that we are capable of carrying into execution our good intentions.
If I may state, in the briefest compass possible, the grounds why Mr. B. has failed to satisfy me by his criticisms and arguments, I would say,
(1.) That his interpretation of several important words, in themselves considered, does not appear to me to be well grounded.
(2.) That some imporiant facts, on which the conclusion to which he comes mainly depends, do not appear to be correctly stated.
First, then, I must dissent, in various respects, from Mr. B.'s views of the meaning of drabuxn.
On page 52 et seq., he avers that diadaun “ does not properly denote compact, agreement, or covenant,” but that either “ συνθήκη, σύνθεσις, or συνθεσία,” is the appropriate word for such a meaning.” Again, on page 56 he avers the same thing, and also says, that “ although in classic Greek the word [dia@hun ) may have the notion of a covenant or compact remotely, yet it cannot be shown to have that meaning in a single instance in the Scriptures."
We join issue on these points, and proceed forthwith 10 the work of investigation.
I state, without fear of contradiction on the part of any who have made extensive investigation in respect to the words before us, that dadhxn, which in its most generic sense unquestionably means arrangement, disposition, disposal, in respect to any thing, is also employed, often and familiarly, in the sense of compact, agreement, or covenant, between two contracting parties of the same or the like condition or rank; yea is so employed in the Scriptures, as well as in the classics.
When Mr. B. states, and insists on it (as he often does), that ouvdíxen, or oúveedis, is the appropriate word for contract in Greek, he is plainly misled by the etymology of the word. A priori we should naturally conclude that the case is as he states ; for the preposition σύν, united with θήκη or θέσις, would seem very appropriately to denote contract, covenant, or compact. But usage has otherwise ordained, for the most part. Thus the word oúvoedis is appropriated mainly to rhetorical and logical expressions. It means the placing or putting together, i.e. composition, of words and sentences, as joined in ordinary speech or written composition. In logic, it means the joining or bringing together the different elements which form data for a general proposition or concluzion. In respect to this meaning of the word, it may be applied to mathematical, as well as other ratiocinative pro
It is only in an unusual and nearly tropical sense, (tropical, if usage be considered), that it is ever employed to designate contract, agreement, compact, etc.
Even so is it with ouvbsxn. I belongs to rhetoric and composition; and, so far as these are concerned, there is no difference between the signification of σύνθεσις and συνθήκη. . Of the two, the latter admits more frequently the tropical sense of compact, agreement, etc. But such a usage is quite seldom, either in sacred or profane writings.
In this latter sense, indeed, ouvdecía is prevailingly employed. But it also means, in the latter Greek, emulation, contention, rivalship, acted out so as in some way to come into clashing or contest. It might have been employed in common parlance, had usage so willed it, instead of diabhxn, to designate the idea of compact, covenant, etc. But it seems to have been almost in a state of general desuetude. The simple truth is, that diadhun has commonly usurped the place
of all these words, as employed to designate either compact, covenant, or agreement.
This is perfectly natural. Alabhxn, arrangement, disposition, is so generic, that it comprises every kind of arrangement. But, in far the greater number of cases where the word is employed, the context demands a specific or limited
This dadhxn very conveniently designates ; for at one time it is compact or agreement : at another, testament; at another, covenant; at another, statute, or law, or ordinance, i. e. authoritative arrangement; at another, promise of good ; at another, threat of punishment, i. e. arrangement for moral and retributive government. Nor do even these comprehend all its meanings. But these are enough for our present purpose.
The sequel will present the evidence in respect to such of these meanings as we are now concerned with. For the rest, I may refer to any good New Testament Lexicon, and also 10 any good Lexicon of the Septuagint ; but specially to the Concordances of the Greek Scriptures, i. e. both of the Old Testament and of the New.
For my statement in regard to the proper meaning of σύνθεσις, συνθήκη, and συνθεσία, I may refer to Passow's most excellent Greek Lexicon, which contains the sum of what I have stated. Confirmation of these statements I have sought for extensively elsewhere, and found it in abundance; but I do not think it necessary to occupy room here in stating my other sources. There is no good ground to doubt that Passow is in the right.
As to the fact of actual usage, I may appeal, in order to confirm what I have said, to the Septuagint, and to the New Testament. Not one of the words, συνθήκη, σύνθεσις or συνθεσία, ever occurs in the New Testament; and in the Septuagint we find no use of συνθεσία. The word σύνθεσις is indeed employed there, in a few cases; but only in the sense of composition, i. e. the compounding of things together, e. g. spices, unguents, etc.; see Exodus 35: 26, 30 : 35, 25: 6, al. It occurs some fifteen times, but always in such a
Suvohxn, however, occurs only three times in the whole of the Old Testament, viz. Isaiah 30 : 1, 28: 15, Dan. 11:6; and there in the sense of agreement or compact. But often as the idea of compact, etc., is designated in the Old Testa