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The duty of the officers appointed to prevent cruelty to animals has been stated above. They hold office two years, and receive $1,200 a year.

One public administrator is appointed in each county, whose duty it is to settle the estate of any person who dies in the county and leaves property, but no heirs or creditors.



Notaries piblic have authority to administer oaths, take acknowledgment of legal instruments, such as deeds and mortgages, and to do some other acts, such as writing down the evidence of witnesses, called “taking

“ depositions." These depositions have the same effect when read in court as evidence taken in court.

Commissioners of deeds are officers appointed by the governor of this State, but residing in other States They have authority to do about the same acts as are done by notaries public, which acts are of binding force in Illinois, though done in other States. All the above officers are paid in fees fixed by law.

The printer expert is a man of at least six years' experience as a practical printer, whose duty it is to examine the State contracts for printing, to see that the State is not cheated. His pay is $6 per day for the time

6 actually spent about his duties.

The adjutant-general is the officer through whom the governor, as commander-in-chief of the State militia, issues his orders to the militia. The adjutant-general roceives $1,500 per year.

Q. What is the acknowledgment of a deed ?
A. It is the act of the person who signed the deed, in

going before a notary public or other officer and declaring that he signed the deed.

STATE MILITIA. Q. What is the State militia ?

A. All able-bodied men between eighteen and fortyfive years

of age are liable to be called upon to serve as soldiers. These constitute the State militia. This term is usually applied only to those who voluntarily form themselves into companies and regiments and receive arms from the State.



Q. What is the judicial department of a State?

A. The judicial department of a State consists of those officers whose duty it is to explain and apply the laws of the State.

Q. Have we learned that the subdivisions of the State have judicial departments ?

A. Yes. Towns and precincts have justices of the peace and constables. Counties have county judges, clerks, sheriffs, and State's attorneys.

Q. What court is next above the county court?
A. The circuit court.

Q What can you say about the circuit courts of Illinois ?

A. The counties of the State, Cook county being excepted, are arranged by the legislature in thirteen divisions, called circuits. Cook county alone constitutes a circuit.

CIRCUIT COURT OFFICERS. In each circuit, three judges are elected once in six years. Two of these act as circuit judges. The third acts as one of the judges of the appellate courts. Court is held at least one term in a year in each county of the circuit.

Q. Who are the other officers of the circuit courts?

A. The sheriffs and circuit clerks and their assistants, and masters-in-chancery in their respective counties.

Q. Who else assist the judge in the performance of his duties?

A. The petit and grand juries.
Q. What jurisdiction have circuit courts ?

A. They have original jurisdiction in all criminal offenses against the laws of Illinois, and in all civil disputes between citizens of the State.

They have appellate jurisdiction in cases tried before justices of the peace and the county court.

Q. What are criminal offenses and civil disputes ? (See page 18.)

APPELLATE COURTS. Q. What are the courts next above the circuit courts? A. The appellate courts. Q. Describe these?

A. The State is divided into four appellate court districts. Each district has three judges. These are appointed by the supreme court from the judges elected in the circuits.

Each district has a clerk, elected for a term of six years.

The sheriff of the county in which the court is held must attend the sessions of the court or appoint a deputy to do so.

Q. What kinds of cases can be taken to the appellate courts?

A. Nearly all kinds of cases, except criminal cases, may be appealed from the county and circuit courts to

the appellate courts. Criminal and a few other cases must be appealed directly to the supreme court.

Q. What about the decisions of appellate courts ?

A. In all cases where less than $1,000 is in dispute their decisions are final. If the sum in dispute is $1,000 or more, an appeal may be taken from the appellate to the supreme court.



Q. What can you say of the supreme court ?

A. The State is divided into three grand divisions for the purpose of holding terms of the supreme court. The court consists of seven judges, elected for a term of nine years. The State is divided into seven districts for the election of these judges, each district electing one. Each of the three grand divisions elects a clerk for a term of six years.

Q. What jurisdiction has the supreme court ?

A. It has original jurisdiction in cases relating to the revenues of the State and in respect to two or three other matters, and appellate jurisdiction in civil cases involving $1,000 or more, and in criminal cases. Its decisions are final, except in cases of conflict between Illinois law and United States law.

In such cases, appeal can be taken to the supreme court of the United States.


Q. What are the salaries of the officers of the above courts?

A. Circuit judges receive $3,500 per year, except in Cook county, where they receive $7,000. Circuit clerks receive salaries fixed by the county boards. Appellate judges receive the same pay as circuit judges. Judges of the supreme court receive $5,000 per year. Appellate and supreme court clerks and masters-in-chancery receive their pay in fees regulated by law.

All these officers must take the usual official oath, and the clerks must give bonds.



Q. What other political units are there in Illinois besides towns, townships, and counties?

A. Cities and villages.
Q. How many kinds of cities are there?
A. Two.
Q. State the difference between them?

A. One is organized and governed according to a general law made by the legislature for the benefit of such cities as may vote to organize under it.

The other is organized and goverņed in accordance with a special charter granted to it by the legislature.

Q. What is a charter ?

A. It is a grant of certain privileges, and is, besides, intended for the government of the corporation to which these privileges are given.

OFFICERS AND THEIR DUTIES. Q. Describe the government of the first kind of cities?

A. Its legislative department consists of a body called the common council. The city is divided into a certain number of parts called “wards.” Each of these elects two members of the council for a term of two years.

The chief executive officer is a mayor, elected for a term of two years.


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