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To arrest, if necessary to prevent escape, any one suspected of killing the deceased.

To act as sheriff, if the sheriff's office becomes vacant, or if the sheriff is interested in any suit.

CIRCUIT CLERK AND RECORDER OF DEEDS. Q. What other offices, besides those of county and probate judge, are sometimes united and filled by one man?

A. The offices of clerk of the circuit court and recorder of deeds.

Q. Where are these offices united and where separate ?

A. In counties of less than 60,000 inhabitants they are united.

In counties of 60,000, or more, they are separate.

Q. What are some of the duties of clerk of the circuit court ?

A. To attend the sessions of the circuit court in his county, and make a record in books provided for the purpose of all the proceedings of that court.

To keep an account of the costs of suits, such as fees of the sheriff, clerk, and witnesses.

To issue process, that is, to write down the orders of the court, and give these orders to the sheriff and his assistants to execute.

Q. Who pay the costs of suits?

A. Generally the persons against whom suits are decided.

Q. What are the principal duties of recorders ?

A. To obtain suitable books, and, when requested, to record in these, deeds, mortgages, and all other papers relating to the title to land, and to record also chattel mortgages.

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DEEDS. Q. What is a deed?

A. It is a writing showing that a certain piece of land described in it is the property of the person named in the writing as owner or grantee.

RECORDING DEEDS.

Q. What is “recording” a deed ?

A. It is making a copy of it in one of the recorder's books.

Q. What are deeds recorded for?

A. That the recorder's books may show who owns the land, if the deeds are lost.

MORTGAGES.

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Q. What is a mortgage ?

A. It is a writing showing that a certain piece of land, or other property, will become the property of a person named in the writing and called the mortgagee, if the owner, or mortgagor, of the land or other property, does not pay the mortgagee a certain sum of money at a given time. A chattel mortgage is a mortgage of other property than land.

TREASURER.

Q. For what term is the county treasurer elected ? (See page 22.)

Q. Who is treasurer in your county ?
Q. What are some of a treasurer's duties?

A. To receive and take care of all money paid for taxes, and to pay it out on the order of the county board, or in the manner specially provided by law.

To keep books of his accounts as treasurer, and have them always open to the inspection of the public.

To report to the county board at each of its regular sessions all sums of money received and paid out by him.

SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS. Q. Name the superintendent of schools in your county. When was he elected ? When does his term expire ?

Q. What are some of his duties?

A. To visit schools, notice the manner of teaching, branches taught, text books used, and the general condition of schools.

To instruct teachers in the best methods of teaching. To hold county teachers' institutes.

To hold examination for teachers' license at least once every three months.

To decide disputes on questions of school law.

To divide the money received from the State among the townships in proportion to the children under twentyone years of age in each township.

To examine and approve the bonds of township school treasurers before issuing money to them.

To report to the State superintendent whatever facts the latter needs for his report to the governor.

THE DEPARTMENTS OF COUNTY GOVERNMENT. Q. What departments has county government ?

A. The same as town government; namely, legislative, executive and judicial.

Q. Explain each?

A. The county board is the legislative or law-making department. It adopts measures for the benefit of the whole county, such as those for the erection of county buildings, for the care of the county's paupers, and so forth.

The county clerk, treasurer, recorder, superintendent of schools, form the executive department. They execute the laws made by the county board (and State legislature). The committees of the county board, acting as committees, also perform executive duties ; that is, they carry into effect the measures or laws passed by the whole board.

The judicial department consists of the county judge, sheriff, State's attorney, coroner, and county clerk when he acts as clerk of the county court. It is the duty of these officers to enforce obedience to the laws made by the county board and the State legislature. The circuit clerk is not, strictly speaking, a member of either department of the county government, although he is elected by the county. He is an officer of the circuit court, which will be described hereafter.

Q. State the relation of the three departments ?

A. The legislative department, by a vote of a majority of its members, commands that certain things be done. The executive officers do the things commanded, or cause them to be done.

If these officers are resisted or hindered in their duties, the judicial officers help them by punishing the persons resisting or hindering.

COUNTIES NOT UNDER TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION.

Q. What can you say of county government in counties not under township organization ?

A. The county board consists of three commissioners, elected for a term of three years. They have nearly all the powers of county supervisors, and have, besides, the powers of all town officers, except school officers. They hold five regular meetings a year.

The other officers of such counties are the same as in counties

under township organization, and they have the same duties to perform, except that the sheriff acts also as county collector.

COMPENSATION-BONDS-OATH. Q. How is the pay of officers in both kinds of counties determined ?

A. The county boards fix the amount of compensation of each officer.

Q. What must officers do before entering on the duties of their offices ?

A. Such officers as have public money committed to their care must give bonds for their good behavior and faithfulness in office, and all must take an oath that they will support the constitution of the United States and the constitution of Illinois, and will faithfully perform the duties of their offices.

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THE LEGISLATURE. Q. In treating of the government of the town and of the county, which department was described first?

A. The legislative or law-making.

Q. Pursuing the same plan with the State, what is our next topic?

A. The legislature of Illinois. (The legislature is also called the “ general assembly.”)

Q. Describe it, and explain the election of its members ?

A. The legislature consists of two parts, known as the “lower house” and “upper house." Members of the

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