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PRIVILEGES OP CITIZENS. SEC. 2. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges and immuni. ties of citizens in the several States.
A person charged in any State with treason, felony or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the crime.
RUNAWAYS TO BE DELIVERED UP. No person held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.
NEW STATES. SEC. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.
TERRITORIAL AND OTHER PROPERTY. The Congress shall have power to dispose of, and make all needful rules and regulations respecting, the territory, or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
SEC. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and, on application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature can not be convened), against domestic violence.
AMENDMENTS. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution; or, on the application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by Congress; provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.
All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution as under the Confederation.
SUPREME LAW OF TIIE LAND. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States shall be the supreme law of the land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
OATH.--NO RELIGIOUS TEST. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to
'Tice, or public trust, under the United States.
ARTICLE VII. The ratifications of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same.
Done in Convention, by the unanimous consent of the States present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.
President, and Deputy from Virginia. New Hampshire-John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman. Massachusetts-Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King. Connecticut-William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman. New York-Alexander Hamilton. New Jersey-William Livingston, David Brearley, William Patterson, Jonathan Dayton. Pennsylvania – Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimmons, Jared Ingersoll,James Wilson, Gouverneur Morris. Delaware-George Read, Gunning Bedford, Jr., John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom. Maryland-James M'Henry, Daniel of St. Tho. Jenifer, Daniel Carroll. Virginia–John Blair, James Madison, Jr. North Carolina – William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson. South Carolina - John Rutledge, Chas. Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler. Georgia-William Few, Abraham Baldwin.
WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.
[The first ten amendments were proposed by Congress at their first session, in 1789. The eleventh was proposed in 1794, and the twelfth in 1803.]
FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
NO SOLDIER TO BE BILLETED, ETC. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
UNREASONABLE SEARCHES PROHIBITED. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in a - - arvice, in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject from
in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.
MODE OF TRIAL.
In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjuy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
RIGHT OF TRIAL BY JURY. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no fact tried by jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States than according to the rules of the common law.
BAIL.--FINES. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
RIGHTS NOT ENUMERATED, The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
POWERS RESERVED. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively or to the people.
LIMITATION OF JUDICIAL POWER. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State.
The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President sball be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such a majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose ime diately by ballot the President. But in choosing the President, the vote s. taken by States, the representatives from each State having one vote; for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-th States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice.
House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.
The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.
But no person Constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.
[Ratified in 1865.]
ARTICLE XIII. SEC. 1. Neither Slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
SEC. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Ratified in 1868
ARTICLE XIV. SEC. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges and immunities of citizens of the United States. Nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the iaws.
SEC. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed; but whenever the right to vote at any election for electors of President and Vice-President, or United States kepresentatives in Congress, executive and judicial officers, or the members of the Legislature there. of, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crimes, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in that State.
SEC. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civilor military, under dhe United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof; but Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability,
SEC. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States authorized by law, including debts incurred for the payment of pepsions and bounties for service in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned; but neither the United States nor any State shall assume to pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave, but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be illegal and void.
SEC. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
[Katified in 1870.)
ARTICLE XV. SEC. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude.
sti SEC. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this Art. appropriate legislation. UNI).