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cious acceptation, and grant of the gift of righteousness, as that by which we are formally justified; or those works of preventing grace, whereby out of the general apprehension of faith God worketh in us dislike of our former condition, desire to be reconciled to God, to have remission of sins past, and grace hereafter to decline the like evils, and do contrary good things. For by these we are prepared, disposed, and fitted for justification. Without these we are not justified. And in this sense, and to imply a necessity of these to be found in us, sometimes the Fathers say that we are not justified by faith only. And we all agree that it is not our conversion to God, nor the change which we find in ourselves, that can any way make us stand in judgment without fear, and look for any good from God, otherwise than in that we find ourselves so disposed and fitted, as is necessary for justification; whence we assure ourselves God will in mercy accept us for Christ's sake."
Permit me to say, that Knox's argument is, at least, no clap trap." What is the nature of the righteousness in which we are accepted is a pure question of Scriptural interpretation; but when it is alleged against the doctrine of justification (in any form), by an inherent righteousness, that it is inimical to "peace and joy in believing," and the cases of Dr. Johnson and others are cited in proof of the allegation, it is surely pertinent and legitimate to reply, that the Fathers who held this doctrine "abounded in hope," and "rejoiced in the Lord alway."
**We have inserted the above, lest we should seem unfairly to suppress our correspondent's argument; but we adhere to what we said in the remarks on his former paper last month, page 455. We there adduced testimony in proof that the compilers of our Homilies, and our principal divines, considered that all antiquity upheld the doctrine of justification by faith. At the same time Calvin is correct in saying, in the words which precede those cited by our correspondent, that "the very sentence of Augustine, or at least his manner of speaking, is not altogether to be received;"-we quote from the English translation of the Institutes, by Norton, in order to refer the vernacular reader (scholars will prefer the excellent Latinity of the original text) to the whole of that admirable chapter, in which Calvin refutes the notions of Osiander; and proves from Scripture that "although we be not justified unless Christ dwell in our hearts, yet it is not the essential possessing of Christ as God, which doth justify;" nor are we justified by "I wot not what monster of essential righteousness." Calvin affiliates this doctrine upon "the sophisters" and the "schoolmen ;" and does not accuse the Fathers of holding it. We think that he considered the Fathers as in the main holding the Scriptural doctrine of justification by faith, though he admits that in one particular passage in St. Angustine, which Lombard appealed to, Augustine's opinion, or at least his manner of speaking, is not altogether to be received."
As to the doctrine itself, the Scriptures, and not the Fathers, are our only rule of faith; and there we leave the matter. We have already admitted that the Fathers, even when essentially right, are not always clear and distinct in their enunciation of doctrine. The Church of Christ is much indebted to the Protestant Reformers for introducing a strictness of theological statement, which is not generally to be found in the old writers. Calvin-we speak without reference to any particular opinion which he held-was remarkable for this precision; and we gladly take the opportunity of this passing allusion to his name, which of late years has been very unfairly dealt with, to mention that a Society has been formed upon the plan of the Parker, Woodrow, and Camden
Societies, for re-publishing the old English translations of Calvin's voluminous works, which were widely circulated in England during the reigns of Edward the Sixth and Elizabeth. Ten annual subscriptions of one sovereign, it is hoped, will suffice. The Society's circular mentions Norton's version as having been printed in octavo in 1561, 1562, 1580; in quarto in 1582, 1583, 1587; and in folio in 1634. Our copy is folio, 1811; which excellent edition is omitted in the Society's catalogue. What our Reformers thought of Calvin may be inferred from Hooker's well-known eulogy in the preface to his Ecclesiastica] Polity. Hooker's own works, especially his discourse on Justification, prove what we have noticed relative to the strict accuracy of doctrinal statement, especially in regard to faith and works, justification and sanctification, which our Reformers and early Anglican divines were careful to adhere to, in distinction to the vagueness of the Fathers, and the unscriptural tenets of the Church of Rome. The very passage quoted by our correspondent from Dean Field, (who was born in 1561, and died in 1616, and whose works were republished at Oxford in 1628), shews the technical discrimination with which the points in question were regarded. Our correspondent has not mentioned which edition of Field he quotes from, (or even the work; his books "Of the Church," originally published in 1606-1610); but we remember that the Scots, in their "Canterburian Self-conviction," (folio 1641), accused Archbishop Laud of having interpolated and corrupted Dr. Field's work in the edition of 1628. We have only the edition of 1628 at hand while we are writing; but it might be well to ascertain whether the words which our correspondent has quoted are Field's own uncorrupted text.
DR. PUSEY'S RHAPSODICAL STYLE.
To the Editor of the Christian Observer.
You have alluded in your last Number to the Rev. Dr. Pusey's false doctrine respecting the Lord's Supper, which has been justly censured by the authorities at Oxford; but you do not notice his frequently rhapsodical style, which often renders his meaning cloudy, as perhaps he intends it to be, in order that the initiated may discover what they wish, while the offence of direct statement is avoided. In proof of my remark, I will copy a passage, to which, after perusing it several times, I can affix no clear sense, no definite idea.
"The teaching of the whole, as far as such as we may grasp it, is this. That he is the Living Bread, because He came down from heaven, and as being One God with the Father, hath life in Himself, even as the Father hath life in Himself; the life then which He is He imparted to that Flesh which He took into Himself, yea, which He took so wholly, that Holy Scripture says, He became it, the Word became flesh,' and since it is thus a part of Himself, Whoso eateth My Flesh and drinketh My Blood,' (He Himself says the amazing words,) eateth Me,' and so receiveth into Himself in an ineffable manner his Lord Himself, dwelleth' (our Lord says)'in Me and I in him,' and having Christ within him, not only shall he have, but he hath' already eternal Life,' because he hath Him who is the Only True God and Eternal Life;' and so Christ will raise him up at the last Day,' because he hath His life in him. Receiving Him into this very body, they who are His receive life, which shall pass over to our very decaying flesh; they have within them Him who is Life and Immortality and Incorruption, to cast out or absorb into itself our natural mortality, and death, and corruption, and shall live for ever,' because made one with Him Who Alone liveth for evermore.' It is not then life only as an outward gift to be possessed by us, as His gift; it is no mere strengthening and refreshing of our souls by the renewal, and confirming our wills,
and invigorating of our moral nature, giving us more fixedness of purpose, or implanting in us Christian graces; it is no gift, such as we might imagine given to the most perfect of God's created beings in himself. Picture we the most perfect wisdom, knowledge, strength, harmony, proportion, brightness, beauty, fitness, completeness of created being; fair as was that angel in the garden of God' before he fell; the seal of comeliness, full of wisdom, and complete in beauty—perfect in his ways from the day he was created.' Yet let this be a perfection, upheld indeed of God, yet external to him, as a mere creation, and it would fall unutterably short of the depth of the mystery of the Sacraments of Christ, and the gift, the germ whereof is therein contained for us; although such as we actually are, we know that, for strength we have weakness, for knowledge ignorance, our nature jarring still, disharmonised, obscured, deformed, both by the remains of original corruption and our own superadded sins. For the life therein bestowed is greater than any gift, since it is life in Christ, life through His indwelling, Himself Who is Life.
What is the purport of all this? The believer knows what is meant by spiritual union with Christ, and feeding upon him in his heart by faith with thanksgiving, as our church beautifully and scripturally expresses it; nor is the blessed "mystical union between Christ and the church -mystical though it is a vague unintelligible notion; and even the Romanist doctrine of transubstantiation conveys a well-defined idea, though one most gross and absurd, namely, that the consecrated elements become the body and blood of Christ by actual literal transformation into human flesh, so that the partaker of the Lord's Supper receives within himself the real material body which hung upon the cross, and which becomes carnally incoporated with his very substance like any other food. But Dr. Pusey shrouds his meaning in a mist of rhapsodical words, which are intelligible only in their negative import—namely, that the effects of the Lord's Supper are not exclusively spiritual; as connected with faith, or "the strengthening and refreshing of our souls, by the renewal and confirming our wills, and invigorating of our moral nature, giving us more fixedness of purpose, or implanting [rather sustaining] in us Christian graces;" but as to the positive side of the question, Dr. Pusey wraps up his ideas in terms of transcendental ambiguity: which, if they do not point to actual transubstantiation, are unmeaningly inflated; and if they do, ought in plain dealing to have been expressed in clear words. There is not a more intelligible chapter in the Bible than the Sixth of St. John, to a Christian who receives Christ simply by faith, whether in the Lord's Supper, or in any other spiritual exercise; but proceed one step beyond this, and all is darkness, confusion, and fanaticism.
ON BOWING AT THE NAME OF JESUS.
To The Editor of the Christian Observer.
THE eighteenth canon directs "due and lowly reverence when in time of divine service the name of the Lord Jesus is mentioned;" but having lately witnessed the effect of this in a large church where it has been introduced, I cannot but think that the devout intention of the church is best carried out by bowing at the name of Jesus only in the creeds. I do not consider that the canons are so strictly binding that none of them are to be regarded as virtually set aside by long custom (unless revived by due authority); for all our clergy habitually violate some of them; and if tolerated prescription is pleadable in any case, I feel convinced that it is in the matter above mentioned. The constant effort of
the officiating clergyman and the congregation to mark the recurrence of the name of Jesus distracts attention, and the "lowly reverence," when repeated, as it often is, several times within a few lines in reading the New Testament, is far from appearing devout or solemn; and if, as in the case of the children in charity-schools, it becomes almost a mechanical act, it is rather a mockery than an acceptable service.
The effect is not so constrained or disturbing in the prayers as in the reading of the Lessons, Epistles, and Gospel; but in either case, it is apt to wear an aspect of formality rather than of spontaneous reverence. I once tried the plan quietly in my private reading, intending, if I found that it kept up my attention or solemnized my spirit, to persist in it; but it "put me out," and wearied my attention without any corresponding benefit. Without meaning to be uncharitable, it seemed to me that the clergyman whom I allude to, was so much occupied with watching for the recurrence of the word Jesus, that he mentally broke the thread of the sacred narrative, and did not read it so impressively as if he was simply conveying its sense and spirit. For myself, I was obliged to close my eyes, or to turn my face from the reader, to prevent distraction of mind.
AN OLD-FASHIONED CHURCHMAN.
INQUIRY RESPECTING THE BLESSED CONFESSOR, JOHN MOLE. To the Editor of the Christian Observer.
CAN your correspondents favour me with any information (which I dare say would be interesting to others as well as myself) respecting that blessed confessor" (so Bishop Hall calls him) John Mole, to whom that venerable prelate addressed one of his most interesting and affecting epistles, and of whom he has left a glowing testimony upon record in another singularly beautiful and original letter, (to whom addressed is not known) entitled, "The Free Prisoner; or the comfort of restraint: written some while since in the Tower (of London)." The good Bishop's words are these :
"You see then, by this time, how little reason I have to be too much troubled with this imprisonment; or my friends for me. But, indeed, there are some sorts of prisoners which neither you nor I can have tears enough to bewail. And those, especially, of two kinds: the one, those that are too much affected with an outward bondage: the other, those that are no whit affected with a spiritual.
"In the first rank are they that sink under the weight of their irons. Poor impotent souls, that, groaning under the cruelty of a Turkish thraldom, or a Spanish Inquisition, want faith to bear them out against the impetuous violences of their
"I sorrow for their sufferings; but for their fainting more. Could they see the crown of glory, which the righteous Judge holds ready for their victorious patience, they could not but contemin pain, and all the pomp of death; and confess, that their light affliction, which is but for a moment, works for them a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory. But, alas, it is the weakness of their eyes, that they only look at the things that are seen; close walls, heavy fetters, sharp scourges, merciless racks, and other dreadful engines of torture; and see not the things which are not seen, the glorious reward of their victory, blessedness.
"But, alas, whatever our desires and purposes may be, it is not for every one to attain to the glory of martyrdom. This is the highest pitch that earthly saints are capable of. He must be more than a man, whom pain and death cannot remove from his holy resolutions; and especially the lingering execution of both.
"It is well if an age can yield one Mole. In what terms shall I commemorate thee, O thou blessed Confessor, the great example of invincible constancy, in these backsliding times, if at least thy rare perseverance be not more for wonder than imitation whom thirty years' tedious durance, in the Inquisitory of Rome, could not weary out of thy sincere profession of the Evangelical truth?
"All this while, thou wert not allowed the speech, the sight of any, but thy persecutors. Here was none to pity thee; none to exhort thee. If either force or persuasion, or proffers of favour, or threats of extremity, could have wrought thee for thy perversion, thou hadst not at last died ours. Blessed be the God of all comfort, who, having stood by thee, and made thee faithful to the death, hath now given thee a crown of life and immortality; and left thee a noble pattern of Christian fortitude, so much more remarkable, as less frequently followed."
Surely there must be some account extant of such a man, and it must be my defect of reading that I have not met with it. Bishop Hall's letter, addressed to him in the dungeons of the Inquisition, is a composition which those who have not read it, will peruse with affectionate interest, and those who have will be glad to be reminded of. I will copy a considerable portion of it.
"What passage can these lines hope to find, into that your strait and curious thraldom? Yet who would not adventure the loss of this pains for him, which is ready to lose himself for Christ? What do we not owe to you, which have thus given yourself for the common faith? Blessed be the name of that God who hath singled you out for his champion, and made you invincible. How famous are your bonds! how glorious your constancy! Oh, that out of your close obscurity, you could but see the honour of your suffering; the affections of God's saints; and, in some, the holy envy at your distressed happiness.
"Those walls cannot hide you. No man is attended with so many eyes, from earth and heaven. The Church, your Mother, beholds you; not with more compassion, than joy: neither can it be said, how she, at once, pities your misery, and rejoices in your patience. The blessed Angels look upon you with gratulation and applause the adversaries, with an angry sorrow, to see themselves overcome by their captive; their obstinate cruelty overmatched, with humble resolution and faithful perseverance. Your Saviour sees you from above; not as a mere spectator, but as a patient with you, in you, for you: yea, as an agent in your endurance and victory; giving new courage with the one hand, and holding out a crown with the other. Whom would not these sights encourage?
"Who now can pity your solitariness? The hearts of all good men are with you. Neither can that place be but full of angels, which is the continual object of so many prayers: yea, the God of Heaven was never so near you, as now you are removed from men. Let me speak a bold, but true word: It is as possible for him to be absent from his heaven, as from the prisons of his Saints. The glorified spirits, above, sing to him: he is magnified, in both; present, with both; the faith of the one, is as pleasing to him, as the triumph of the other.
"What need I to stir up your constancy, which hath already amazed and wearied your persecutors? No suspicion shall drive me hereto; but rather the thirst of your praise. He that exhorts to persist in well-doing, while he persuades, commendeth. Whither should I rather send you, than to the sight of your own Christian fortitude? which neither prayers nor threats have been able to shake. Here stand, on the one hand, liberty, promotion, pleasure, life, and, which easily exceeds all these, the dear respect of wife and children, whom your only resolution shall make widow and orphans; these, with smiles and vows and tears, seem to importune you on the other hand, bondage, solitude, horror, death, and the most lingering of all miseries, ruin of posterity; these, with frowns and menaces, labour to affright you; betwixt both you have stood unmoved; fixing your eyes right forward upon the cause of your suffering, or upwards upon the crown of your reward.
"Look still, for what you suffer; and for whom: for the truth; for Christ.
"What can be so precious as truth? Not life itself. All earthly things are not so vile to life, as life to truth: life is momentary; truth eternal life is ours; the truth, God's. O happy purchase, to give our life for the truth!
"What can we suffer too much for Christ? He hath given our life to us: he hath given his own life for us. What great thing is it, if he require what he hath given us; if ours, for his? yea, rather if he call for what he hath lent us? yet not to bereave, but to change it; giving us gold for clay, glory for our corruption. Behold that Saviour of yours weeping and bleeding, and dying for you: alas! our souls are too strait for his sorrows: we can be made but pain for him; he was made sin for us.
"Look up to your future estate, and rejoice in the present. Behold the tree of life, the hidden manna, the sceptre of power, the morning star, the white garment, the new name, the crown and throne of heaven, are addressed for you. Overcome, CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 69. 3 Y