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(2) Vav relative with the second Mode cannot be employed by reason of the form, when a word must stand before the verb. The proper meaning of this form [Vav relative with 2nd Mode] can be designated only when the connection is appropriate; so that the verb cannot be in this Mode unless it stands with a in its full significance at the beginning of a clause. If a word necessarily stands before such a verb with, then this becomes a simple Vav copulative, and the Future becomes a simple Aorist, as in the beginning of a discourse, without any intimate connection with the preceding clause.

(3) The second Mode with Vav relative cannot stand before a clause, (a) Which begins with, inasmuch as this must always precede the verb; e. g. may by 2, then he commanded, but he would not. (b) When one or more words, on account of their importance or in the way of antithesis are set before the verb, it takes the first Mode: as 'then called he the dry land earth, but the collection of the waters he called

.10 :1 .Gen , וַיִּקְרָאיייוּ קָרָא,seas

$479. When one or more words, which of themselves make a short sentence or even one of considerable extent, are inserted before a verb which in itself might be joined with Vav relative after a train of thought, it frequently happens, that instead of the mere copula [which in such a case might be expected according to the principles above developed], the formula "??, and then it was or happened, is employed [before such inserted words]; and thus the force of the relation is preserved in such a way, that after this either Vav relative may follow, when some consequence is deduced in the next clause out of the previously inserted clause, or (with less strict limitation) the Aorist. This last is more usually made by the Praeter with Vav prefixed, § 481.

The formula is made use of most commonly, (1) Before some limitation of time expressed or implied. (a) Before some definite expression of a limitation; as 72, and it came to pass after such things. (b) Before an implied limitation; as 77, and it came to pass as he was coming, Judg. 3: 26; 122 87 2771, and it came to pass while he was bowing himself, Is. 37: 38.

(2) Less frequent is the use of before other kinds of words, particularly when they do not intimate any thing but an obscure or very distant limitation of time; as

, and it came to pass-the remnant-they even dispersed,

1 Sam. 11: 11. writers put

10: 11. Is. 22: 7.
at the beginning of a book.

Only the late Hebrew

Vav relative with the first Mode.

§ 480. The first mode [Praeter] with Vav relative is employed when the idea is designated of an action which is certain, and (if it is still to be done) so good as already completed, (§ 472). In this capacity it may answer to our Present. It is so employed, that the second Mode (used as an Aorist) must precede it, or at least must be implied in case the idea of relation falls away [?]; so that, since Vav relative of the second Mode [Future] is usually employed as a correlative to the first Mode, there arises, by such a usage, the most complete distinction of both Aorists and relative forms of tense. Hence this Vav relative of the first Mode is found exactly in all cases where the second Mode as Aorist is employed, § 473.* Consequently,

(1) In a description of the future; where it is the more definite form, when compared with the Vav relative and second Mode; as he will go and then fight. It is not necessary, however, [to the employment of the first Mode with relative], that the future should be spoken of in the preceding clause, or that the second Mode should stand in it. Any form. of the verb may precede, or a clause without a verb, and a conclusion may be drawn relative to the future from the present; as 'There is no fear of God here, , and so (i. e. since this is so) they will kill me,' Gen. 20: 11. So, too, a conclusion from the past may be drawn; e. g. This hath touched thy lips, and so thy sin will depart,' ..., Is. 6: 7.


(2) Vav relative with the first Mode is employed for the Present, and is particularly frequent in respect to actions repeated or continuing; as he flees before the lion and falls upon the bear,..., Amos 5: 19. Nah. 3: 12. Job 7: 4 (where the proper alteration of tone is wanting). Hence this form is frequent in describing actions of the past, which are continued or often repeated. Indeed this is one of the principal uses of this form, and separates it sufficiently from the second Mode as described in $ 476; e. g. A mist


I have translated this as literally as I could; I do not profess to understand it. M. S.

ascended (was continually going up) and then it watered the earth.*

Every form of the verb may also precede this use of the first Mode; so that not only the second Mode, but the participle when it marks a state or condition during which something else was done or was in a particular state ($484), and then this, with the particular things involved in it, is further described; as in Gen. 2: 10. 37: 7. Jos. 6: 13. Is. 6: 2, 3. 1 Sam. 17: 20. So too the second Mode with Vav relative may precede, inasmuch as the description of things past often includes the idea of things frequently repeated, or in some particular cases even renders prominent the idea of repetition; as in 1 Sam. 1: 3. 7: 15. 16: 23. Gen. 30: 41, 42. 38: 9. The later writers, however, began to commingle this form with the second Mode, when the discourse related to the past; see Gen. 37: 7. Ruth 4: 7. Job 1: 4, 5.†

(3) This relative first Mode follows the second Mode when it stands in the sense of the Conjunctive, and thus employed it describes merely the necessary and certain consequences of the first action; as, that he may not come and then smite me, Gen. 32: 12. Consequently this form may be employed,

(4) After the Imperative and Jussive, when the force of the command ceases, and the subsequent description merely relates what followed as a consequence; as innapii, smite him, and then do thou bury him; 81 727, speak, so that thou shalt say, 1 K. 2: 31. Lev. 1: 2. Gen. 41:34-36. But if the force of the command or wish still continues, the Jussive or Imperative form is also continued, and this either with or with

-כא out

§ 481. Finally the first relative Mode is altogether like the second Mode, in several respects as it regards external significancy or position.

(1) It cannot stand in the beginning of a sentence or clause; but still it is indifferent what the form of the preceding verb or clause may be (comp. § 477). An unfinished clause may precede, from which a deduction is made by the verb in the rela

* But here the Future indicates action just as often repeated as the other marked by the Praeter. The example proves quite too much for the author. M. S.

[Genesis then is a late writing!]

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tive first Mode; as no, because of thy name, i. e. because thy name is so great, so wilt thou forgive, Ps. 25: 11. A clause designating time may also precede; as

, at evening (when it is evening) then shall ye know, Ex. 16: 6, 7. 17: 4. Gen. 3: 5.

(2) The Aorist is managed here, on account of either meaning or form altogether in a manner like that of the relative second Mode (§ 478); and since this relative first mode, employed as an Aorist, is a correlative of the second Mode, so this latter is regularly and for the sake of complete correspondence always employed after it [the first Mode] as an Aorist. In the beginning of a sentence the first Mode relative sometimes stands to designate the Future, § 472; but when this is so done, the seccad Mode as Aorist of course follows; e. g. Gen. 17: 12. Deut. 15: 6. Only the poets (according to § 492) employ the first Mode for the future, and this but seldom; as in Job 5: 20. s. 11:8. If however the discourse turns upon a thing, which, in comparison with other future things may be regarded as past, then the first relative Mode may be employed.

(3) In cases where may be employed, (see § 479), may also be employed; e. g. before limitations of time, as , and it will come to pass at that time. So before particles serving to mark designations of time; as D, and it shall come to pass if—. Or if the discourse has respec to the past, then render, so oft as; Num. 21: 9. Gen. 38: 9. And so, also, before any words which indicate limitations of time; e. g. Gen. 4: 14, and it shall be (1) that every one who findeth me, etc., whenever one finds me, Ex. 18: 22. In other cases likewise; e. g. Hos. 2: 1. Deut. 7; 12. Is. 3:

24. 7:22.


Participle or relative Tense.

$482. Since the Participle has its origin in the verb, but its form and immediate signification from the adjective, so it is distinguished, when employed as a predicate with the significancy and construction of a verb, from the Modes [Praeter and Future], inasmuch as it presents an action rather as continuing, established, enduring, while the Modes designate merely the practising or development of an action. Hence the Participle is the tense of enduring condition or state; which is explicable

on the ground of its reference to another time present in thought or words; it is the relative Tense. It is accordingly employed,

§ 483. (1) Only in sentences, when the condition is evident from circumstances to the hearer; viz. (a) For the Present relative, in respect to an action still continuing; as, I [am] going, or I go at the present moment, Judg. 17: 9. Often is prefixed, in order to indicate the continuing state; as, as e, behold! thy brother is angry, Gen. 27: 42. The Participle is distinguished, when used for the Present, from the second Mode employed in the like way (§ 473), inasmuch as the first indicates simply the continuance of a thing, action, etc., while the second indicates the renewal or repetition of it, or the continually originating state.*

(b) For the Future relative, in respect to an action which one has already determined to do, and so that the future is indicated in this way as speedily to follow the present moment; e. g., we are about to destroy, Gen. 19: 13, 14. Often here, also, with preceding.

(c) For the Praeter relative; which, however, must be evident to the hearer from other description of the past; and therefore rarely used in this sense when placed alone, e. g. Gen. 41: 17, 72, behold! I was standing, i. e. during the dream and this representation.

$484. (2) The Participle expresses, in connection with other actions, an action continuing during those other actions. Therefore,

(a) In connection with a description of the past, it expresses the Praeter relative. In such a condition it can be joined to the preceding clause with a Vav (and) prefixed; by


, they came and Lot [was] settling down, i. e. settled down at that time, Gen. 19: 1. Then Rebecca hastened and drew [water], and the man was astonished, un, i. e. continued to be astonished while she did this, Gen. 24: 21.

The state, moreover, and the longer time within which the following action was done, may be expressed by the Participle, so that the following clause is attached to the Participle by a Vav relative, (unless where pathos of sentiment prevents this, $478); e. g., thy sons were eating, then came a wind, etc. Job 1: 18, 19. 1 Sam. 2: 13. To the participle

* In later Hebrew, the use of the second Mode in this way went into desuetude; e. g. Esth. 2: 13, 14.

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