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this are various methods of designating the Present, as described in § 473, 2. § 483.

(3) To designate the future. This can happen, only when the thing to be done is, in the mind of the speaker, already regarded as being virtually completed, and consequently as unconditional and certain, (as in German the Present is often put for the Future); e. g. frequently in the declarations of the Divine Being, asn, I will constitute, Gen. 17: 20. In the poets and prophets is the same usage, even in other parts of discourse, although this is not frequent; e. g. 7, they shall perish, Ps. 10: 16. Mic. 1: 11.

§ 473. THE SECOND MODE [Future] has a very extensive


(1) In accordance with the idea it designates of a thing not yet accomplished and indefinite, it is employed, (a) To express a thing simply FUTURE; e. g., he will be. (b) To designate a future in time which is already past, when the context has reference in general to a time past; in which case the idea of that which is past lies merely in the connection; e. g. the first born, who should reign [qui regnaturus erat] in his stead. (c) For the Futurum praeteritum in dependent clauses; e. g. 2, could we have known that he would say? (Like, I knew that he would say), Gen. 43: 7, 25.


(2) Out of the idea of that which is incomplete flows the idea of becoming, of origination, of taking rise. Hence, (a) The second Mode designates an action not yet completed, but which is being_completed or finished; (we designate this by the Present). E. g. Why are ye coming out,' N, 1 Sam. 17: 8. In this sense the second Mode comes near to occupying the same ground with the first, which sometimes designates the Present. There is still, however, this distinction, that the first Mode speaks of a thing as already completed, and the second of that which is becoming completed; e. g. 82 JINA, whence art thou come? [as having already arrived]; and 782

, whence dost thou come? [the action not being yet complete]. It should be noted, however, that the first Mode is not often employed in this way.

(b) The second Mode also designates an origination or becoming so and so in time past, [i. e. a thing once present and becoming completed in time that is past]. The poets use this form frequently, (1) In order to transfer an action to the time

of its rise or origination, when it was present; (like the Latin Imperfect); as, then thou wast born, Job 38: 21. See also Job 3: 3, 11. 15: 7. (2) When in vivid narration they transfer past things to the present; as, he conducts me, Num. 23: 7. In prose the first of these two usages sometimes may be found; as, we were knowing, Gen. 43: 7. Often, moreover, the second Mode stands connected in such cases with then; as, then sang he, Ex. 15: 1. Jos. 8: 30.

(c) In particular, the idea of an action often repeated or continued, flows out of the preceding view of the second Mode; for every action of this kind can be regarded as still continuing and yet to be renewed. So for the Present, 2, dicitur, dicunt; specially in comparisons, as , as one is wont to uphold, Deut. 1:31. So also for the Past, the idea of which flows merely out of the connection of the views of the speaker; as, he was wont to do yearly, 1 Sam. 1: 7. 2: 19.

(3) From the meaning comprised in the second Mode arises further the idea of that which is indefinite, or dependent on circumstances or feelings; so that it answers to express the Subjunctive; e. g. p, how can I curse? Num. 23: 8. Even the Subjunctive past is expressed by it; as, that I might have sent thee away, Gen. 31: 27.

This mode is also employed in quoting the thoughts of another, and stands, (a) In indirect quotation; as, he commands that they shall return, Job 36: 10. So 121, and he gave order . . . that they should stand, Dan. 1: 5. This method of speaking, however, is not frequent, as the general spirit of simple syntax would naturally lead us to suppose. (b) The second Mode is employed in uttering direct commands or unconditional wishes; e. g. n, thou shalt cat, Gen. 2: 16., which should not be done, Gen. 20: 9. 34: 7. Lev. 7: 2. So respecting the Past; as, I would have died, Job 3: 11. 3: 16. 10: 18, 19.

(4) More expressly still to designate this idea of command and wish, an abridged form of the second Mode arose, viz. the Jussive and Imperative; and still more expressly to render the wish or command emphatic, the paragogic is appended to the Imperative. See $240-243.

$474. According to these leading distinctions of meaning are the two Modes employed in a variety of ways with particles; of these I shall treat particularly in the sequel.



Of the two modes with VAV RELATIVE or CONVERSIVE, the two relative historic forms.

§ 475. From the simple copulative (and) we must carefully separate the more expressive particle which connects sentences, and which at the same time includes in itself the idea of time or a sequency of ideas; and answers, therefore, to the German und dann, und so, dann, so, so dass, [and then, and so, then, so, so that]. The idea of advance in respect to time is transferred to a sequency of thought. This Vav stands only in the beginning of a sentence, which holds such a relation to a preceding one; as that in the junction of them a sequency of time or of thought is expressed. Thence the Vav inserted here may most appropriately be named Vav relative. This more significant Vav is also designated by a different mode of pronouncing it. In the full form in which it is commonly associated with the second Mode, it sounds 1 (vay) and [frequently] it alters the tone [or place of accent]. Before the first Mode, (and elsewhere, 591), it is sounded as is the simple copula (1), but it also [oftentimes] changes the tone, when placed before the first Mode, § 245. Thence both the Vav relative and the Mode of the verb are so inseparably connected, that they cannot be dissevered without entirely losing their force; and so too that the more intimate connection, such as and he comes, is directly the opposite of the looser connection, N... ? and he came, § 478.

Vav relative with the second Mode.

476. (1) When Vav relative is placed before the second Mode, it involves in this continually the idea of becoming, of taking rise, or originating; this union [ofa with the Future] represents the sequency of the new becoming [of a thing, or] originating of an action out of something which precedes. Consequently, (a) Since this Vav marks sequency of time, it is most frequently employed to designate an action once done, but so that the first Mode stands as a correlative with it in a simple aoristic sense, e. g. 18, he spake and then it was, or and so it was, it began to be, it became; n, thou sawest and then thou didst rejoice, or and so thou didst rejoice. And in this way is Vav relative constantly employed in the narration VOL. XI. No. 29. 18

of things that have already taken place, inasmuch as it continues the new development and unfolding of the several successions of events according to their natural sequences; and this Vav relative is constantly continued, except where difficulties (478) are interposed.

More unfrequently, and almost within the same limits as the first Mode, when used as an Aorist (§ 472), can this form be employed to designate the Present and the Future; e. g. Gen. 19: 9. Nah. 1:4. Amos 9:6. Mic. 2: 13. But this is made clear merely by the connection of the discourse. Possibly a second Mode may in this way precede an Aorist.

(2) The same period of time [the past] can the second Mode designate, when it is employed to mark the sequency of thought; e. g. in making deductions or conclusions from that which precedes, as p, and so it continued, Gen. 23: 30. When this Mode is employed (as it is), in completing what is necessary after a protasis of a sentence, 1 corresponds well to so, so that; e. g. 'What is man 17, that thou takest cognizance of him!' Ps. 144: 3. Is. 51: 12, 13. 1 Sam. 15: 23. It is also employed, when (after one or more words inserted which break in upon the tenor of the discourse) the writer returns again and resumes that tenor; e. g. 'and as to his concubine (and her name was Rumah,) Da T, even she also bore children,' Gen. 22: 24.

§ 477. This second species of Vav relative, also, as well as the first, must be preceded by some sentence or proposition, to which the sequency or succession of time has a relation or reference. No book, nor discourse, nor separate narration, can begin with such a second Mode. (Respecting see $479). The form, however, [of that which precedes] is altogether a matter of indifference, if there only remains the idea of a Vav relative; for any kind of verbal form may precede this, or a sentiment without a verb, or an abrupt clause. A verb or a sentence may also precede this Vav relative which marks sequency of time, whose own appropriate time is quite different; e. g. This man has come here as a stranger, 1, and now he will be acting the part of a judge,' Gen. 19: 9. 2 Sam. 3: 8. With particular frequency is this second Mode with Vav employed in the sense of No. 1 above, after words expressing limitation of time, and when this limitation (which forms a kind of abrupt clause thrown in) precedes the verb with 1; e. g. Ny by Di, on the third day then lifted he up, Gen.

478. The reasons which may prevent the employment of Vav relative [with the second Mode] in continued discourse, may be partly in the meaning, and partly in the form of the discourse. Is an Aorist to be employed, then the first Mode, according to common custom, is to be used in describing an action absolutely and simply past. Vay relative with the second Mode is therefore superseded, on account of the meaning,

(1) When propositions are introduced which involve no sequency of time or of meaning-when there is a stand-still in the narration. For example, (a) When the foregoing verb is simply explained by a new one, without any intervening particle, so that the same action is a second time virtually described; as

b. . . away, then went they straight onwards—they travelled, 1 Sam. 6: 12. Gen. 21: 14. [Here the second verb is Praeter, therefore, instead of Future]. (b) When an explanatory clause is thrown in (with the verb following its subject) by an insertion before it of simply copulative, in which case the participle may be employed to mark continued action (§ 484) and the first Mode [Praeter] to designate momentary actions; e. g. 2, then he said- and Saul thought, i. e. Saul said and thought). Seldom is the first Mode employed immediately after the copula [in such cases], in a mere additional explanation of a preceding clause, without any advance in the time or in the narration, as in Gen. 21: 25. 28: 6; in mere synonymes, however, this is frequent. (c) When any inserted clause interrupting the main discourse is thrown in, which begins with another particle, viz.,, etc.; by reason of which a sentence in reality new commences, so far as sequency of time is concerned, and in which Vav relative with the second Mode can no more stand, than in the beginning of a discourse, chapter, etc. (§ 477); e. g. 2, then feared they, for they said, etc., 1 Sam. 4: 7. The momentary actions which the first Mode designates, while standing in subordinate clauses with or other particles, commonly are such as relate to an earlier period than that in the main narrative (the Pluperfect); which, however, is disclosed only by the nature of the case and the comparison of actions, etc. The language has no appropriate form for the Pluperfect, and employs the first Mode to designate it, as the Greeks do the Aorists; e. g. They buried Absalom, pibus, now Absalom had taken, etc.,' 2 Sam. 18: 18; The place y where he had stood,' Gen. 19: 27.



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