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highly probable, that several of his forefathers deserved hanging.” —(pp. 121-2.)

In the Annotations on the Essay ‘Of Friendship,” the Archbishop puts down, by irresistible force of argument, one of the most silly, mischievous, purposeless, and groundless errors which have ever been taught: we mean the doctrine that in a future life, happy souls will be no longer capable of special individual friendship. We have often been filled with burning indignation at finding in the book of some empty-headed divine who never learned logic, or in the sermon of some popular preacher thoroughly devoid of sense, taste, scholarship, modesty, and the reasoning faculty, lengthy tirades about the perfection of another world consisting much in an entire elevation above such earthly things as specific attachments. We have seen and heard it stated that in a future life, blessed spirits will never remember or recognise those who were dearest to them in this : and perhaps, indeed, will not remember or recognise their own identity. It is satisfactory to know that this doctrine is as groundless as it is revolting: and most truly does Archbishop Whately say, that this is one of the many points in which views of the eternal state of the heirs of salvation are rendered more uninteresting to our feelings, and consequently, more uninviting, than there is any need to make them.

There is much social wisdom in the remarks upon the Essay ‘Of Expense.’ And here the Archbishop, in a graver tone, propounds a like philosophy to that which Mr. Thackeray has in several of his writings enforced so well. It would be hard to reckon up the misery and anxiety which are produced in this country by absurd and foolish straining to “keep up appearances : " that is, with five hundred a year to entertain precisely like a man with five thousand, and generally to present a false face to the world, and seem other than what one is. When will this curse of our civilised life cease ? Surely, if people knew how transparent are all the pretences by which they think to pass for wealthy folk—how readily neighbours see through them—how incomparably more respectable and more respected is sterling yet unaffected honesty in this matter—this foolish display would cease, and the analogous forms of deception would cease with it. No one is taken in by them. Anyone who knows the world knows thoroughly how, by an accompanying process of mental arithmetic, to make the deductions from the big talk or the pretentious show of some people, which are needed to bring the appearance down to the reality. The greengrocer got in for the day is never mistaken for the family butler. The fly jobbed by the hour is easily distinguished from the brougham which it personates. And when Mr. Smith or Mrs. Jones talks largely of his or her aristocratic acquaintances, mentioning no name without “a handle to it,” no one is for a moment misled into the belief that of such is the circle of society in which Mrs. Jones or Mr. Smith moves. In the Annotations on the ‘Regimen of Health,’ there are some useful remarks upon early and late

hours, and upon times of study, which we commend to the notice of hard-working college-men. And these remarks close with the following suggestive paragraph :—

Of persons who have led a temperate life, those will have the best chance of longevity who have done hardly anything but live; what may be called the neuter verbs—not active or passive, but only being ; who have had but little to do, little to suffer; but have led a life of quiet retirement, without exertion of body or mind,-avoiding all troublesome enterprise, and seeking only a comfortable obscurity. Such men, if of a pretty strong constitution, and if they escape any remarkable calamities, are likely to live long. But much affliction, or much exertion, and, still more, both combined, will be sure to tell upon the constitution—if not at once, yet at least as years advance. One who is of the character of an active or passive verb, or, still more, both combined, though he may be said to have lived long in everything but years, will rarely reach the age of the neuters.-(p. 305.)

‘It is better,’ said Bishop Cumberland, “to wear out than to rust out: ' yet there can be no question that when the energies of body and mind are husbanded, they will go farther and last longer. Never to light the candle is the way to make it last for ever. Yet it may suffice the man who has crowded much living into a short life, to think that he has “lived long in everything but years.”

We live in deeds, not years; in thoughts, not breaths;
In feelings, not in figures on a dial.
We should count time by heart-throbs. He most lives,
Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best."

* Bailey's Festus.

In remarking on the Essay ‘Of Suspicion, the Archbishop writes as follows:—

“Multitudes are haunted by the spectres, as it were, of vague surmises and indefinite suspicions, which continue thus to haunt them, just because they are vague and indefinite, because the mind has never ventured to look them boldly in the face, and put them into a shape in which reason can examine them.”— (p. 317.)

A valuable practical lesson is to be drawn from the principle here laid down. Only experience can convince a man how wonderfully the mind’s burden is lightened, by merely getting a clear view of what it has to do, or bear, or encounter. Some persons go through life in a ceaseless worry, oppressed and confused by an undefined feeling that they have a vast number and variety of things to do, and never feeling at rest or easy in their minds. If any man would just take a piece of paper and note down upon it what work he has to do, he will be surprised to find how much less formidable it will look; not that it will necessarily look little, but that the killing thing—the vague sense of undefined magnitude, will be gone. So it is with troubles—so with doubts. If anyone who is possessed with the general impression that he is an extremely illused and unhappy man, would write down the special items of his troubles—even though the list should be of considerable length, he will find that matters are not so bad after all. There is nothing, we believe, that so aggravates all evil to the minds of most men, as when the sense of the vague, indeterminate, and innumerable, is added to it. And we are strong believers in the power of the pen to give most people clear and welldefined thoughts. We may particularise as especially worthy of attention, Archbishop Whately’s observations on the different periods of life at which different men attain their mental maturity (pp. 403-4); on the license of counsel in pleading a client's cause (pp. 509–12); on the necessity of the forms and ceremonies of etiquette, even among the closest friends (p. 479); and upon the causes of sudden popularity (pp. 500–2). Students will find some valuable advice at pp. 460–1; and young preachers at pp. 323-4. Those persons who pretend an entire contempt for worldly wealth, either because the grapes hang beyond their reach, or from envy of people who are more fortunate, may turn with advantage to pp. 350-I. Those amiable individuals who are wont to express their satisfaction that such an acquaintance has met with some disappointment, because it will do him good, are referred to the Archbishop's keen and just remark upon such as bestow posthumous praise upon a man whom they reviled and calumniated during his life, and may profitably consider whether the real motive from which they speak is not highly analogous:— It may fairly be suspected that the one circumstance respecting him which they secretly dwell on with the most satisfaction, though they do not mention it, is that he is dead; and that they delight in bestowing their posthumous honours

on him, chiefly because they are posthumous ; according to the concluding couplet in the ‘Verses on the Death of Dean Swift :"—

“And since you dread no further lashes,
Methinks you may forgive his ashes.”—(p. 19.)

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