Psychiatric Cultures Compared: Psychiatry and Mental Health Care in the Twentieth Century : Comparisons and Approaches

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Marijke Gijswijt-Hofstra, Harry Oosterhuis, Joost Vijselaar
Amsterdam University Press, 2005 - Всего страниц: 456
The comparative global history of mental health care in the twentieth century remains relatively uncharted territory. Psychiatric Cultures Compared offers an overview of various national psychiatric cultures, comparing, for example, advances in Dutch psychiatry with developments abroad. Wide-ranging essays cover analyses of the field of psychiatric nursing, the changing use of psychotropic medicine, the emergence of in- and outpatient mental health sectors, the rise of the anti-psychiatry movement, and a critical look at modern day deinstitutionalization.


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Стр. 30 - David J. Rothman, The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971...
Стр. 154 - ... closeness and intimacy. A fantasy of finding closeness elsewhere encourages them to move on. Yet all too often, if they do stumble into an intimate relationship or find themselves in a residence where there is caring and closeness and sharing, the increased anxiety they experience creates a need to run. They drift also in search of autonomy, as a way of denying their dependency, and out of a desire for an isolated life-style. Lack of money often makes them unwelcome, and they may be evicted by...
Стр. 143 - Disillusioned by a system that divided authority, states — led once again by New York and Massachusetts — adopted legislation that relieved local communities of any role whatsoever in caring for the mentally ill. The assumption of those who favored centralization was that local care, although less expensive, was substandard and also fostered chronicity and dependency. Conversely, care and treatment in hospitals, though more costly initially, would in the long run be cheaper because it would enhance...
Стр. 161 - See Frosch, et al., op. cit., Cohen and Ditman, "Prolonged Adverse Reactions . . .," op. cit., and Ungerleider, et al., op. cit. It is not always easy to make a judgment, due to the scanty presentation of the material, and some of the reactions I count as anxiety are placed in these sources under...
Стр. 147 - In 1960, however, 48 percent of the mental hospital population were unmarried, 12 percent were widowed, and 13 percent were divorced or separated. A large proportion of patients, in other words, may have had no families to care for them. Hence, the assumption that patients could reside in the community with their families while undergoing rehabilitation was hardly...
Стр. 146 - Bowers insisted that mental hygiene had to be concerned "with more than the psychoses and with more than hospitalized mental illness." Personality, after all, was shaped by socio-environmental influences, and they explicitly alluded to wartime psychiatric experiences. Psychiatry, in collaboration with the social sciences, had to emphasize the problems of the "ambulatory ill and the preambulatory ill (those whose probability of breakdown is high).
Стр. 30 - Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason (London: Tavistock Publications, 1967), 156, 173. 12. Medical Intelligencer 3, xxix (March. 1822). 117. 13. Crabb Robinson 2: 740. 14. Crabb Robinson 1: 267. 15. "Anonymous Review" (by John Wilson) of Coleridge's Biographia Uteraria, in Blackwoofs Edinburgh Magazine, 2, vii (October, 1817), 5.
Стр. 161 - The Homeless Mentally 111 and Mental Health Services: An Analytical Review of the Literature', in H.
Стр. 143 - ... this category; in 1910 and 1923 the respective percentages were 52.0 and 54.0. Although data for the United States as a whole were unavailable after 1923, the experiences of Massachusetts are illustrative. By the 1930s nearly 80 percent of its mental hospital beds were occupied by chronic patients.18 Chronicity, however, is a somewhat misleading term, for the group that it described was heterogeneous.
Стр. 161 - Kramer, M. Long range studies of mental hospital patients, an important area for research in chronic disease.

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Об авторе (2005)

Marijke Gijswijt-Hofstra is professor of social and cultural history at the University of Amsterdam. Harry Oosterhuis lectures in history at the University of Maastricht. Joost Vijselaar is professor of the history of psychiatry at the University of Utrecht. Hugh Freeman is a psychiatrist, head of a teaching unit in Manchester, and former editor of the British Journal of Psychiatry.

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