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with that monarch, and equally celebrated for his poetry and his love. He adored the lady of the feigneur of Fayel with a chaste Platonic affection, and had his passion returned in the same stile. Having received a mortal wound in an engagement with the Saracens at the fiege of Rhodes (84), he made his faithful squire swear to carry his heart to the mistress of his affections. The squire was surprised, near the castle, by the feigneur; and the heart of the unfortunate chatelain experienced the same treatment, and produced the same effect which that of the troubadour Cabestan had done, We have this affecting story, but doubtless from the French, in an old poem of Henry the Eighths time, under the title of The Knight of Curtesy and the Lady of Faguel. Several of his Chansons are still extant, They are remarkably tender, elegant and pathetic, Dr. Burney has inserted two of them, with their original melodies (85).

The works of many of the old French poets or minstrels are yet preserved. Fauchet has given a list of no less than 127, mostly song writers, who flourished before the year 1300.

Song continued to be cultivated in France in every reign, and through all the national convulsions. From the time of Francis I. who revived the ancient splendour of the French court, the number of eminent longfters seems to have encreased : but it will not be necessary, in this treatise, to take particular notice of them. One may, however, mention that both Francis and his grandson Charles IX. are in the list. In which we are likewise authorised to rank that amiable, ac

(84) So the romance. Fauchet, who has given the story from an old chronicle, says, it was at the siege of Malloure. , says Joinville, fut tué le comte d'Artois & le fire de Coucy qu'on apelloit Raoill. This, however, seems to have been a predeceffor of Raoul the poet, as the affair of Marloure, although placed by Fauchet in 1249, actually happened in 1191.

(85) The Coucys appear to have been always eminently attached to song: Engueran, who was in England in the time of K. John, and dyed in 1240, dansoit & cbantoir bien, Froillart, t. 1. C. 219. (M.l’E. de la Ravailliere.)


complished, and, thence, unfortunate princess, Mary Queen of Scots. One of her performances is preserved in the Anthologie, and breathes a delicacy and elegance peculiar to its illustrious author. The following translation of it, in the original measure, is given, chiefly, as a specimen of the French Song, which delights in a pointed and cpigrammatic turn. It appears to have been written when the left France on the death of her first husband, Francis II.

Ah! pleasant land of France, farewell;

My country dear,

Where many a year
Of infant youth I lov'd to dwell!
Farewell for ever, happy days !
The ship which parts our loves conver's
But half of me :---

--One half behind
I leave with thee, dear France, to prove
A token of our endless love,

And bring the other to thy mind. We shall now close our account of the French Song. The age of Lewis XIV. improved it along with every thing else. But it is faid to have declined since, and to be at present far unequal to what it was. The spirited and judicious author fo often cited in the margin has enumerated and characterised moit of the writers of celebrity or merit from the fixteenth century to nearly his own time. The number of songs and ballads which the French have is prodigious.

If it were poflibie,” says this very ingenious and elegant writer, “ to collect all the historical songs written “ since the commencement of the monarchy, under each

reign, we should be furnished with the most curious 66 and rich collection of anecdotes. In proportion as " the French language has been formed, polished and “ enriched, the more has poetry been cultivated witậ «r us, the more has Song (a species so agreeable to our 6c natural gaiety, and moreover within every persons ca« pacity, if not always the most easy) become familiar

Thus the reign of Lewis XIV. should have produced, as it certainly did produce, more songsters

to US.

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" and songs than all the other reigns. One might “ form a library with the hittorical songs only, of which “ there are, in the cabinets, collections more or less nu* merous.

With respect to gallant and Bacchanalian “ fongs, printed, engraved or in manuscript, we are loft “ in the number of the volumes.

« An exact and successive history of the last reign " [i.e. that of Lewis XIV.) all in songs, would neither “ be an impracticable work, nor perhaps a despicable at

tempt. Since the birth of our princes, which some “ chanting muses always take care to celebrate, few of " the transactions of their life known to the public pass “ without some couplet which makes an epocha, and “ these couplets are the medals of that class of the cu. " rious who form collections or port folios.

“ In time of war there is no battle won or lost with“ out a Vaudeville ; the Frenchman fings his conquefts, “ his prosperity, his defeats, even his miseries, and his “ misfortunes. Conquering or conquered, in plenty “ or in want, happy or unhappy, sorrowful or gay, “ he always fings; and one would fay that the song is “ his natural expreffion. In fine, in all situations in “ which we would speak of the French, we might al

ways ask, as the late king of Sardinia did : Well! how goes the little fong???

$ 5. Spain has been long and justly famous for the multiplicity and excellence of her songs and ballads, which the natives call Canciones, Romances, and Coplas. Their most ancient lyric compositions, at present known, are Las coplas de la zarabanda, common vulgar songs, of an amourous, satyrical or jocose turn, to light quick movements; originally no doubt used for the dance, and generally sung at weddings, feasts, and other convivial meetings. These, which are conjectured to be as old as even the twelfth century (86), answer to the Canzone e ballo of the Italians: and it is certain that this was the primitive use of poetry and mufic in all countries.

(86) P. Sarmiento, Memorias para la historia de la poefiang y poetas Elpan’oles. Madrid, 1775. 4to. p. 230,


The Spaniards had anciently their Decidores or Trobas dores, their Copleros and their Juglares, all signifying a maker, and, perhaps, singer of songs by profession. They likewise called the poetical art la gaia ciencia. For this last name, at least, they seem to have been indebted to the French. Toward the end of the fourteenth century, John I. king of Arragon sent ambassadors to the king of France, requesting him to command the college of Troubadours at Toulouse to furnish him with certain professors, that he might establish in his dominions the study of the Gay Science : of such national importance were in those days considered the cultivation and improvement of poetry and song! Two of this body were accordingly dispatched to Barcelona, where they formed a new consistory for their favourite art, which remained till the death of Martin the successor of John (87).

Don Inigo Lopez de Mendoza, Marquis de Santa Julliana (88), in a curious treatise on the origin and history of the Castilian poetry, written about the year 1440, mentions, as an excellent composer, and admirable mufician, of his own time, one Mosen (Don or Master)

Forge de Sant Jorde, a Valencian, the author of a poem intitled la Pasion de Amor, in which he had introduced many songs of merit, some of which were, then, very ancient (89). He describes another as un gran Trobader, and a person of a highly elevated


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(87) Idem, $.770. This learned writer would not perhaps have allowed the juitice of the above inference. He contends ($. 764.) that Lyric poetry, having been introduced into Spain by the Moors, traveled through Catalonia into Provence; whence it afterwards returned (as mentioned in the text), by the way of Toulouse, to Barcelona, and thence pafled into Andalucia and the Caftiles, where it had first let out,

(88) Vulgarly Santillana, a brave cavalier, and a famous poet; born 1398; dyed 1458.

(89) The reverend mr. Warton, in his History of English Poetry, a work replete with errors and misinformation, gives this poet the name of Mejjen Jordi, and afferts him to have been imicated by Petrarch : without recollecting the difficulty which the latter must

{pirit. A third, of whom he likewise speaks, was reported to have died in Galicia for the love of a princess of Portugal (90): a species of misfortune which frequently happened to the 'Troubadours of Provence. He even inserts the beginning of one of the love songs of a certain amourous bard who composed nothing else (91), and gives the names and characters of several other poets and Decidores, distinguished, no doubt, in that age, by their celebrity and merit. Songs by many of these, most, or all, perhaps, ancient Coplars, are, with great probability, to be found among the many thousands preserved in the Carcionero and Romancero general, and other collections of the same nature, of which there are several volumes, some very bulky.

The old composers of the Romances and Coplas thought it fufficient to use a certain limited number of feet or fyllables, resembling the rythmus of the Greek and Latin poets. When rime or a correspondent termination of particular lines was required, it seems to have been 'enough if the final words agreed in the same vowels, the consonants being entirely disregarded. A practice which is still adopte@ as good rime by the modern inventors of these popular performances (92).

Numberless are the ballads which the Spaniards have on the story of Charlemagne and the twelve peers of France; of Bernardo del Carpio; their last Gothic king Rodrigo; the Cid, and others of their ancient heroes; but particularly on Moorish subjects, and the conflicts between those people and the Spanish cavaliers. A beautiful specimen, excellently translated by bishop Percy, have been under to copy from a writer not born till after his decease. The direct reverse is the fact: Mosen Jorge was the imitator of Petrarch.

(90) Sarmiento, p. 153, 154, 222.
(91) Sarmiento, p. 155.

(92) Idem, p. 192. In the Obras de Don Luis de Gongora (l'incomparable Don Louis de Gongora, le plus beau génie que l'Espagne ait jamais produit). Brus. 1659. 4to. are numerous Ipecimens of Romance writing, and indeed of every other species of Spanish poetry. See Gil Blas, 1. 7. C. 13.

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