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army corps, through a certificate from the army recruiting committee, and was sent to the reserve on account of feeble constitution.
If, under these circumstances, Mr. Lissner still desires to be freed formally from any duties to Prussia, there is nothing in his military obligations to prevent him from obtaining an emigration permit from the proper provincial authorities. Accept the repeated assurance of my high regard.
SCHLEINITZ. Mr. WRIGHT, Minister Plenipotentiary, dr.
Mr. Wright to Mr. Black.
UNITED States LEGATION,
Berlin, February 16, 1861. SIR:
The action of the Prussian government, through its police, towards our adopted citizens, with reference to military duty, is becoming very annoying. Several arrests have taken place lately, and active exertions are being made to collect fines heretofore assessed against others.
Andrew Hagen, a citizen of Indiana, was arrested three days since on his return to adjust the affairs of his late father's estate. I promptly made a demand for bis release. In addition to the fact that Mr. Hagen has a family in America, where the business in which he is engaged requires his presence as soon as possible, he is an officer of the federal government, being postmaster at Walpole, Hancock county, Indiana. For these reasons I have made an urgent demand for his release. I shall advise the government of the result of the case
About the time of my arrival at Berlin, John Statz was released from the army, having served out the whole term of three years whilst my predecessor was here. Since I have been here every individual has been discharged, not only in Prussia, but also in Oldenburg and Hanover, and I shall not be disposed to remain at this port with American citizens serving in the Prussian army. I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your very obedient servant,
JOSEPH A. WRIGHT. His Excellency Hon. J. S. BLACK,
Secretary of State, Washington, D. C., U. S. A.
Mr. Wright to Mr. Black.
Berlin, February 20, 1861. Sir: I herewith transmit copies of two despatches addressed to the minister of foreigh affairs, Baron von Schleinitz, with reference to the case of Andrew Hagen, and the reply to the same. In my anxiety to secure the release of A. Hagen, and in my excitement growing out of the interest I feel in this case, I have deemed it expedient not to reply formally as yet to the despatch of Baron von Schleinitz, but I have had two personal interviews with him, having just jeturned from one at this moment. I hope to be able to communicate something satisfactory on this matter in a few days, as an interview, with reference to this case is arranged to take place to-day, at three o'clock, p. m., between the ministers of foreign affairs and of war.
Hon. J. S. BLACK,
Secretary of State, IVashington, D. C.
Mr. Wright to Baron Schleintz.
Berlin, February 12, 1861. Monsieur Le Baron: The undersigned has the honor to enclose to your excellency the petition of Andrew Hagen, a citizen of the United States, praying the remission of a fine assessed against him for non-performance of military service. Mr. Hagen is a citizen of the United States, and his place of residence is in Indiana, near that of the undersigned, to whom he is personally known as a worthy citizen, having an interesting family in America. Mr. Hagen is now on a visit to the family of his father, who deceased only a few months since.
The undersigued, having received this petition, has just learned by telegraph, with the deepest regret, that Mr. Hagen has been pressed into the army of his Majesty at Nerdhausen, in Prussia. It appears that Mr. Hagen left Prussia when a minor; and if he had at that time no permit of emigration, it was because he did not know the necessity of the same.
It is not necessary for the undersigned to inform your excellency that the news of the arrest of Mr. Hagen, under the circumstances, will be received by his government at Washington, as it has been by himself, with great surprise and the deepest regret; and it is not doubted that the government of his Majesty, in conformity with its characteristic friendly disposition towards the United States, will order the immediate discharge of Mr. Hagen. As the demands of the family of Mr. Hagen, as well as his business, render his speedy return to America most desirable, the undersigned begs your excellency's immediate attention to this case, and avails himself of this occasion to renew to your excellency the expression of his highest regard.
J. A. WRIGHT. His Excellency Baron SCHLEINITZ, Minister, 8c., fr.
Baron Schleinitz to Governor Wright.
BERLIN, February 17, 1861. The undersigned has the honor to inform Mr. Wright, United States envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary, that Mr. Andrew Hagen's petition was sent to the war department on its reception, with the note of the 12th instant.
The undersigned, in accordance with Mr. Wright's request in his note of the 15th, asked the minister of war not to send Hagen to Erfurt, to complete his military service, till a final decision has been rendered in his case.
The undersigned cannot say if his request will be granted; but he can assure Mr. Wright that Hagen will not be maltreated at Erfurt.
Mr. Wright to Baron Schleinitz.
United States LEGATION,
Berlin, February 15, 1861. MONSIEUR LE BARON: The undersigned had the honor to place before your excellency, on the 12th instant, the case of Andrew Hagen, and he now hastens to communicate the enclosed telegraphic despatch from Mr. Hagen.
Two additional circumstances, which were unknown to the undersigned himself at the moment of addressing his first communication to your excellency, induce bim to hope that your excellency will accede to the request of Mr. Hagen, as contained in the accompanying despatch. These facts are, first, Mr. Andrew Hagen was not born in Prussia, but in Bavaria, and came with his father to Prussia at the age of ten years. Secondly, Mr. Andrew Hagen is an officer of the federal governmeut of the United States, being postmaster at a city in Indiana ; and it is highly important that he should return to America at the earliest moment possible, in order to discharge the duties of his office.
In bringing these additional facts to the notice of your excellency, the undersigned confidently hopes that your excellency will find ample cause for despatch in the case of Mr. Hagen, as well as in having him liberated, until the moment when his Majesty shall have decided upon the petition.
The undersigned seizes this occasion to assure your excellency of his highest consideration.
J. A. WRIGHT. His Excellency BARON SCHLEINITZ, Minister, Sr., fr.
Mr. Wright to Mr. Black.
UNITED STATES LEGATION,
Berlin, March 7, 1861. SIR: I have the honor to communicate herewith copies of the correspondence between the minister for foreign affairs, Baron von Schleinitz, and the undersigned, with reference to the case of Andrew Hagen, already reported.
Time has confirmed me in the opinion that the only way of finally adjusting this question of military duty is by treaty, for it is manifest that the Prussian government will not change its laws on this point. With reference to the bases of such a treaty I have no additional suggestions to make to those contained in No. 93 and other of my despatches on this subject.
I am informed by Mr. Hagen that, on being arrested, he was roughly handled, closely guarded by policemen, for whose services he had to pay, as well as the cost of transport of himself to two or three places, before being eventually brought to Erfurt; his hair and beard were forcibly cut, and he was called upon to take the oath of allegiance under threat of imprisonment, while he himself was subjected to harsh treatment till the arrival of Mr. Hudson at Erfurt, as already communicated, but that he subsequently experienced better treatment. The expense to which he was put amounts to about 150 thalers.
I bave not deemed it expedient to demand satisfaction of the Prussian government for the present for the treatment experienced by Mr. Hagen, as the whole question, from its bearing upon the more important one of an adjustment of all these difficulties by treaty, which such a demand would be likely to embarrass, is before the President, whose views it will be my pleasure, as well as my duty, to seek to carry out.
I trust that the views and suggestions contained in the despatch of Baron von Schleinitz of the 5th of November, 1860, as well as in the accompanying despatch from the same, will receive prompt consideration. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOSEPH A. WRIGHT. Hon. J. S. BLACK,
Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.
Mr. Wright to Baron von Schleinitz.
Berlin, March 6, 1861. MONSIEUR LE BARON: The undersigned embraces the first moment of time after a personal interview with Mr. Hagen to acknowledge the receipt of your ex. cellency's note of the 24th ultimo, communicating information of the discharge of Mr. Hagen from the Prussian army. This is well calculated to strengthen that long-established friendship and good will which have existed without interruption between the goveroment of his majesty the King of Prussia and that of the United States from its organization to the present moment.
The undersigned calls your excellency's attention to the fact of the compulsory payment of 60 thalers and 20 groschen made by Mr. Hagen's mother, in his absence, to the executive officer, under the judgment rendered against Mr. Hagen. This payment was made after the granting of the pardon by his Majesty, and doubtless the officer was not aware of this fact in making this collection. It is not doubted, however, but that your excellency will take the proper steps in order to have the said money refunded to Mr. Hagen.
It will afford the undersigned great pleasure to communicate to his government the suggestion of your excellency as to the propriety of adopting some remedy for future cases arising out of this question of military duty—a question of great embarrassment and annoyance to the government of the United States, and, with all due respect, one of but little importance in its practical bearing to the government of Prussia. As heretofore suggested to your excellency, of the thousands of American citizens returning annually to the German confederacy, the place of their birth, with their liability to military service, as claimed by the legal authorities of Germany, it is believed that not one in five hundred such is disturbed or annoyed. A residence of more than three years has fully confirmed the undersigned in this opinion. The opinion and views of your excellency, as communicated to the undersigned by letter of the 5th November last, were promptly forwarded to the government of the United States, and he regrets to say that no answer has as yet been received. Your excellency's attention is respectfully called to the note of the undersigned of September last, communicating a copy of a despatch in English and French from the President of the United States, dated July 8, 1859, on the subject of the arrest of Christian Ernst, a citizen of the United States, for military service, by the Hanoverian government.
A reference to the opinion therein so fully and so clearly expressed by the President of the United States, on the subject of military duty, will at once satisfy your excellency that there is not the slightest hope for the adoption of the suggestions contained in your excellency's note of the 24th ultimo, in relation to future applications for citizenship by persons emigrating from Prussia to the United States.
This whole subject is now before the government of the United States, and I doubt not will receive a prompt and due consideration. The undersigned avails, &c., &c., &c.,
J. A. WRIGHT. His Excellency Baron von Schleinitz,
Min ter, &c., fc., fr., Prussia.
Baron Schleinitz to Mr. Wright.
BERLIN, February 24, 1861. SIR: In answer to your telegram of the 15th instant, in regard to André Hagen, I inform you that the minister of war had ordered the proper officer of the landwehr at Sangerhausen, by telegraph, to delay sending Mr. Hagen to Erfurt, but he was already on the way when the telegram was received.
The King, my august sovereign, has already decided the question, and has decreed that Hagen cannot evade the law and furnish a substitute for his military service in the Prussian army. However, in deference to the mediation of your government in favor of the petitioner, his Majesty has deigned to make an exception in this case, and orders Hagen’s immediate release. The minister of war will instantly issue the proper order to the competent officer, and nothing further prevents Mr. Hagen from returning to America.
I hope you will see in this resolution another proof of courtesy from the Prussian government towards the government of the United States. But I must call your attention to my letter of the 5th of November last, in which I stated to you that the government of the King still insisted on his right to place any of his subjects in the Prussian army, after their return, though they had become citizens of the United States, provided they had left their native land without dissolving the legal ties that bind them to it.
To avoid future discussions on this subject, it is desirable for the government of the United States not to grant naturalization papers to any Prussian subject bereafter who does not exhibit an emigration pass, to show that he has ceased to be a Prussian subject.
In asking your mediation with your government in this affair, I have the honor, &c., &c.
SCHLEINITZ. Mr. Wright, United States Envoy, fr.
Mr. Hudson to Mr. Seward.
Berlin, May 1, 1861. SIR: You were informed by the minister, Mr. Wright, in his despatch No. 171, that he had left the legation in my charge. I have now the honor to report to the department another case of an adopted American citizen who has been notified to appear and serve in the ranks of the Prussian army. The person in question is Alexander M. Alexander, a native of Pleschen, in the province Posen, Prussia, who was admitted to citizenship, as attested by naturalization papers, on the 29th of September, 1860, in New York. I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your very obedient servant,
E. M. HUDSON. Hon. William H. SEWARD,
Secretary of State.