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one of the boldest resolutions record the enemy's line, broke it, and fored in the annals of war. Deter- ced him to retreat on Crema in the mined to astonish the Austrians, by greatest confusion, with the loss of an act of unprecedented daring, all his artillery, several standards, and in hopes of cutting off the divi- and 2500 prisoners. " This vision which was marching by Cassa- gorous operation,” says Napoleon, no, he resolved to pass the bridge of « conducted under such a murderthe Adda the same day, under the ous fire, with all suitable prudence, enemy's fire, and by this operation has been regarded by military men establish the incontestable superiori- as one of the most brilliant actions ty of his troops. Every soldier must of the war. The French did not be aware of the very opposite effects lose above 200 men; the enemy was which the successful execution of destroyed. But Colli and Wukassuch a project would produce on the sowich had passed the Ada at Cassamorale of the contending armies. no, and were retreating by the BresAccordingly, after a few hours rest cia road, which determined the at Lodi, and about five o'clock in the French to march on Pizzighettone ; evening, General Beaumont, com- they considered it important to drive manding the cavalry, was ordered to the enemy instantly from that forpass the Adda half a league above tress, before he should have time to the town, where there was a practica- put it in a state of defence and vicble ford, and as soon as reached tual it: it was scarcely invested the opposite side, to open a cannonade when it surrendered ; it contained on the enemy's right flank with a 300 men, whøin the enemy sacrificed, battalion of light artillery. All the to facilitate his retreat *...... The disposable artillery of the army was, French cavalry entered Cremona afat the same time, placed at the de- ter a brilliant charge, and pursued bouché of the bridge, on the right the Austrian rear-guard as far as the bank, and directed

against the ene- Oglio." my's guns, which enfiladed the These splendid successes were folbridge, and the grenadiers were lowed by the most important results. formed in close column, behind the The states of Lombardy submitted rampart of the town, on the brink of to the youthful conqueror, who, on the Adda, in which position they the 15th of May, made his entrance were nearer the enemy's batteries into the capital (Milan) in triumph, than the line of the Austrian infant- amidst an immense population, and ry itself, which had retired to some the numerous National Guard, dressdistance from the river, to shelter it- ed in the three republican colourg. self, under a rising ground, from the The possession of these states afforded shot of the French batteries. When great resources, furnished the means Napoleon perceived the fire of the of discharging the arrears of pay, enemy's artillery slacken, he ordered and supplying all the wants of the the charge to be beaten. By mere- troops, and enabled the General-inly wheeling to the left, the head of Chief to improve the matériel of the the column reached the bridge, army, and particularly to complete which it crossed, in a few seconds, the trains of artillery. The Ausat a running pace, and instantly trians, out-generalled in every matook the enemy's cannon.

nouvre, and beaten in every encounlumn was only exposed to the ene ter, were greatly disheartened, and my's fire at the moment of wheeling so reduced in number, as to be no to the left, to pass the bridge; it ac longer able, without powerful reincordingly reached the opposite side forcements, to make head effectivewtihout any sensible loss, fell on ly against the invaders. But what

The co

• “ Napoleon, in his nightly rounds, fell in with a bivouac of prisoners, in which was an old garrulous Hungarian officer, whom he asked how matters went with them? The old captain could not deny that they went on badly enough ; ' but,'added he, there is no understanding it at all; we have to do with a young General, who is this moment before us, the next behind us, then again on our flanks; one does not know where to place one's self. This manner of making war is insufferable, and against all usage and custom.'”

his army

was of more importance than all, in the country, which it was their public opinion in Italy was in fa-, business to defend against a young vour of the French, to whom that and enterprising soldier, possessed of long-enthralled country, apparently splendid military talents, confident destined, as Filicaija has feelingly of fortune, acting rather from the said, per servir sempre, o vincitrice o impulse of his own genius, than from vinta, looked forward as their even- the established rules and principles tual deliverers from the hateful and of war, and, though compelled to galling yoke of_Austria. By the support at the expense of successes of the French,, republican the countries he invaded, gifted with principles

, had been extensively dis- the invaluable talent of securing, in seminated all over Italy, and em his favour, the opinions and sentibraced, not merely by the lower ments of the people. ranks, or speculative individuals, The successive arrivals of the inbut by some of the leading men intelligence of the passage of the Po, the most influential classes of society. the battle of Lodi, the occupation of Hence the French were considered, Lombardy, the armistice concluded by a powerful party,, as their par with the Duke of Parma, (of which, trons and allies; their contributions we have already spoken,) and that and exactions were submitted to with the Duke of Modena, (signed as the indispensable price of future at Milan on the 20th of May, and to emancipation.; and. although the nearly the same effect as that with the hideous scenes, acted during the Duke of Parma,) so intoxicated the reign of terror, and other revolu- Directory, that, in the exuberance of tionary excesses, had, in some degree, their military skill, they came to the chilled the enthusiasın with which resolution of dividing the Army of the dawn of French liberty had been Italy into two armies. Napoleon, greeted, the mass of the people was with 20,000 men, was to pass the Po, still allured by the attraction of and march on Rome and Naples ; equality. On the other hand, the while Kellerman, with the other Austrians, notwithstanding their pro. 20,000,, was to command on the left tracted rule, had not, with the ex- bank of the Po, and cover the siege ception of a few noble families, in- of Mantua. Napoleon, indignant at spired the people of Lombardy, with this piece of ingratitude, sent in his any, feelings of attachment; they resignation, refusing to be instruwere equally detested, on account mental in the destruction of the Arof their pride, their ignorance, the my of Italy, and his brethren in rudeness of their manners, and the arms. He declared, that all the men galling oppression of their sway. who should penetrate deep into the The Viceroy, the Archduke Ferdi. Peninsula would be lost ; that the nand, was neither beloved nor es principal army, intrusted to Kellerteemed, and for the best possible inan, would be inadequate to mainreason, because he possessed no ami. tain its ground, and would be comable or estimable qualities. He was pelled to repass the Alps in a few accused of being greedy of money,

weeks.“ One bad Generul, said he, of influencing the Government in is better than two good ones.

The favour of depredations, of specula-, Government became sensible of its ting in wheat, and other meannesses error, and recalled its liberticidrl deof a similar description ; and was crees; and from that time interfered hated accordingly. "Thus the Aus no farther with the Army of Italy, trians, who were greatly inferior to thun merely to APPROVE whatever the French in every military quality, Napoleon did or projected *.” could reckon upon no moral support The French remained seven or

At the conclusion of the chapter in Vol. III. of his “ Memoirs," which contains the account of the Battle of Lodi, Napoleon gives a few interesting notices of Ber. thier, Massena, Angereau, and Serrurier. To preserve the continuity of the narrative unbroken, we shall give these in the present note :

“ BERTHIER was at this time about forty-two years of age. His father, a geo. graphical engineer, had had the honour of seeing Louis XV. and Louis XVI. occa. sionally, being employed to draw plans of the chases; and these Princes being fond of

eight days in Lombardy. Some mi- the opening of the campaign, Mantua litary men have given it as their had been disarmed. The Court of opinion that this was an error. At Vienna bad never doubted but that

pointing out the errors they discovered in the plans, on their return from hunting. Berthier, in his youth, served in the American war as Lieutenant adjoint to Rocham. beau's staff'; he was a Colonel at the period of the Revolution, and commanded the National Guard at Versailles, where he strongly opposed Lecointre's party. Being employed in La Vendée as Quarter-Master-General of the Revolutionary Armies, he was wounded there. After the 9th of Thermidor he was Quarter-Master-General to General Kellerman, in the Army of the Alps, and followed him to the Army of Italy. He it was who caused the army to take the line of the Borghetto, which stopped the enemy. When Kellerman returned to the Army of the Alps he took Berthier with him; but when Napoleon took the command of the Army of Italy, he solicited and obtained the place of Quarter-Master-General, in which capacity he constantly followed Napoleon in the campaigns of Italy and Egypt. He was afterwards Minister at War, Major-General of the Grand Army, and Prince of Neufchatel and Wagram. He mar. ried a Bavarian Princess, and was loaded with favours by Napoleon. His activity was extraordinary ; he followed his General in all his reconnoitring parties, and all his excursions, without in the least neglecting his official duties. He was of an irre. solute character, unfit for a principal command, but possessed of all the qualities of a good Quarter-Master-General. He was well acquainted with the map, understood the reconnoitring daty perfectly, attended personally to the dispatch of orders, and was thoroughly trained to presenting the most complicated movements of an army with perspicuity. There was an attempt made, at first, to disgrace him with his General, by describing him as Napoleon's Mentor, and asserting that it was he who directed operations; but this did not succeed. Berthier did all in his power to silence these reports, which rendered him ridiculous in the army. After the campaign of Italy, he had the command of the army ordered to take possession of Rome, where he pro. claimed the Roman Republic.

“ MASSENA was born at Nice, and entered the French service in the Royal Italian Regiment; he was an officer at the commencement of the Revolution. He advanced rapidly, and became a General of Division. In the Army of Italy he served under the Generals-in-Chiefs Dugommier, Dumorbion, Kellerman, and Scherer. He was of a hardy constitution, and indefatigable character-night and day on horseback among rocks and mountains, the warfare peculiar to which he was particularly ac. quainted with. He was resolute, brave, intrepid, full of ambition and pride ; his distinguishing characteristic was obstinacy ; he was never discouraged. He neglected discipline, and took little care of the affairs of the army, for which reason he was not mach beloved by the soldiers. He used to make very indifferent dispositions for attack. His conversation was uninteresting ; but, on the report of the first cannon, amongst balls and dangers, his ideas gained strength and clearness. If defeated, he began again, as if he had been victorious. After the campaign of Italy, he was commissioned to carry the preliminaries of Leoben to the Directory. During the campaign of Egypt he was commander-in-Chief of the Army of Helvetia, and saved the Republic by winning the battle of Zurich. He was afterwards a Marshal, Duke of Rivoli, and Prince of Essling.

" AUGEREAU, who was born in the faubourg Saint-Marceau, (Paris,) was a Ser. jeant when the Revolution broke out. He must have been a distinguished sub-officer, as be was selected to go to Naples to instruct the Neapolitan troops. He, at first, served in La Vendée. He was made a General in the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees, where he commanded one of the principal divisions. On the peace with Spain, he led his division to the Army of Italy, and served in all the campaigns of that ariny under Napoleon, who sent him to Paris on the occasion of the 18th of Fructidor. The Directory afterwards gave him the chief command of the Army of the Rhine. He was incapable of conducting himself in this capacity, being uninformed, of a narrow intellect, and little education ; but he maintained order and discipline among his soldiers, and was beloved by them. His attacks were regular, and made in an orderly Inander; he divided his columns judiciously, placed his reserves with skill, and fought with intrepidity : but all this lasted but a day ; victor or vanquished, he was generally disheartened in tbe evening; whether it arose from the peculiarity of his lempet, or from the deficiency of his inind in foresight and penetration. In politics, he was attached to Baboeuf's party, that of the most decided anarchists, and he was surrounded by a great number of them. He was noininated a deputy to the Legislative Body in

its army would assume and preserve insurgents. To aggravate the evil, the offensive ; it had reckoned on the army had raised its cantonments, victories, not on defeats ; and it was and was in full march for the Oglio. not till the armistice of Cherasco had With 1500 grenadiers, and six fielddetached the King of Sardinia from pieces, Napoleon proceeded, in perthe coalition, and

so crippled him as son, to Pavia, having previously pilto leave him at the mercy of the laged and burnt Binasco, a town vi. French Republic, that it had ordered sible from the ramparts of the city ; Mantua, and the other fortresses of and by one of those acts of fortunate Lombardy, to be armed and victual- daring, of which his eventful life ed. If, therefore, as has been said, furnishes so many examples, sucthe French army, instead of taking ceeded in overpowering the insurup cantonments in the Milanese, had gents, and in liberating the garrison continued its march in order to drive of 300 men, who had been made priBeaulieu beyond the Adige, Mantua soners by the armed peasants. The would probably have been taken by city was for several hours delivered a coup-de-main. To these arguments up to pillage, which was, however, it is answered by Napoleon, that it confined to some goldsmiths' shops; would have been against all principle, and light columns were sent into the to leave so many large towns, and a country, to disarm the peasantry. population of more than a million of This revolt, which was in a great souls behind, without taking pos measure to be ascribed to the necessession of the former, and ascertain- sity under which the French army ing the dispositions of the latter; lay of subsisting on the resources of and that during these few days the the country, and particularly to an French dominion was secured by the extraordinary contribution of twenty National Guards formed in all the millions of francs, which had just towns of Lombardy, the change of been imposed, over and above the all the public authorities, and the requisitions made by the army, pronew organization of the country. ved the soundness of Napoleon's The necessity of this delay was de- views, and showed, not merely the monstrated by the sudden insurrec- inexpediency, but the certain detion which broke out in Pavia, and struction that would have overtaken all the villages of that province, and his army, had he pursued the course which threatened to be productive of recommended by his military critics. the most fatal consequences. A slight The army, meantime, continued commotion had even taken place at its march on the Oglio, under the Milan, which, however, was easily command of Berthier, and on the repressed. The revolt of Pavia as 28th entered Brescia, one of the sumed a more formidable character. largest towns of the Venetian Terra That city contained 30,000 inhabi- Firma, where the Commander-intants, and from 8000 to 10,000 pea- Chief rejoined it. Beaulieu had resants had entered it and joined the ceived great reinforcements, and had

1798, engaged in the intrigues of the Manége, and frequently made himself ridiculous. The members of that Society were not devoid of information. Nobody could be less adapted than Augereau for political discussions and civil affairs, with which, however, he was fond of meddling. Under the empire he became Duke of Casti. glione, and Marshal of France.

“ SERRURIER was a native of the department of Aisne; and, at the commencement of the Revolution, was a Major of Infantry : he retained all the formality and strictness of a Major, was very severe in point of discipline, and passed for an aristocrat, in consequence of which opinion he ran great risks in the midst of the camps, especially during the first few years. He gained the battle of Mondovi, and took Mantua, and had the honour of seeing Marshal Wurmser file off before him. He was a brave man, of great personal intrepidity, but not fortunate. He had less energy than the other two, but excelled them by the morality of his character, the soundness of his political opinions, and the strict integrity he observed in all his intercourse. He had the honourable commission to carry the colours, taken from Prince Charles, to the Directory. He was afterwards made a Marshal of France, Governor of the Invalides, and a Senator."

removed his head-quarters behind enemy burnt the bridge, which it was the Mincio, being desirous to de- impossible to restore, under the fire from fend that river, in order to prevent the height of Valeggio. Gardane threw the investment of Mantua, the for himself into the water; the Austrians tifications and supplies of which were

imagined they saw the terrible column of daily increased. Peschiera, the gates Lodi, and beat a retreat ; Valeggio was of which, notwithstanding the pro

carried. It was then ten in the morning ; testations of the Venetians, he had by noon the bridge was restored, and the forced, he made the point d'appui of

French divisions passed the Mincio. Auhis right, commanded by Liptay ;

gereau went up the left bank, advancing his centre he supported on Valeggio Castel Nuovo; Serruvier followed the

on Peschiera, and occupied the heights of and Borghetto, where Pittony's divi- troops which were evacuating Valeggio, sion was stationed ; wbile Sebotten- and retiring on Villa Franca. The Gedorff's took up a position at Pozzuo- neral-in-Chief marched with his division, lo, and Colli's at Goito; the reserve as long as the enemy was in sight; but under Melas, 15,000 strong, encamp as they avoided an engagement, he reed at Villa Franca, ready to advance turned to Valeggio, which place had been to any point that might be attacked. fixed on for head-quarters. Massena's Sach being the situation of the Aus- division, appointed to cover Valeggio, was trians, the French army, on the 29th, preparing dinner on the right bank of the took up a position, having its left Mincio, and had not yet passed the at Dezenzano, its centre at Monte- bridge. Sebottendorffos division, having chiaro, and its right at Castiglione ; heard the cannonade at Valeggio, had and on the 30th, at day-break, de begun its march up the left bank of the bouched on Borghetto, having de- without meeting any troops ; they entered

river ; their scouts approached Valeggio ceived the enemy by various movements, and drawn his reserve from the town, and penetrated as far as the Villa Franca to Peschiera, at which his piquet guard had barely time enough

lodgings where the General-in-Chief was ; place he was induced to believe that

to shut the carriage gateway, and cry to it would attempt the passage of the arms, which afforded him an opportunity Mincio.

of mounting his horse, and escaping On approaching the Borghetto, the through the gardens behind the house. French vanguard fell in with 3000 Aus- and passed the bridge. The sound of the

Massena's soldiers overturned the kettles, trian and Neapolitan cavalry in the plain, drums put the Austrian hussars to flight. and 4000 infantry entrenched in the vil. Sebottendorff was closely and vigorously lage of Borghetto, and on the heights of Valeggio. General Murat charged the lost a great number of men.

pursued during the whole evening, and enemy's cavalry; he obtained an impor. tant success in this action : it was the

The imminent personal hazard first time that the French cavalry, on ac which Napoleon had incurred on this count of its bad condition, had measured occasion, led to the formation of a its strength to advantage with the Austrian cavalry: it took nine pieces of corps to which he gave the name of cannon, two standards, and 2000 men, which Major Bessières * was charged.

Guides, and with the organization of amongst whom was the Prince de Cuto, who commanded the Neapolitan cavalry. It was composed of picked men, who From that time forth the French cavalry had served ten years at least, and emulated the infantry. Colonel Gardane, distinguished themselves by their who was marching at the head of the gallant bearing in the field, and Grenadiers, charged into Borghetto; the formed the nucleus of the Chasseurs

Bessières was a native of Languedoc, and served originally in the 22d Chasseurs, in the army of the Eastern Pyrenees. “ He possessed a cool species of bravery," says Napoleon ; “ was calm amidst the enemy's fire ; his sight was excellent; he was much habituated to cavalry maneuvres, and peculiarly adapted to command a reserve. In all the great battles, he will be seen to render the most important services. He and Murat were the first cavalry officers in the army, but of very opposite qualities. Murat was a good vanguard officer, adventurous and impetuous ; Bessières was better adapted for a reserve, being full of vigour, but prudent and circumspect. From the period of the creation of the Guides, he was exclusively intrusted with the duty of guarding the General-in-Chief and the head-quarters. He was afterwards Duke of Istria, Marshal of the Empire, and one of the Marshals of the Guard.” TOL. XIV.


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